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Acupressure is a complementary treatment that uses fingers and hands to stimulate acupoints and maintains the balance of energy. The objective of this study was to review the application of acupressure in managing different pains and the effectiveness of acupressure on relieving pain in various settings. A systematic review of English articles using the databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) was performed using the search terms of "acupressure" and "pain." Studies during which acupressure was applied as an intervention and assessed for its effectiveness on relieving pain were selected. The studies selected were those published from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2011 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The participants included patients with dysmenorrhea, labor pain, low back pain, chronic headache, and other traumatic pains. The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence was used to appraise the literature. Fifteen studies were extracted for reducing dysmenorrhea (menstrual distress), labor pain, low back pain, chronic headache, and other traumatic pain. These papers were further reviewed for their study design, adequacy of randomization and concealment of allocation, blinding of participants, interventions, and outcome measurements. Acupressure has been shown to be effective for relieving a variety of pains in different populations. The review begins to establish a credible evidence base for the use of acupressure in pain relief. The implication for health care providers would be incorporating acupressure into their practice as an alternative therapy to facilitate patients who suffer from pain.
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... In this postmodern era, most consumers work under pressure to quickly adapt to the changing society and growing competitive work fields . Overtime, consumers gradually forget about taking care of themselves and being healthy, either physically or mentally . ...
... In this postmodern era, most consumers work under pressure to quickly adapt to the changing society and growing competitive work fields . Overtime, consumers gradually forget about taking care of themselves and being healthy, either physically or mentally . This type of unhealthy fast-paced energy is known as 'Qi' imbalance which weakens the immune system . ...
... Overtime, consumers gradually forget about taking care of themselves and being healthy, either physically or mentally . This type of unhealthy fast-paced energy is known as 'Qi' imbalance which weakens the immune system . According to Reninger in ThoughtCo, 'Qi' is defined as a life-force, which animates the forms of the world . ...
... A variety of nonpharmacologic interventions such as percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation , acupuncture (Geib et al. 2015), acupressure (Chen et al. 2015), hypnosis therapy (Cordia et al. 2015), behavior therapy (Karlin et al. 2015), and massage therapy (Dreyer et al. 2015) have been emphasized. The results of a systematic review showed that acupressure was an effective and noninvasive method for relieving various types of pain and could be used as a training program in nursing curriculum (Chen & Wang 2014). Among other nonpharmacological methods of pain relief is cryotherapy, which was first described by Hippocrates A Bastani, F, et al. 2016, Comparing the effect of acupressure and cryotherapy on the pain caused by removal of chest drain tube, Journal of Client-Centered Nursing Care, vol. ...
... As a result, it reduces the referrals to medical centers (Sadri et al. 2006). This alternative medicine was invented in China and focused on preserving the function of vital organs through circulation of blood and energy in the body (Chen & Wang 2014). It sets in motion the energy flow, Chi, along 12 channels of energy in the body (Hamidzadeh et al. 2012). ...
... P6 or Nei guan point is located on the anterior surface of the forearm almost three fingers above the wrist between the flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus tendons (Alessandrini et al. 2012). Several studies with different results have been conducted regarding the effect of acupressure on pain relief (Chen & Wang 2014), labor pains (Akbarzadeh et al. 2015;Dabiri & Shahi 2014), dysmenorrhea (EL-Gendy 2015; Wang et al. 2015), back pain (Akbarzadeh et al. 2015;Chen et al. 2015), fatigue (Eğlence et al. 2013), sleep (Simoncini et al. 2015), anxiety (McFadden et al. 2012, nasea and vomiting (Saberi et al. 2014), quitting smoking (Yeh et al. 2014), depression, constipation (Parker 2014), and pain of removing drain tube (Moemenabadi 2010). This type of medical approach is effective even in promoting spiritual health (Wein 2014). ...
Background: Aging has a growing trend in the world. The elderly experience a high incidence of hospitalization and coronary bypass surgery compared with other age groups, and pain is the most common complaint in these patients. This research was conducted to compare the effect of acupressure and cryotherapy on the pain of removing drain tube from the chest of the elderly who have undergone open heart surgery.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental clinincal trial, 150 elderly people undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with drain tube in their chests and hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Rajaei Hospital (affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health and Treatment Services, Tehran, Iran) were selected through random sampling method. Then, they were divided into 3 groups of acupressure, cryotherapy, and control. The acupressure group received pressure on ST36, P6, LI4 points. The cryotherapy group received cold therapy through applying three packs of cooling gel, and the control group received routine postoperative cares. The pain intensity was measured 20 minutes before the insertion of the tube, during insertion, and 10 minutes after removal of the drain tube. The tools for collecting data were abbreviated mental test form, demographic questionnaire, and visual analoge scale. The obtained data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS version 20.
Results: In terms of demographic characteristics, the patients were homogenous. Before the intervention, there were no significant differences among three groups in terms of pain intensity (P=0.93). However, after the intervention, pain intensity, immediately after, and 10 minutes after removal of chest tube, significantly reduced in the experimental groups compared with the control group (P˂0.001). In general, reduction of pain intensity was higher in the acupressure group compared with the other two groups (P˂0.001).
Conclusion: Applying acupressure on ST36, LI4, and P6 points is effective in reducing the intensity of pain caused by removal of drain tube from the chest of the elderly patients. It is recommended as a safe and inexpensive drug-free approach to control pain caused by the removal of drain tube.
... However, there is a lack of standard procedure or clinical protocol in acupressure treatment, such as guidelines for the frequency, duration of time, and selection of points. Therefore, further research should be conducted to ensure the consistency of techniques, which would facilitate evidencebased practice . ...
... Based on the literature and evidence from clinical trials, practical guidelines for the application of finger pressure and the accuracy of acupoints should be further developed in the future. Health care providers should continue to provide acupressure treatment to relieve pain from PD; however, high-quality trials are needed to develop evidence-based guidelines for acupressure in PD . Furthermore, highquality randomized controlled trials with larger samples are necessary to establish the evidence for acupressure as an effective intervention [46,47]. ...
Primary dysmenorrhea is defined as cramping pain in the lower abdomen with no pelvic diseases, and it has a high prevalence in many countries. Acupressure is a widely used complementary treatment method for primary dysmenorrhea. This review examined experimental studies to determine the effects of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea using the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords “Acupressure” and “Dysmenorrhea”. There were 2227 records in the databases, and 330 articles were published between 1989 and March 2020. Experimental studies in the English language were reviewed according to the PRISMA guidelines. This review included 28 published studies that were assessed using the Jadad score for quality. The studies were categorized as studies of acupressure at the LR3 point (n = 4), at the SP6 point (n = 9), at auricular points (n = 5), at multiple points (n = 8), and with devices (n = 2). Moreover, studies of self-acupressure (n = 9) were identified. The studies demonstrated that acupressure could reduce menstrual symptoms, the severity and duration of menstrual pain, distress, and anxiety. Furthermore, it helped improve the quality of life and well-being of patients and provide psychological support and self-care. Acupressure is an inexpensive, easy-to-apply, and non-pharmacological treatment and is useful for reducing primary dysmenorrhea, and women can apply this method anywhere by themselves. However, high-quality randomized controlled trials with larger samples are necessary to establish the evidence for acupressure as an effective intervention.
... Acupressure has been studied extensively as a method for pain management. A meta-analysis of 15 studies showed that acupressure is effective for relieving a variety of pains including dysmenorrhea, labor pain, low back pain, chronic headache, and other traumatic pain . In a recent systemic review about the effects of auricular acupressure on pain management, 12 studies showed a significant improvement in the pain outcomes of auricular acupressure compared with the control groups . ...
... Previous work has shown the effects of mind-body intervention on pain relief [9,38] and the relationship between pain and motion of joints [39,40]. Acupressure techniques have been reported to reduce pain and improve joint maneuverability [15,18,19,41]. BEM has also been studied for its effects on inflammation reduction [25,35], which exacerbate pain [42,43]. ...
Meditation and acupressure-like stimulations have been shown to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether a short bout of mind-body intervention combined with meditation and acupressure-like stimulation was able to alleviate shoulder pain and improve its function in a short time window. Sixty-five adults with shoulder pain were recruited and randomly classified into two groups. One group participated in an intervention which consisted of acupressure-like stimulation and meditation over a 5 min period. The other group was instructed to rest during this time. A visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and objective constant scores were measured before and after intervention to determine shoulder pain and range of motion (ROM), respectively. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction and a regression analysis were performed. VAS pain, objective constant score, flexion, abduction, and external rotation score showed significant interactions between time and group. The pain intensity was significantly reduced, while flexion and abduction were significantly improved, in the experimental group compared to the control group, after the intervention. In addition, the change of flexion negatively correlated with the change of pain intensity in the experimental group, but not in the control group. These results show that a short-term application of mind-body intervention significantly alleviates shoulder pain and improves shoulder movement, suggesting its potential use as a therapy for people with shoulder pain.
... The acupressure is known to reduce pain by activating the somatosensory cortical net in the brain . In accordance with the brain activity, the acupressure administered to pain-related points increases the release of endogenous endorphins, opioids and serotonin neurotransmitters and stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system and suppressed the sympathetic nervous system, maintaining the homeostasis [16,18]. ...
... However, there was no consensus on the combination of these points, as well as the number, duration and the frequency of sessions. It is recommended to determine the acupressure points based on the meridians of the relevant organs and peripheral organs, to combine the relevant points and to repeat the intervention [16,18]. Previous studies recommend the use of P6 and LI4 along with combined points on uterine pain [20,21]. ...
To assess the effects of P6 and LI4 acupressure on post-caesarean pain and analgesic consumption.
This was a randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled study conducted in a university-affiliated obstetrics clinic between July 2017 and July 2018.
Women (n=132) were randomly assigned to acupressure (n=44), placebo (n=44), and control (n=44) groups.
All groups received routine nursing care and analgesia protocol for post-cesarean pain. Acupressure was performed in two sessions, the postpartum second and fourth hours, with the following protocol: bilaterally to P6 (point on wrist) and LI4 (point on hand) points (for three minutes on each point). In the placebo group, it was just touched without the pressure on acupressure points, but the main difference was that touching was too superficial to have a therapeutic effect. The control group received only routine nursing care and analgesia protocol for post-cesarean pain.
Main outcome measures:
The post-caesarean pain was evaluated four times before and after each session using Visual Analog Scale for pain. Also, the analgesia protocol for post-cesarean pain was recorded for all women.
The acupressure group experienced the lowest level of post-cesarean pain compared to the placebo and control groups (p = 0.000). The consumption of pethidine hydrochloride and paracetamol was statistically lower in the acupressure group compared to the placebo and control groups (respectively p = 0.002 and p = 0.040).
Acupressure is an effective method for reducing post-cesarean pain and analgesic consumption. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04337801.
... Besides decreasing anxiety and ensuring rehabilitation, acupressure is also used to relieve different types of pain treated with analgesics [8,9]. In the systematic review of fifteen studies performed by Chen et al. it was found that, in some countries, the Acupressure application was reduced the pain level for dysmenorrhea, low back pain, chronic headache, and other traumatic pain . In Reiki, which is another complementary and alternative treatment method, eliminating the blockages in the blood and lymph circulation and related problems through stimulation of autonomic nervous system in the individual is aimed. ...
... The patient was asked for closing the eyes. 10. The acupressure application was performed by applying slight pressure on GB 24, GB 34, GB 37, GB 42, LI 2, LI 4, and PC 6 points on both sides through the thumb of the practitioner's hand for a total of 28 min, 2 min for each point in either side. ...
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of Acupressure and Reiki application on patient’s pain and comfort level after Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Materials and methods
In this prospective, single blinded randomized controlled trial, subjects were 132 adult patients, hospitalized in the General Surgery clinics and underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy of a Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. Subjects were then assigned including a Reiki group of 44 persons, an Acupressure group of 44 persons, and a control group of 44 persons. The pain and comfort levels of all the patients, before and after the Acupressure and Reiki treatments in the experimental group, and without any intervention in the control groups were determined at the 3rd postoperative hour, using Pain on Visual Analogue Scale (Pain on VAS), Perianesthesia Comfort Scale (PCS) and General Comfort Questionnaire (GCQ). The data analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Shapiro Wilk test, paired samples t-test, Mann Whitney U test, ANOVA and LSD multiple comparison tests, Kruskal Wallis test and Wilcoxon test.
In the patients who received reiki and acupressure treatment, the pain level decreased, comfort level increased and the difference between the groups was found to be significant (p<0.05).
Reiki and Acupressure applied to the patients after Laparoscopic cholecystectomy decreased the pain and increased the comfort level.
... Several studies demonstrated the positive effects of AC on the nervous system (20-21) , muscles (22) and connective tissue (23) , while the relevance of this therapeutic method on pain reduction (18,(24)(25) , peripheral anti-inflammation, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and endocrine regulation is well-documented (25) . Although further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of AC in sports medicine (18) , athletes successfully use AC to avoid sport pain (18,26) , fatigue (27)(28) and stress relief (29)(30) or to enhance athletic performance (18)(19) . ...
Few studies have examined the effect of acupuncture (AC) treatment in aerobic capacity and endurance performance in healthy adults. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of AC on selected physiological parameters and 3 km running performance.
Twenty four healthy subjects with low to moderate aerobic capacity participated in the study and randomly assigned in two groups: AC group (ACG - N=14) and control group (CG - N=10). The subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion and a 3 km race on a treadmill to evaluate their physiological responses and endurance running performance respectively, prior and after 4 weeks (8 sessions, twice a week) of acupuncture treatment.
AC treatment had a significant main effect in T3km [F(1, 21)=7,173, p=0,014, partial η2=0,255], as well as in VT [F(1, 21)=8,476, p=0,008, partial η2=0,288] and HRmax@3km [F(1, 21)=4,930, p=0,038, partial η2=0,190], after controlling for the effect of the pre-test, while no other significant main effects were detected.
Healthy physically active adults significantly improved their endurance running performance after 4 weeks of AC treatment. This is mainly due to the enhancement of the speed corresponding with VT, comparing with their baseline values.
... In many cases, patients will go to such traditional healers as a first option, and receive innocuous treatments (aside from the delay of care), such as prayers, food, or harmless topical treatments. In fact, evidence of acupuncture and acupressure for the treatment of pain [9,10] (the presence of which negatively impacts wound healing ), as well as antimicrobial properties of certain traditional herbs [12,13], is documented in the literature. However, in other cases, the traditional treatments may cause allergic reactions and side effects, such as contact dermatitis . ...
Purpose of Narrative
To enlighten the audience and suggest potential gaps and areas of future interest for further exploration and discussion related to wound care in developing regions of the world.
Beyond limited case reports and a relative handful of typical epidemiological studies and clinical trials, there exist little significant information on the topic of wound care in the developing markets which significantly departs from that which has been published on the topic about the developed markets. As such, there was a need for a corresponding narrative to add context and depth to existing and future efforts in this space.
Despite both parallels and divergences between the states of wound care in developing regions compared with developed regions, relatively few significant insights have been published and many crucial dynamics have historically been overlooked and/or underappreciated by academia, clinicians, and industry alike. This narrative synthesizes past publications and developments together with the author’s years of groundwork and related wound care experiences and other sources in order to inform future wound care research, care delivery, and commercial efforts in the developing world.
... It was well documented that acupressure is effective in relieving different types of pains in patients with different conditions. Earlier studies have recommended applying the acupressure as an alternative therapy in the management of the pain of the patients (Chen and Wang, 2014). Musculoskeletal pain was reported to decrease, followed by the acupressure. ...
Acupressure is an alternative therapy that uses fingers and hands to stimulate acupoints and maintains the balance of energy. It was well documented that acupressure is effective in relieving different types of pains in patients with different conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of acupressure in pain and improving the bio-physiological parameters among mediosternotomy patients. The present study was conducted at Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Whitefield, Bangalore. A total of twenty male and female patients those who undergo open-heart surgery via median sternotomy were part of the study after obtaining the written informed consent. After recording the demographic data, the participants were randomly grouped into control and intervention groups using random numbers generated by computer with 10 participants in each group. The intervention will be provided at PC6 acupressure point, situated on the inner side of the forearm, three fingers below the wrist joint, three times a day for four days. Numerical Rating Scale of pain was used to assess the pain of the Participants. There was a significant decrease in the pain score of the participants, followed by the acupressure. The study provides further evidence for the effectiveness of the acupressure in pain management and also recommends detailed research in this area.
... 11 Additionally, Chinese acupressure massage has been demonstrated to effectively reduce lower back pain. 9,12 However, only very limited studies have investigated the potential benefits of acupressure massage on attenuating muscle soreness or promoting post-exercise recovery capacity. 13À15 More importantly, the physiological mechanisms underlying the benefits of Chinese acupressure massage were still poorly elucidated in these studies. ...
Alternative medical and training approaches to accelerate recovery among athletes are growing in popularity. The potential benefits of acupressure massage on attenuating muscle soreness and promoting post-exercise recovery capacity are still unclear.
This study compares the effects of traditional Chinese acupressure massage (TCAM) and active recovery, on subject recovery capacity after acute repeated jumping exercise.
Twenty healthy male athletes were randomly assigned to traditional Chinese acupressure massage (TCAM; N = 10) or active recovery (AR; performing low-intensity exercise during post-exercise recovery; N = 10) groups. TCAM and AR intervention were applied after repeated jumping exercise. Pain scale, knee active/passive range of motion (AROM/PROM), jumping performance, quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction force, creatine kinase, and leukocyte subpopulations were measured at baseline, after and 48 h after exercise.
No significant interaction effects were observed between the jumping performance, quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force, power-to-weight ratio for the two groups before the exercise, after the exercise, and 48 h post exercise. However, the knee flexion AROM/PROM was greater in the TCAM group than that for the AR group (p = 0.005). There were no differences in the VAS, MVC, and jumping performance between treatments. The white blood cell (p = 0.024), and monocytes (p = 0.023) responses were lower in the TCAM group.
We demonstrated that TCAM generates beneficial effects on attenuating joint mobility limitations and lowering systemic inflammatory responses after acute exercise in athletes. These findings suggest that TCAM may be a practical alternative approach for athletes participating in consecutive competitions containing eccentric elements.
... Chi has studied traditional medicine in Taiwan and China. 30 He looked from the perspectives of government policies and regulations on Chinese medicine, government statistics on the demand and supply of Chinese medicine to provide some insights for developing recommendations for appropriate integration policy. 31 He found that to integrate traditional medicine into a modern health care system effectively (Indonesia is already integrating traditional health care into the western health care at the PHC), Chi suggests that such integration should begin at the grassroots level. ...
The National Traditional Health Care set up three objectives for its implementation at the health centers, whereby health staff to be trained on traditional health and provide accupressure care, able to collect data, register and provide technical guidance to traditional healers and guide individuals in the use of traditional medicine and herbs. This qualitative research aimed to analyze the implementation of traditional health care at 3 subdistrict health centers Ciomas, Ciawi and Caringin in district Bogor. Data was collected through document analysis, observation and indepth inteview. Each health center has trained staff in accupressure but care is hindered by lack of room and community prefers to go to traditional masseur. Data collection, registration and technical guidance to traditional healers exist due to support from local funding. Individual guidance on the use of traditional medicine and herbs do not happen due to no fund for home visits. Traditional health care at health centers to focus on the activity that is working which is data collection, registration and technical guidance to traditional healers. District Health Office Bogor should develop local policy and Standard Operating Procedure for traditional health care at health centers.
... specific acupoints using a finger, thumb, or device. Systematic reviews on acupressure have provided support for its significant effects in a variety of groups for chronic symptoms, such as pain and sleep disturbance . Acupressure studies in CLBP samples have primarily investigated pain and disability outcomes and are relatively limited. Two studies of therapist-applied acupressure vs physical therapy, each provided six times over a onemonth period, provided support for significant improvements on pain and disability post-treatment and at sixmonth follow-up [15,16]. ...
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with fatigue, pain, poor sleep, and disability. Acupressure is a low-risk treatment option used to manage symptoms in other groups, but its efficacy, particularly on fatigue and sleep, is unknown in CLBP. This study examined preliminary effects of two types of self-administered acupressure (relaxing and stimulating) on fatigue, pain, sleep, and reported disability.
A randomized pilot trial was conducted (N = 67) in which participants were randomized into six weeks of relaxing acupressure, stimulating acupressure, or usual care. Fatigue was measured by the Brief Fatigue Inventory, pain was measured by the Brief Pain Inventory, sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and reported disability was measured by the Roland Morris Scale.
Baseline characteristics were similar across groups. An intent-to-treat analysis using general linear models showed positive improvement in pain in acupressure groups compared with usual care. Pain was reduced by 35-36% in the acupressure groups. Improvement in fatigue was also found in stimulating acupressure compared with usual care. Adverse events were minimal and related to application of too much pressure.
Although this was a small study, acupressure demonstrated promising preliminary support of efficacy for pain and fatigue reduction in this population.
... Sur la base de 8 essais (dont 6 avec placebo tel que léger massage, ou comparaison avec un vrai traitement médicamenteux tel que l'Ibuprofen) et d'une méta-analyse, les auteurs concluent qu'il y a une innocuité de la pratique dans le cadre des dysménorrhées et un soulagement significatif des douleurs et des symptômes menstruels, bien 225 qu'une faiblesse globale des méthodes utilisées rende ces conclusions fragiles et à interpréter avec prudence. Une dernière revue de la littérature (Chen & Wang, 2014) reprend les mêmes conclusions dans l'usage de l'acupression contre les dysménorrhées, ainsi que dans le soulagement de la douleur dans différents cas (douleurs liées à un accouchement, douleurs lombaires, maux de dos, migraines chroniques, etc.). ...
Les Interventions Non-Médicamenteuses (INM), et autres procédures qui peuvent leur être associées (Médecine Traditionnelle, Médecines Complémentaires et Alternatives), sont aujourd’hui d’une prépondérance à ne pas sous-estimer dans l’optique d’une santé intégrative. Une évaluation scientifique robuste est nécessaire afin de trier les pratiques néfastes ou inefficaces, de celles attestant de réels bénéfices. Dans ce domaine, les essais randomisés contrôlés (ERC) font loi, à un titre discutable du fait de leurs limites intrinsèques. Par le biais d’une revue systématique de littérature centrée sur les pratiques de manipulation corporelles comme soins de support proposés en oncologie, nous confirmons la difficulté qu’ont les ERCs de tirer des conclusions fermes et bien appuyées. Nous présentons alors une méthode interventionnelle différente et peu enseignée, les protocoles expérimentaux à cas unique, et proposons leur illustration à travers quatre études. Celles-ci portent sur l’évaluation de différentes interventions dans des contextes de maladies chroniques ou de problèmes de santé variables : 1) Jeu vidéo thérapeutique dans le cadre de la réadaptation physique de la maladie de Parkinson, 2) Intervention musicale en Soins Palliatifs, 3) Hypnose face aux restrictions hydriques de patients sous hémodialyse et 4) Séances de shiatsu face à la dysménorrhée primaire. Ces études rendent compte de résultats intéressants, et permettent de discuter des forces et faiblesses de cette méthode. Nous plaidons alors en sa faveur du fait de ses principes expérimentaux légitimes ainsi que son adéquation avec la pratique fondée sur la preuve. Nous profitons enfin de la faible qualité des études que nous avons menées pour dresser une liste de recommandations et d’écueils à considérer afin de les employer de façon optimale.
... For instance, the BShenmen (TF4)^point is often considered to be a primary point for pain reduction. TF4 is also considered to alleviate apprehension, fear, anxiety, and help regulate the sympathetic nervous system . The Bsubcortex (AT4)p oint represents the whole diencephalon and is the highest level of the supra-spinal gate control system. ...
Many women with ovarian cancer may experience adverse effects from adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery. Non-pharmacological interventions can be used to reduce these side effects. We tested auricular acupressure to reduce treatment side effects in this population.
A prospective, quasi-randomized controlled trial was carried out at a publicly-funded hospital in southern Taiwan. Thirty-four women in the intervention group received auricular acupressure at four points (Shenmen, subcortex, endocrine, and heart), three times per day for 3 min per time, for 6 weeks. Thirty-one women in the control group received routine nursing care alone. The M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) was completed at four time points.
After receiving the third cycle of chemotherapy, side effect severity was elevated among both groups. Auricular acupressure reduced side effects such as disturbed sleep (t = − 11.99; p < .001, eta squared = 0.69), fatigue (t = − 2.57; p < .01, eta squared = 0.10), and lack of appetite (t = − 2.37; p = .024, eta squared = 0.08).
Auricular acupressure can reduce adverse side effects of chemotherapy in women with ovarian cancer. Future studies with a larger sample and using some laboratory-based tests (such as C-reactive protein, interleukin-6) are warranted to confirm the results.
... He also briefly followed with hands-on practice instruction of acupressure points on the students themselves. Acupressure points are used as skills to decrease stress and selfmassage . ...
... However the effects of TENS in chronic pain still raise two important questions. Firstly, there are no long-term placebo controlled studies and the results of shortterm controlled studies in the treatment of chronic pain are inconclusive , thus questioning the specific working mechanism of TENS. Secondly, the efficacy of TENS treatment is assumed to decrease in time by long-term application of TENS [13,16], thereby endangering the long term use of TENS in chronic pain. ...
Background: There are various therapeutic interventions to treat neck pain like rest, moist heat, cryotherapy, cervical collar, postural education, neck exercises, strengthening exercises, ultrasound, TENS, IFT, SWD, US, PEME, EMS, cervical traction, cervical and thoracic spine manipulation/mobilization, and acupressure. Manual therapy has been known to supplement and contribute to other medical specialties. Apart from pain relief, TENS has been found to give rise to less pain interference with work, home and social activities, increased activity level and pain management and decreased use of other therapies including pain medication. Acupressure is usually applied in the management of pain, to balance body’s energy and to maintain good health. It decreases muscular tension, enhances circulation and promotes deep relaxation. Acupressure also enhances body’s immunity and that ultimately promotes wellness. To determine the effects of acupressure and TENS along with application of hot pack in neck pain.
Methodology: 40 subjects from Physical Therapy Department of Mamji Hospital, Karachi, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were included in the study. After taking informed consent from all the participants, the patients were randomly assigned into two groups, Group A and Group B, 20 patients in each group.
i. Group A: TENS Group
ii. Group B: Acupressure Group
Both groups received interventions in 18 sessions over 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week. The pre-assessment was done at 1st day while post-assessment was done at 6th week. Pre and Post treatment assessment parameters were taken through Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) from both groups. NRS was used to measure the intensity of pain.
Results: Data was stored and analyzed through SPSS version 22.0, mean and standard deviation of the samples were estimated at pre and post stage of study and to examined the effect of pre and post pain score paired sample t-test was used, p-value less than 0.05 were considered as the significant level to declared the statistical significance of the results. The results showed that, both TENS and Acupressure effect significantly on pre and post pain score with p less than 0.01, the pre-treatment pain of Acupressure was 6.95 and TENS was 6.80. The post-treatment pain of Acupressure was 3.60 and TENS was 5.0. Acupressure showed better effects in post pain score as compared to TENS.
Conclusion: At the end of 6th weeks of treatment, both group showed a significant reduction in pain, but the efficacy of TENS is less when compared to Acupressure i.e. Group A patients showed more improvement in post treatment than compare with Group B.
Keywords: Neck Pain; Pain; TENS; Acupressure; Neck Disability Index; Intensity; Numeric Rating Scale
... In traditional Chinese medicine, when relevant acupoints are stimulated, the flow of vital energy Bqi^can be improved, which may alter the symptom experience . Several systematic reviews indicated that acupressure shows promise in alleviating symptoms of various health problems such as in allergic disease, nausea, and vomiting in cancer, pain symptoms, sleep disturbances, and cancer-related fatigue . A randomized controlled trial on non-oncology patients with constipation showed that perineal self-acupressure could significantly improve quality of life, bowel function, and health and wellbeing when compared with those receiving standard care . ...
Constipation is a common and distressing symptom for patients with advanced cancer. Few reports have focused on the symptoms of constipation in patients with advanced cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a short-term acupressure intervention on patients with advanced cancer.
This study used a non-randomized, pre-post study design to assess the effect of acupressure intervention. A total of 30 patients with advanced cancer were recruited from the hospice unit of a medical center in southern Taiwan. In addition to routine care, patients in the intervention group received an 8-min acupressure treatment daily for 3 consecutive days. Three acupoints were used in this study: Zhongwan (CV12), Guanyuan (CV4), and Tianshu (ST25). Analysis of covariance was used to compare the differences in symptoms of constipation between the two groups, adjusted for baseline values. Effect sizes were calculated using partial eta squared (η²).
Significant improvements in symptoms of constipation (partial η² = 0.40, p < 0.001 for straining during defecation; partial η² = 0.30, p = 0.002 for hard stools; partial η² = 0.42, p < 0.001 for sensation of incomplete evacuation; and partial η² = 0.29, p = 0.002 for sensation of anorectal obstruction), Bristol stool form scale scores (partial η² = 0.40, p < 0.001), comfort levels during defecation (partial η² = 0.82, p < 0.001), and colonic motility (partial η² = 0.85, p < 0.001) were observed in patients receiving acupressure intervention compared with the controls.
Findings from this study indicated that short-term acupressure was effective in alleviating symptoms of constipation among patients with advanced cancer. Further, randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm the results.
... Acupressure is likely to work through a number of pathways, similar to acupuncture, including increasing endogenous opioid release, and increasing uterine blood flow . Our findings on the effect of acupressure are in agreement with other systematic reviews for dysmenorrhea  as well as for pain more broadly . While less effective than exercise, acupressure can be easily learnt and simply applied and therefore is a possible adjunct treatment, especially for situations where heat may not be accessible, such as travelling or at school, and for women who do not wish to engage in exercise. ...
Menstrual pain is very common amongst young women. Despite the significant impact that menstrual pain has on academic attendance and performance, social activities and quality of life, most young women do not seek medical treatment but prefer to use self-care; commonly OTC analgesic medications and rest. Many women do not get significant pain relief from these methods, therefore other low cost, easy to learn self-care methods may be a valuable approach to management.
This review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for participant lead self-care techniques.
A search of Medline, PsychINFO, Google Scholar and CINAHL was carried out in September 2017.
Twenty-three trials including 2302 women were eligible and included in the meta-analysis. Studies examined self-delivered acupressure, exercise and heat as interventions. Risk of bias was unclear for many domains. All interventions showed a reduction in menstrual pain symptoms; exercise (g = 2.16, 95% CI 0.97 to 3.35) showed the largest effect size, with heat (g = 0.73, 95% CI 0.06 to 1.40) and acupressure (g = 0.56, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.03) showing more moderate effect sizes. Exercise (g = 0.48, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.83) and heat (g = 0.48, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.87), were more effective than analgesics in reducing pain intensity, whereas acupressure was significantly less effective (g = − 0.76, 95% CI -1.37 to − 0.15).
Exercise showed large effects, while acupressure and heat showed moderate effects in reducing menstrual pain compared to no treatment. Both exercise and heat are potential alternatives to analgesic medication. However, difficulties in controlling for non-specific effects, along with potential for bias, may influence study findings.
... SP4 point is an effective point to reduce uterine spasm and contributes to regular menstrual bleeding (14). According to previous studies, acupressure is well known as a treatment method for dysmenorrhea (2,15,16). In electroacupuncture, electrical stimulation (ES) is applied to needles inserted in acupoints (13). ...
Objectives: Dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is a frequently observed fertility and femininity abnormality in women of childbearing age. Dysmenorrhea is treated by medical, complementary or surgical treatments. The aim of the present randomized clinical trial (RCT) study was to compare the effectiveness of electroacupuncture and acupressure treatment methods in reducing symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded RCT, 64 female students who met the criteria were assigned into 2 groups (Intervention group: electroacupuncture and Control group: acupressure) using random allocation software (RAS). Pain according to visual analogue scale (VAS), menstrual distress severity according to Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MMDQ) and the frequency of drug use during menstruation were measured 3 times before and after treatment cycle and follow up cycle. Electroacupuncture and acupressure were done by applying electrical stimulation (ES) to needles or pressure at SP6 and SP4 points for 10 minutes on each side. Results: The MMDQ (P = 0.000) and VAS (P = 0.000) showed a significant decrease in both groups but the rate of decline was higher in the electroacupuncture group. Conclusions: According to the results, it was revealed that treatment with electroacupuncture can also be suggested as a treatment in complementary medicine for treatment of primary dysmenorrhea which has no reported side effects.
... Acupressure, acupoint stimulation with fingers or hands has been shown to be effective for relieving a variety of pains. 29 It is additionally suspected that the bent needle was providing stimulation via the skin due to design limitation of sham needle. ...
Ninety percent of patients with advanced cancer have moderate to severe pain, and up to 70% of patients with cancer pain do not receive adequate pain relief. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to determine the feasibility and evaluate the effects and safety of intradermal acupuncture (IA) in patients who were being administered analgesics for cancer pain.
Advanced cancer patients experiencing pain were randomly assigned to IA or sham IA treatment for 3 weeks (15 patients for each group), wherein the CV12, bilateral ST25, LI4, LR3, PC06, and Ashi points were selected and stimulated. Follow-up evaluations were conducted 3 weeks after the end of treatments. The grade and dosage of analgesics for cancer pain, pain intensity, quality of life, and safety were assessed.
Twenty-seven patients (90%) completed 6-week trial, and no serious adverse events were associated with either IA or sham IA procedures except the transient side effect such as fatigue. Nine patients in the IA group (64.3%) and 5 in the sham IA group (38.5%) responded to the 3-week intervention. These patients were mostly in the nonopioid and the weak opioid levels of the World Health Organization analgesic ladder. Self-reported pain declined by -1.54 ± 1.45 and -1.15 ± 1.57 in the IA and sham IA groups, respectively, with improved quality of life reported.
IA treatment appears feasible and safe for advanced cancer patients. It might reduce analgesic usage in the early World Health Organization analgesic ladder stage cancer patient, though it could not show significant outcome differences due to design limitation of sham IA.
... In their systematic study titled, "the effect of acupressure on decreasing pain"; Chen et al. examined 15 studies being published between 1996 and 2011 and investigating the effect of acupressure on reducing pain. It was determined that acupressure decreased the symptoms of dysmenorrhea in 6 of these 15 studies, birth pain in 3 studies, lumbar pain in 3 studies and headache and other pains in other 3 studies . ...
... 19 Ağrı yönetiminde akupresur uygulamasını değerlendiren bir sistematik incelemede çeşitli ağrıların giderilmesinde akupresürün etkili olduğu bildirilmektedir. 20 Bir meta analiz araştırması akupresürün doğum eyleminde anne memnuniyetini arttırdığını ve epidural analjezi kullanımını azalttığını göstermektedir. 21 Benzer şekilde bu çalışmada da akupresürün doğum ağrısını azalttığı görüldü. ...
ABSTRACT Objective: To summarise the evidence on the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions to manage pain in labour. Material and Methods: We searched the EBSCOHOST, MEDLINE- Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library to identify all relevant article of pain management in labour. Total of 2489 full text and 711 abstract related to subject under investigation were reached and of them, 57 were evaluated as part of the study according to inclusion criteria.
Results: We included 57 trials with data reporting on 1 025 016 participant. Pain intensity was reduced in the heat-cold therapy, acupressure, massage, TENS, birth ball exercise, sterile water injection, aromatherapy group. There was no significant evidence for pain relief in acupuncture, waterbirth, immersion in water, hypnosis, music therapy, antenatal birth education/class, self-efficacy education and guided imagery techniques group. Conclusion: Non-pharmacological interventions may effective for reducing pain and increasing satisfaction with pain management. Further research is needed on the non-pharmacological interventions for pain management in labour.
...  Although the established treatment effect of acupressure does not address sport-specific conditions, athletes successfully use acupressure for hardly avoidable sport pain, fatigue, and stress relief. 23,31,32 However, the lack of information on the ability of acupressure to improve strength, power, or endurance interferes with the athletes' intentions to utilize the performance-enhancing properties of this alternative modalitiy. 27 Therefore, considering the limitations of previous research results, this study aimed to assess the effect of acu-pressure on maximal aerobic capacity in a group of healthy young adult males in Cyprus. ...
An enhancement of aerobic capacity has always been in the scope of various exercise programs. Apart from traditional, like endurance training, methods to improve aerobic performance, there is growing interest to alternative bodywork techniques, like massage, yoga, and acupuncture. This study aimed to investigate the acupressure effect on maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) in healthy young adult males.
Forty young healthy participants were randomly divided into intervention (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The inferred VO2max level in groups was assessed by the 6-min Harvard step test twice: at baseline and after acupressure session.
Three-minute finger-tip point massage of Neiguan, Juque, and Xinshu acupoints covered by 1 cm2sticky capsaicin-dressed heat plasters was applied in the intervention group, whereas in the control group, placebo acupressure was utilized.
The inferred VO2max in the intervention group increased from baseline 2.38 ± 0.48 L/min to 2.57 ± 0.6 L/min (p < 0.003), whereas inferred VO2max of the control group remained unchanged (2.46 ± 0.5 L/min at baseline and 2.47 ± 0.4 L/min after placebo acupressure, p > 0.9).
The results of the study demonstrated that finger-tip acupressure increases aerobic performance of young healthy males on more than 10%. Acupressure probably decreased anxiety level, which allowed better utilization of available energy sources.
... An overview of systematic reviews found positive effects of AT in insomnia and pain, both chronic and acute . AT is also studied in other areas including but not limited to dysmenorrhea , labor pain [28,29], headache [19,26], cognitive impairment and dementia , anxiety [31,32], insomnia , post-traumatic stress disorder , and substance abuse treatment . In-session (continued) ...
Auricular acupuncture (AA) and extended auricular therapy (AT) are a part of acupuncture practice shown to benefit patients with pain, anxiety, and other conditions, with cost-effective access enhanced when given in a group setting. Yet there are safety concerns and risks, perhaps unnecessary risks, that attend embedded, indwelling needles applied to the ear as a means of extended AT.
Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for "auriculotherapy," "auricular acupuncture" or "auricular acupressure," "safety," "adverse events," "chondritis," and "perichondritis," with additional manual review of titles, links, and reference lists. Individual auricular therapy adverse event (AE) case reports were included, as well as systematic reviews and or meta-analyses if they evaluated AEs associated with AT.
Nineteen auricular AE case reports and nine safety reviews of or including auriculotherapy were included. Ten systematic reviews of AT with eight specific reviews of auricular acupressure (AP) were also included.
The primary AE risks is infection, perichondritis, and chondritis stemming from embedded or indwelling needles or potential inadvertent needlesticks from contaminated roaming sharps. Extended AP i.e., application of spheres, preferably seeds (natural, nontoxic botanical Vaccaria seeds) provides clinical benefit without the risks associated with embedded needles. More research is needed to establish if embedded needles at the ear are even necessary or have any advantage over in-session auricular acupuncture for immediate pain relief followed by ear acupressure.
... Previous studies stated that acupressure is effective on health problems such as pain, allergic discomfort, nausea-vomiting and fatigue, and increases the quality of life . When acupressure is applied to the accurate points, it has gastrointestinal motility and digestive fluid-increasing effect. ...
... Previous studies stated that acupressure is effective on health problems such as pain, allergic discomfort, nausea-vomiting and fatigue, and increases the quality of life . When acupressure is applied to the accurate points, it has gastrointestinal motility and digestive fluid-increasing effect. ...
... e efficacy of acupressure on LBP has been assessed in several meta-analyses. However, these reviews discussed the effectiveness of auricular acupressure on LBP based on limited researches or the acupressure treatments from nontherapists or the use of instrumentation . We performed this analysis because of the absence of a meta-analysis on the therapeutic effects and safety of traditional acupressure on the effectiveness of traditional acupressure treatment of LBP. ...
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupressure on low back pain (LBP).
We searched 7 electronic databases and 2 trial registries through December 28, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupressure on LBP were considered for meta-analysis with Revman 5.3 and Stata 15.0 software. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to quantify the statistical reliability. HETRED analysis and GRADE were used to determine the heterogeneity and quality of the results, respectively.
Twenty-three RCTs representing 2400 participants were included. Acupressure was superior to tuina massage on response rate (RR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.35; P < 0.00001) and in the standardized mean difference (SMD) for pain reduction [SMD -1.92; 95% CI, -3.09 to -0.76; P=0.001]. Likewise, acupressure was superior to physical therapy [SMD, -0.88; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.65; P < 0.00001] and to usual care [SMD, -0.32; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.02; P=0.04] in pain reduction. The Oswestry Disability Index was significantly improved by acupressure compared with usual care [SMD, -0.55; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.25; P=0.0003]. The combination of acupressure with either manual acupuncture or electro-acupuncture showed significant improvements over the adjuvant therapies alone in response rate [RR 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.26; P < 0.00001], pain reduction, and the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (JOA). However, each study displayed substantial heterogeneity. Through subgroup sensitivity analysis and -HETRED analysis, the heterogeneity of acupressure compared with manual acupuncture decreased while the results maintained significance with respect to pain reduction [SMD -0.9; 95% CI, -1.21 to -0.6; P < 0.00001] and JOA [SMD, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.98; P < 0.00001]. Similar results were obtained comparing acupressure with electro-acupuncture with respect to pain [SMD, -1.07; 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.81; P < 0.00001] and JOA [SMD, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.27, P < 0.00001]. TSA demonstrated the effectiveness of acupressure as a standalone or as a combinative treatment (with manual acupuncture or electro-acupuncture) for LBP.
Acupressure is an effective treatment for LBP. However, GRADE assessments downgraded the evidence in the trials, indicating that additional investigations are needed to confirm these observations.
... Complementary treatments include acupressure and foot reflexology. Acupressure is a therapy that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for 4000 years; it aims to balance and redistribute the energy in the body by applying physical pressure on different points on the skin (Chen & Wang, 2014;Sharma, 2015). Reflexology is a method in Egyptian, Chinese, and Indian cultures that activates the body's self-healing mechanism using a specialized massaging technique; it is estimated to date back 5000 years and is applied only on the hands, feet, and ears (Wilhelm, 2009). ...
This randomized controlled study aimed to determine the effects of acupressure and foot reflexology on procedural pain during heel-lancing in newborns. This study was conducted with 105 neonates (35 foot reflexology group, 35 acupressure group, and 35 control group) who met the inclusion criteria and who were delivered by cesarean section between October 2017 and March 2018 at a state hospital in Turkey. A “Newborn Information Form” and a “Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale” (N-PASS) were used to collect data. The study found a significant intergroup difference between pain scores of neonates during the procedures ( p < .05). Advanced analyses found that the pain scores in the acupressure and foot reflexology groups were similar, whereas the pain scores in the control group were higher than in the other two groups. Acupressure and foot reflexology administered during heel lancing in newborns are effective methods for reducing pain.
... Mind-Body Therapies from Traditional Chinese Medicine (MBTTCM), as interventions-for patient safety, showed positive effects such as Tai Chi on the quality of life of patients with chronic disease, self-efficacy, psychological health conditions, and to prevent and manage cardiovascular disease (35,(75)(76)(77)(78)(79). ...
Background: The mind-body therapies of traditional Chinese medicine include several intervention types and combine physical poses with conscious relaxation and breathing techniques. The purpose of this Evidence Map is to describe these different interventions and report related health outcomes.
Methods: This evidence map is based on the 3iE Evidence Gap Map methodology. We searched seven electronic databases (BVS, PUBMED, EMBASE, PEDro, ScienceDirect, Web of Sciences, and PschyInfo) from inception to November 2019 and included systematic reviews only. Systematic reviews were analyzed based on AMSTAR 2. We used Tableau to graphically display quality assessment, the number of reviews, outcomes, and effects.
Results: The map is based on 116 systematic reviews and 44 meta-analyses. Most of the reviews were published in the last 5 years. The most researched interventions were Tai Chi and Qi Gong. The reviews presented the following quality assessment: 80 high, 43 moderate, 23 low, and 14 critically low. Every 680 distinct outcome effect was classified: 421 as potential positive; 237 as positive; 21 as inconclusive/mixed; one potential negative and none no effect. Positive effects were related to chronic diseases; mental indicators and disorders; vitality, well-being, and quality of life. Potential positive effects were related to balance, mobility, Parkinson's disease, hypertension, joint pain, cognitive performance, and sleep quality. Inconclusive/mixed-effects justify further research, especially in the following areas: Acupressure as Shiatsu and Tuiná for nausea and vomiting; Tai Chi and Qi Gong for acute diseases, prevention of stroke, stroke risk factors, and schizophrenia.
Conclusions: The mind-body therapies from traditional Chinese medicine have been applied in different areas and this Evidence Map provides a visualization of valuable information for patients, professionals, and policymakers, to promote evidence-based complementary therapies.
... The pain level difference is at its highest after the fifth session. A systematic review provided a reliable evidence that acupressure was effective in relieving pain . In the Thermal gun group, the combined effects of the acupressure and the topical heat provide more benefits than solely on the heat therapy from the heat pack. ...
Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common degenerative joint disorder in our ageing population. A combination of thermal therapy with a self-management exercise have shown a positive effect in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of topical heat pack versus focal application of heat therapy at the acupressure points in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 76 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, diagnosed by an experienced orthopedic surgeon. Following inclusion and exclusion selection, patients were randomly allocated to group 1 (Heat pack) or group 2 (Thermal gun). All patients received 30 min of treatment in each session, twice a week for 4 weeks. They also received an education program and taught home knee exercises. Outcome measurements were the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain intensity, muscle power, knee ROM, WOMAC and SF-12v2.
In the Thermal gun group, function and total scores (WOMAC) and Physical Composite Scale (SF-12v2) were significantly improved after 8 sessions. Quadriceps strength was significantly improved after 8 weeks (from 4.42 to 4.63; p = 0.02). In the Heat pack group, flexion was significantly improved after 8 sessions (p = 0.02). Mean VAS scores after Heat pack treatment was consistently better (lower) than mean VAS scores after Thermal gun treatment.
The combination of focal thermal therapy at acupressure points is a viable conservative treatment in osteoarthritis of the knee. The pressure at the acupressure points has a synergistic benefit than topical thermal therapy alone.
Date of registration: February 2, 2021 (Retrospectively registered)
... Kirca et al. showed that acupressure had significant analgesic effects on postpartum perineal pain compared to the ice pack . A systematic review of the treatment of various kinds of pain (dysmenorrhea, the pain of labour, low back pain, chronic headaches, and other traumatic pain) has demonstrated the efficacy of acupressure . ...
Acupressure in Oriental medicine is used as a core therapeutic method due to its therapeutic efficacy and minimal side-effects. However, microcurrent stimulation, combined with acupressure and grounding, has not been studied under acupressure conditions in terms of how this combination might affect acupressure therapy's effectiveness. This paper clarifies the new concept of acupressure stimulation combined with a microcurrent that generates electron flow during earthing. In grounding the body, there is free electron movement from and to the body that creates microcurrent. Acupressure uses these currents to activate specific acupoints for therapeutic purposes and activating these acupoints adjust the imbalance between Qi across channels (meridians) and ultimately treat diseases. It is time for proper research and implementation of this technique to increase acupressure efficacy and reduce society's cost.
... Currently, several systemic reviews have reported positive effects of selfacupressure for symptom management, including symptoms of constipation, allergic diseases, nausea, vomiting, pain, stress, and sleep disturbance.  So far, no research on acupressure for HBOT-related MEB has been conducted. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of self-acupressure for preventing and reducing the degree of MEB associated with HBO. ...
In hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), a patient is exposed to pure oxygen in a chamber. While HBOT is a long-standing and well-established treatment for a wide variety of medical conditions, one of the main complications is middle ear barotrauma (MEB), which can lead to complaints of ear discomfort, stuffiness or fullness in the ear, and difficulties in equalizing ear pressure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of self-acupressure in preventing and reducing the degree of MEB associated with HBOT.
This is a prospective nonrandomized controlled study. A sample of 152 participants will be assigned to 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio. The participants in the control group will receive conventional Valsalva and Toynbee maneuvers, while those in the experimental group will be given additional self-acupressure therapy. The acupoints used will be TE17 (Yifeng), TE21 (Ermen), SI19 (Tinggong), and GB2 (Tinghui). The Modified Teed Classification, symptoms of MEB, and overall ear discomfort levels will be assessed. Data will be analyzed using the Chi-Squared test or t test.
This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of self-acupressure for preventing and reducing the degree of MEB associated with HBOT.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04311437. Registered on 17 March, 2020.
... Reducing the pain caused them to be more accepting to hemodialysis and increased quality of life (13). Thus, the assessment and management of pain, palliative care, and good pain relief methods should be included in the guidelines (14). ...
Background: The insertion of needles in arteriovenous fistula is leading to significant pain in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pressure at the point of Hugo on pain of needle insertion arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients. Methods: In this single-group clinical trial, 35 hemodialysis patients in the Besat hospital with convenience sampling was performed. Researcher two minutes before and during insertion of needles in artery fistula area by nurse, acupressure was conducted on the hugo point on other hand. This work was done in 3 sessions. Paired t-test was used to measure pain intensity difference. Results: There was a significant difference in pain intensity during a routine care and pressure on the Hugo point. The mean pain scores after the Hugo point acupressure was decreased in all 3 phases (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Hugo acupressure points can be used as an effective and low-cost way to reduce the pain of needle insertion in fistulas in patients undergoing hemodialysis.
... Several studies demonstrated the positive effects of AC on the nervous system (21)(22) , muscles (23) and connective tissue (24) , while the relevance of this therapeutic method on pain 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 reduction (19,(25)(26) , peripheral anti-inflammation, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and endocrine regulation is well-documented (26) . Although further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of AC in sports medicine (19) , athletes successfully use AC to avoid sport pain (19,27) , fatigue (28-29) and stress relief (30-31) or to enhance athletic performance (19)(20) . ...
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of self-acupressure on quality of life, physical and cognitive functions in individuals with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS).
In our randomized controlled study; participants in the study group were asked to perform self-acupressure on 6 points. They were asked to perform a total of 16 sessions, 2 days a week, for an average of 27 minutes each session in the morning and evening. No intervention was made in the control group during the study. Data were collected using Descriptive Information Form, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Test (MSFC), and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life 54 Scale (MSQL-54).
Thirty-one individuals with RRMS in each group, 25 women in the study group and 21 women in the control group, were included in the study. After the self-acupressure application, a positive and significant difference was detected in all MSFC sub-parameters (9-Hole Peg Test, Timed 25-foot Walk Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test) values of the study group compared to the control group. In addition, after self-acupressure application, the study group was found to have statistically significantly higher scores in both the combined physical health and composite mental health sub-parameters of MSQOL-54 compared to the control group (p < 0.05).
We found that self-acupressure was effective in improving physical function, cognitive function and quality of life in RRMS patients. Additionally, self-acupressure is a feasible, accessible and inexpensive method in the disease management of MS, which needs to be treated or supported continuously.
Objective: To compare the effects of acupressure versus physiotherapy in patients with Scalene Myofascial Pain Syndrome and to investigate the mechanism using endorphin and enkephalin enzymes. Methods: Patients whose clinical findings were consistent with scalene myofascial pain syndrome were included in this randomized control study. The primary outcome measures were Visual Analog Scale; Enkephalin and Endorphin plasma levels. The secondary outcomes were cervical range of motion. These measurements were performed for both groups before and after completion of the treatment sessions. Results: Eighty out of 100 scalene myofascial pain syndrome patients were included in the study, resulting in a prevalence of 80%. The mean age of the patients was 25.48±9.21 years for acupressure; 25.48±9.21 years for physiotherapy with a total score of 25.48±9.15 years. When compared to routine physiotherapy, acupressure was more effective at alleviating pain and increasing cervical range of motion. Furthermore, the endorphin circulatory level was significantly increased following acupressure (P < 0.01) but not after routine physiotherapy. Finally, neither acupressure nor routine physiotherapy affected enkephalin circulatory levels (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the study revealed that acupressure has been shown to be effective in reducing pain and increasing the cervical range of motion associated with scalene myofascial pain syndrome due to increased circulation of endorphin and can be considered a complementary and alternative treatment for scalene myofascial pain syndrome.
Placebo is considered any drug that can simulate real treatment, but
actually does not contain any active substance. The symptoms of patients
who received placebo can either be improved or worsened, responses
which are known as placebo and nocebo effect respectively. The first
study of placebo effect was in pain.
Pain is an unpleasant, subjective experience that relates to patients’
perception according to the pain level and the intensity. The pain
assessment and management consist a challenge in health care that
requires various therapeutic approaches for higher effectiveness and
lower side effects. The first step in pain management is the timely
and accurate assessment of pain. The next step is the pharmaceutical
administration with the highest effectiveness and reducing the risk of
Pain management requires a “balanced” therapeutic approach. The
multimodal therapy is the synchronous administration of up to two
pharmacological agents or approaches, targeting different pathways,
allowing for dose reduction and flexibility. Νon-pharmacological
approaches are also used for the reduction of pain, as they are highly
related with both the biochemical features of pain and the psychosomatic
The placebo effect is implemented in clinical trials, toward the reduction
of various types of pain. Placebo effect focuses on patients’ expectations
and beliefs about the disease. If a patient expects that the treatment will
have a positive effect on him, then it is likely that body’s chemistry will
produce therapeutic signals similar to these caused by the respective drug. The stronger these beliefs are, the more positive the result will
be. Due to new techniques, including PET, it is possible to depict the
different regions of brain, in which different expectations can trigger.
In this sort review, various pharmacological and non-pharmacological
pain management approaches along with the implementation of placebo
effect, in multimodal therapy, under specific ethical and cost – benefit
circumstances are discussed.
Background and Objective
The effects of acupressure on sleep quality and insomnia symptoms have been studied in various groups of haemodialysis patients, those undergoing surgery, and those living in elderly care homes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of acupressure on sleep quality in elderly people.
This study was conducted with a systematic review and meta-analysis. In this study, electronic databases of PubMed, Science Direct, National Thesis centre, Google Scholar, Web of Science, EBSCO were systematically scanned between December 2020 and February 2021 using the keywords “older, elderly, sleep quality, acupressure”. The study included 11 articles published in English and Turkish languages without any year limitation. This systematic review and meta-analysis were done by following the PRISMA reporting system.
The total sample size of 11 randomized controlled trials included in this systematic review and meta-analysis was 722 (experiment: 363 and control: 359), and the mean duration of acupressure interventions applied was 19.65 ± 11.28 days. The sleep quality of the acupressure group in the elderly was significantly increased compared to the control group (MD: -1.71,%95 CI: -2.31 to -1.11, Z = 5.60, p< 0.00001, I² = 91%). After the subjects received training for acupressure application and applied acupressure themselves, their sleep quality improved compared to the control group (MD: -0.86, 95% CI: -1.39 to -0.32, p <0.001).
We have utilized meta-analysis to try to reveal statistical significance by pooling small studies with high quality. This meta-analysis provided a potentially effective intervention on the quality of sleep in elderly people.
The present study conducted expected value analysis on ten complementary and alternative medical (CAM) procedures (acupuncture, acupressure, aromatherapy, biofeedback, chiropractic, homeopathy, hypnosis, meditation, naturopathic and reflexology) treating twelve common ailments (addiction, anxiety, arthritis, cancer, depression, high blood pressure, headaches, inflammation, insomnia, oral hygiene, pain, and stress) in the United States. It was found that medication provided more value treating alcoholism than CAM. It was found that medication provided more value reducing the prevalence of smoking than CAM. Group therapy, reflexology, psychotherapy as well as acupuncture did provide value in terms of overall healthcare costs with less than a 1-year payback period, but provided less value than yoga, exercise and meditation due to their lower costs and similar success rates when treating anxiety, depression and stress. Acupuncture, which can be up to 100 times more expensive, was not found to provide more value for patients in in the early stages of diabetic neuropathy than over-the-counter medications. The cost of acupuncture which can be up to 100 times more expensive than over-the-counter medication was not found to have provided more value for patients with lower acuity levels suffering from Fibromyalgia. It was determined that for patients with lower acuity levels, aspirin or ibuprofen available for just a few cents each provided more value than both acupuncture and biofeedback in the eradication of a headache. It was determined that aspirin and ibuprofen available for just a few cents each provided more value than Turmeric in the eradication of inflammation. The average cost of acupuncture and aromatherapy per session is more than 250 times the cost of over-the-counter sleeping aid available for about 20 cents each, which had similar effectiveness results. Coconut oil is more expensive resulting in fluoride mouthwash providing more value when it comes to oral hygiene. It was determined that for patients with lower acuity levels aspirin or ibuprofen available for just a few cents each provided more value than acupuncture in the eradication of non-chronic pain.
To test the effect of noninvasive self-performed acupressure therapy as an add-on to pharmacological treatment to manage knee main and to evaluate the improvement of pain due to intervention according to age and body mass index.
In the study, participants were assigned into three groups (1) KAP group (verum acupressure and pharmacological treatment) (2) Comparison Group 1 (sham acupressure and pharmacological treatment), and (3) Comparison Group 2 (pharmacological treatment only). Outcome measures were subscales of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Visual analogue scale and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Intention–to–treat analysis was used and missing data was deal with multiple imputation method. The general linear mixed model was carried out to assess the differences between the study groups at different durations (3 months, 6 months, and 1 year).
Compared with CG-1 and CG-2, participants of the KAP group reported considerable improvements in WOMAC pain (mean difference: -2.50 units; 95% CI, 3.74 to 1.25, and mean difference: -1.69 units; 95%CI, -3.24 to -0.13 respectively) at 1 year. Similarly, VAS pain, stiffness, and physical function were also improved among the participants of KAP group.
Self-administered acupressure has an additive effect to the pharmacological treatment to improve pain, stiffness, and physical function as compared to pharmacological treatment only.
Acupressure is known to be effective for some types of chronic pain. However, the effect of acupressure on chronic neck pain has not been investigated. Accordingly, the authors aimed to evaluate effects of the 4-week acupressure treatment on pain, neck function, and substance P in women with chronic neck pain.
The acupressure treatment was performed two times a week for 4 weeks in an acupressure group (n = 24), meanwhile a control group (n = 26) was untreated. Before and after intervention, pain intensity and physical disability were measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) and neck disability index (NDI), respectively. In addition, cervical range of motion (CROM) and serum substance P were evaluated.
Results of two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures revealed that time × group interactions were significant in all outcomes (all p < 0.001) except substance P. These results indicate that after 4 weeks, VAS and NDI significantly decreased in the acupressure group compared with those changes in the control group. The CROM values for six cervical movements significantly increased in the acupressure group compared with those changes in the control group. Serum substance P did not change significantly in both groups. However, when the pre- and postintervention data from all subjects were pooled, substance P was significantly correlated with VAS (r = 20; p < 0.05; n = 100).
The 4-week acupressure intervention showed significant reduction in pain and improvement in neck disability and flexibility, suggesting that acupressure intervention is an effective treatment for chronic neck pain. This study was registered with the Korean Clinical Trial Registry and WHO Clinical Trial Registry (KCT0005363).
Cancer survivors with fatigue often experience depressive symptoms, anxiety, and pain. Previously, we reported that self-acupressure improved fatigue; however, its impact on other co-occurring symptoms and their involvement in treatment action has not been explored.
Changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and pain were examined prior to and following two formulas of self-acupressure and usual care using linear mixed models in 288 women from a previously reported clinical trial. Participants were categorized by random assignment into one of three groups: 1) relaxing acupressure, 2) stimulating acupressure, or 3) usual care. Moderators investigated were body mass index, age, depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep and pain, and mediators were change in these symptoms.
Following treatment, depressive symptoms improved statistically significantly for the relaxing acupressure group (41.5%) compared with stimulating acupressure (25%) and usual care (7.7%). Both acupressure groups were associated with greater improvements in anxiety than usual care, but only relaxing acupressure was associated with greater reductions in pain severity, and only stimulating acupressure was associated with greater reductions in pain interference. There were no statistically significant moderators of sleep quality, anxiety, or depressive symptoms. Fatigue statistically significantly moderated pain, and age statistically significantly modified fatigue. Changes in depressive symptoms and sleep quality statistically significantly mediated the relationship between relaxing acupressure and usual care on fatigue; however, the effect was small.
Acupressure was associated with greater improvements than usual care in anxiety, pain, and symptoms of depression in breast cancer survivors with troublesome fatigue. These findings warrant further evaluation in suitably controlled randomized trials.
(1) Background: Acupressure is a noninvasive, low-cost technique that makes use of physical pressure on specific points using a finger or a device and shows positive effects on chronic pain as an adjunctive method to the rehabilitation exercises. The study’s aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy on pain, disability, and life quality of an acupressure mat associated with a rehabilitation program in patients with chronic low back pain. (2) Methods: All participants underwent a specific rehabilitation program, initially with 10 supervised exercise sessions, then as home exercise for 6 months. The subjects in the experimental group (EG) were additionally provided with an acupressure mat and used it for 60 min per day. (3) Results: 44 patients (31 females) were equally divided among the treatment groups. A significant time interaction was found in both groups for McGill Pain Questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index, and EuroQol-5D, and only in the EG for Visual Analog Scale. (4) Conclusions: The acupressure mat is simple and provides an additional benefit for patients in relieving pain and improving function and quality of life, especially in the medium-to-long term.
This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure as a treatment method for osteoarthritis. Fourteen electronic databases were searched from the date of inception until 16 March 2021, for eligible studies. Studies comparing acupressure with sham acupuncture, no intervention or conventional intervention were eligible for inclusion. The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias Assessment tool Version 2.0. A total of eight trials were included in this review, focusing on the seven trials investigating knee osteoarthritis. The risk of bias is judged as low in only two trials and concerning in the remaining six trials. The meta-analysis showed that acupressure has equivalent effects in reducing pain (p = 0.12), relieving stiffness (p = 0.38), and improving physical function (p = 0.12), as compared to sham acupressure. Pooled results also showed similar results where acupressure has an equivalent effect in reducing pain (p = 0.09), and relieving stiffness (p = 0.68), but showed a favorable effect in improving physical function of joints (MD –6.30, CI 95%: −11.69 to −0.92, p = 0.02), as compared to no intervention. For acupressure complementing conventional intervention, pooled results showed superior effects for easing pain compared to conventional intervention alone (MD −3.72, 95% CI: −4.84 to −2.61, p < 0.00001). Overall, the studies included in this review have concerning quality and suffer from small sample sizes, and the findings of this review should be interpreted with caution. More clinical trials with proper methodology are needed to confirm the effectiveness of acupressure for osteoarthritis.
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common causes of chronic low back pain that spending a lot of workforces and financial resources, seriously affecting human physical and mental health. Clinically used drug treatments and surgical treatments cannot fundamentally relieve the disease and have a risk of recurrence. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a history of more than a thousand years in the prevention and treatment of IDD. However, so far, there are few reviews on the treatment of IDD by TCM. Therefore, it is crucial and necessary to systematically mine the existing literature on the treatment of IDD with TCM. This paper strives to systematically describe the modern medicine and TCM theoretical research on IDD, progress in the treatment of IDD and focuses on the treatment of IDD by TCM. which would lay some theoretical foundation and provide new directions for future research.
Materials and methods
Information on clinical observations, animal experiments and relevant pharmacology data about the treatment of IDD were gathered from various sources including traditional Chinese books and Chinese Pharmacopoeia, scientific databases (Elsevier, PubMed, Science Direct, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, Spring Link, Web of Science) and from different professional websites.
This review mainly introduces the current research on the theoretical research on IDD, the combination principle of the TCM formula, and the underlying mechanism of the formula and active ingredients.
At present, domestic and foreign scholars have carried out a lot of research in different ways, such as the molecular mechanism and predisposing factors of IDD, which provides theoretical development and clinical practice significance for future research. TCM, as a multi-component and multi-targeted drug, can produce synergistic effects to exert its efficacy. Therefore, the development of TCM with more specific functions and practical data will not only become a significant trend in the world market but also has an irreplaceable role in the future treatment of IDD.
Opioids are commonly prescribed in orthopaedics for acute or chronic pain for a variety of conditions, including injury, trauma, degenerative processes, and postsurgical. Patients who are taking opioids because of a substance use disorder (SUD) are also seen in orthopaedics. Patients who are prescribed opioids are at risk of developing an opioid use disorder (OUD). Ten percent of Americans will develop an SUD, which is considered a chronic medical condition that develops due to an imbalance in brain chemistry. In studies, orthopaedic surgeons have a high rate of prescribing opioids, but this rate is decreasing along with national average due to public and provider awareness of the opioid epidemic and professional recommendations. Despite the evidence of a neurobiological cause for SUDs, stigma toward patients with SUDs and a knowledge deficit are common among healthcare professionals, including orthopaedic nurses. A harm reduction approach when working with orthopaedic patients taking opioids either prescribed or used because of an OUD can be applied to reduce the problematic effects of opioids. Harm reduction strategies are supportive to the patient and include education and prevention, adopting evidence-based treatment and communication strategies, and the use of naloxone to prevent opioid overdose.
Complementary and alternative medicines have been used to increase comfort and relaxation in mothers during labor. Comforting and preparing the mother in labor can create a positive birth experience. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acupressure on childbirth satisfaction and the experience of giving birth in women with full-term pregnancy, before the onset of labor.
In 2016, a randomized clinical trial study was conducted in Shahid Akbar Abadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran, enrolling 120 pregnant women at 39-40 gestational weeks with no signs of the onset of labor. They were divided randomly into acupressure, sham acupressure, and control groups. Acupressure points including SP6, BL 60, and BL 32 were pressured bilaterally. Interventions were performed by the researcher, the mother and her relative (husband). Childbirth satisfaction was measured 24 h after delivery. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and comparing tests were Chi-squared, Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA tests (P ≤ 0.05).
The total childbirth satisfaction did not differ significantly among the three groups (P = 0.460), but the acupressure group had a higher level of satisfaction than the other two groups. Moreover, statistical tests regarding the expectations of the childbirth experience showed a significant difference among the groups (P = 0.033). The actual birth was closest to the expectations of subjects in the acupressure group.
This study demonstrated that acupressure may be used as a method in order to attempt to provide a good birth experience and satisfaction of childbirth.
This systematic review aimed to summarize and provide an update on clinical studies investigating the effects of auricular point acupressure (APA) on pain relief, in addition to the APA methods of delivery and operation.
A systematic review.
A systematic review on literatures published on five English (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases) and four major Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Data, Chinese Scientific Journals Database [VIP], and SinoMed) was conducted.
We screened nine electronic databases from the time of their respective establishment until December 20, 2019. Randomized controlled trials and studies that defined an APA intervention measure and evaluated pain intensity were considered. We individually categorized and analyzed 46 studies considering the following: (1) acute or chronic pain and (2) whether the outcomes positively or negatively support the effectiveness of APA on pain intensity. We also summarized the methods of delivery used (including the acupoint selection, stimulator selection, method of taping seeds on the ears, frequency of replacing seeds, suitability of acupressure intensity, acupressure frequency, and pressing time) and APA operator.
Regardless of pain intensity, APA effectively treated most acute pain when combined with other interventions. Although it was used alone to treat low back pain and dysmenorrhea, other chronic diseases typically underwent a combination of APA with other interventions. The 43 positive studies revealed that acute pain required shorter APA intervention periods than chronic pain. Corresponding acupoints and nervous system acupoints were chosen. Vaccaria seeds, the single-ear method (including the alternate-ear method), and daily seed replacement were commonly adopted. Deqi was considered an effective signal for appropriate acupressure intensity. Additionally, the patients could effectively apply acupressure.
This systematic review revealed important trends in APA treatments, which could be essential in determining treatment efficacy.
Previous reports have suggested that acupressure is effective in reducing pain and improving sleep quality; however, its effects on alertness have not been characterized.
The aim of this study was to determine whether two different acupressure treatments have opposing effects on alertness in a full-day classroom setting.
This was a cross-over (two-treatments; three periods), single-blinded, randomized trial.
The University of Michigan School of Public Health was the setting.
Students attending a course in clinical research design and statistical analysis at the University of Michigan participated in the study.
Blinded subjects were randomized to two acupressure treatment sequences: stimulation-relaxation-relaxation or relaxation-stimulation-stimulation. Acupressure treatments were self administered over 3 consecutive days. Pre- and post-treatment alertness scores were assessed each day using the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Changes in the SSS score (afternoon-morning) were analyzed using a mixed regression model of fixed and random effects. Important factors that were expected to affect alertness, such as caffeine and previous night's sleep, were also assessed.
Baseline characteristics and protocol compliance were similar between the two sequences. Stimulation acupressure treatment yielded a 0.56-point greater difference in score on the SSS, corresponding to less fatigue, compared to the relaxation acupressure treatment (p = 0.019). Day of study (p = 0.004) and hours of overnight sleep (p = 0.042) also significantly affected the change in SSS scores. Incorporating participants' beliefs as to which treatment they received did not significantly alter the observed treatment effect.
Acupressure at stimulation and relaxation points has differential effects on alertness in a classroom setting. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings and to determine whether stimulation and relaxation acupressure are equally effective in influencing alertness.
Shiatsu, similar to acupressure, uses finger pressure, manipulations and stretches, along Traditional Chinese Medicine meridians. Shiatsu is popular in Europe, but lacks reviews on its evidence-base.
Acupressure and Shiatsu clinical trials were identified using the MeSH term 'acupressure' in: EBM reviews; AMED; BNI; CINAHL; EMBASE; MEDLINE; PsycARTICLES; Science Direct; Blackwell Synergy; Ingenta Select; Wiley Interscience; Index to Theses and ZETOC. References of articles were checked. Inclusion criteria were Shiatsu or acupressure administered manually/bodily, published after January 1990. Two reviewers performed independent study selection and evaluation of study design and reporting, using standardised checklists (CONSORT, TREND, CASP and STRICTA).
Searches identified 1714 publications. Final inclusions were 9 Shiatsu and 71 acupressure studies. A quarter were graded A (highest quality). Shiatsu studies comprised 1 RCT, three controlled non-randomised, one within-subjects, one observational and 3 uncontrolled studies investigating mental and physical health issues. Evidence was of insufficient quantity and quality. Acupressure studies included 2 meta-analyses, 6 systematic reviews and 39 RCTs. Strongest evidence was for pain (particularly dysmenorrhoea, lower back and labour), post-operative nausea and vomiting. Additionally quality evidence found improvements in sleep in institutionalised elderly. Variable/poor quality evidence existed for renal disease symptoms, dementia, stress, anxiety and respiratory conditions. Appraisal tools may be inappropriate for some study designs. Potential biases included focus on UK/USA databases, limited grey literature, and exclusion of qualitative and pre-1989 studies.
Evidence is improving in quantity, quality and reporting, but more research is needed, particularly for Shiatsu, where evidence is poor. Acupressure may be beneficial for pain, nausea and vomiting and sleep.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on relieving menstrual symptoms and decreasing nitric oxide (NO) for women with primary dysmenorrhea.
This was a randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of auricular acupressure by seed-pressure method and placebo adhesive patch.
Settings included colleges in northern and central Taiwan.
Serum CA-125 testing was used as a screening test for primary dysmenorrhea (<35 mg/dL). The study included 36 college females randomized to acupressure group, 35 to control group.
The acupressure group received auricular acupressure by seed-pressure method on liver (CO12), kidney (CO10), and endocrine (CO18) acupoints. The control group had a plain adhesive patch placed on the same acupoints with no seed attached. Acupressure protocol included massaging 15 times on each acupoint, 3 times a day, for a total of 20 days.
Primary: Short-form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQs). Secondary: blood sample of NO. Assessments of MDQs and NO were performed at baseline and within the first 2 days of their next menses (after completion of 20 days of acupressure).
In the acupressure group, the overall menstrual symptoms (95% confidence interval [CI] = -49.8 to -6.5, effect size [ES] = 0.43, p = 0.01) and two subscales, menstrual pain (95% CI = -16.4 -to -2.2, ES = 0.45, p = 0.01) and negative affects (95% CI = -11.9-2.0, ES = 0.38, p = 0.04), revealed that menstrual symptoms decreased significantly after auricular acupressure by the seed-pressure method. The ES for the MDQs were in favor of the auricular acupressure by seed-pressure method. NO level increased in the acupressure group, although this difference did not achieve statistical significance (p > 0.05).
This study supports the effects of auricular acupressure by seed-pressure method in improving menstrual symptoms, and offers a noninvasive complementary therapy for women with primary dysmenorrhea.
The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of acupressure on primary dysmenorrhea in Iranian medical sciences students.
A randomized controlled pre and post-test design was employed to verify the effects of SP6 acupressure on dysmenorrhea.
A total of 30 young college female students with primary dysmenorrhea were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups.
The intervention group received SP6 acupressure during menstruation cycle and the control group received light touch on the SP6 acupoint. Using a Visual Analog Scale, the severity of dysmenorrhea was assessed prior to and immediately, 30 min, 1, 2, and 3 h following treatment.
Data were analyzed using X(2), t-test and ANOVA statistical tests.
Significant differences were observed in the scores of dysmenorrhea between the two groups immediately after (3.50 ± 1.42 vs. 5.06 ± 1.43, p = 0.004) and also 3 h after treatment (1.66 ± 1.98 vs. 4.80 ± 1.37, p = 0.000).
Acupressure on the SP6 meridian can be an effective non-invasive nursing intervention for alleviating primary dysmenorrhea and its effects last for 3 h post-treatment.
We conducted this study to assess the effect of acupressure at the Sanyinjiao point on primary dysmenorrhea.
Eighty-six students participated in the study. All participants met the inclusion criteria. The study group received acupressure at Sanyinjiao point, while the control received sham acupressure. The severity of dysmenorrhea was assessed at the following time periods: prior to the intervention, 30 min, 1, 2 and 3h following the intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS.
The acupressure caused decline in the severity of dysmenorrhea immediately after intervention in both groups during their first menstrual cycle, although, there difference was not significant (p>0.05). In addition, during the same cycle, the severity of the dysmenorrhea decreased more in study group rather than control group at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3h after intervention (p<0.05). During the second menstrual cycle, acupressure made dysmenorrhea reduced in both study and control groups; however, the decline was more salient among participants of the study group at all stages after the intervention (p<0.05).
Acupressure at Sanyinjiao point can be an effective, feasible, cost-effective intervention for improving primary dysmenorrhea.
To evaluate the effect of acupressure administered during the active phase of labor on nulliparous women's ratings of labor pain.
Randomized controlled trial.
Public hospital in India.
Seventy-one women randomized to receive acupressure at acupuncture point spleen 6 (SP6) on both legs during contractions over a 30-minute period (acupressure group), 71 women to receive light touch at SP6 on both legs during the same period of time (touch group) and 70 women to receive standard care (standard care group).
Experience of in-labor pain was assessed by visual analog scale at baseline before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after treatment.
Labor pain intensity at different time intervals after treatment compared with before treatment.
A reduction of in-labor pain was found in the acupressure group and was most noticeable immediately after treatment (acupressure group vs. standard care group p < 0.001; acupressure group vs. touch group p < 0.001).
Acupressure seems to reduce pain during the active phase of labor in nulliparous women giving birth in a context in which social support and epidural analgesia are not available. However, the treatment effect is small which suggests that acupressure may be most effective during the initial phase of labor.
Previous research has shown that the effectiveness of acupressure bands in reducing chemotherapy-related nausea is related to patients' expectations of efficacy.
To test whether an informational manipulation designed to increase expectation of efficacy regarding acupressure bands would enhance their effectiveness.
We conducted an exploratory, four-arm, randomized clinical trial in breast cancer patients about to begin chemotherapy. All patients received acupressure bands and a relaxation CD. This report focuses on Arm 1(expectancy-neutral informational handout and CD) compared with Arm 4 (expectancy-enhancing handout and CD). Randomization was stratified according to the patient's level of certainty that she would have treatment-induced nausea (two levels: high and low). Experience of nausea and use of antiemetics were assessed with a five-day diary.
Our expectancy-enhancing manipulation resulted in improved control of nausea in the 26 patients with high nausea expectancies but lessened control of nausea in 27 patients having low nausea expectancies. This interaction effect (between expected nausea and intervention effectiveness) approached statistical significance for our analysis of average nausea (P=0.084) and reached statistical significance for our analysis of peak nausea (P=0.030). Patients receiving the expectancy-enhancing manipulation took fewer antiemetic pills outside the clinic (mean(enhanced)=12.6; mean(neutral)=18.5, P=0.003).
This exploratory intervention reduced antiemetic use overall and also reduced nausea in patients who had high levels of expected nausea. Interestingly, it increased nausea in patients who had low expectancies for nausea. Confirmatory research is warranted.
To examine a comparison between Hegu and Sanyinjiao matched points and Hegu, Zusanli single point on adolescent girls' menstrual distress, pain and anxiety perception.
Primary dysmenorrhoea is a major cause of temporary disability, with a prevalence ranging from 60-93%, depending upon the population and study. No one has yet compared the effects of single point and multiple point acupressures. Design. A single blind randomised experimental study was used.
Adolescents (n = 134) randomly assigned to experimental groups Zusanli (n = 30), Hegu (n = 33) and Hegu-Sanyinjiao Matched Points (n = 36) received acupressure intervention protocol for 20 minutes, while the control group (n = 35) did not receive any acupressure intervention. Four instruments were used to collect data: (1) the Visual Analog Scale for Pain; (2) the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire Short Form; (3) the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire and (4) the Visual Analog Scale for Anxiety.
During the six-month follow-up, acupressure at matched points Hegu and Sanyinjiao reduced the pain, distress and anxiety typical of dysmenorrhoea. Acupressure at single point Hegu was found, effectively, to reduce menstrual pain during the follow-up period, but no significant difference for reducing menstrual distress and anxiety perception was found. Zusanli acupressure had no significant effects of reducing menstrual pain, distress and anxiety perception.
This controlled trial provides preliminary evidence that six-month acupressure therapy provides female adolescents with dysmenorrhoea benefits.
Acupressure is an effective and safe non-pharmacologic strategy for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. We recommend the use of acupressure for self-care of primary dysmenorrhoea at Hegu and Sanyinjiao matched points and single point Hegu, as pressure placement at these points is easy for adolescent girls to learn and practice.
This study aims to evaluate the effects of Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupressure in reducing the pain level and menstrual distress resulting from dysmenorrhea.
Forty participants with dysmenorrhea were assigned to either the acupressure group (n = 19) or the control group (n = 21). The acupressure group received 20 min of SP6 acupressure during the initial intervention session and was taught to perform the technique for them to do twice a day from the first to third days of their menstrual cycle, 3 months subsequent to the first session. In contrast, the control group was only told to rest. Outcomes were measured through (1) the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS), (2) the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), and (3) the Short-Form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (SF-MDQ).
There was a statistically significant decrease in pain score for PVAS (p = 0.003) and SF-MPQ (p = 0.02) immediately after the 20 min of SP6 acupressure. In the self-care periods, significant reduction of PVAS (p = 0.008), SF-MPQ (p = 0.012), and SF-MDQ (p = 0.024) scores was noted in the third month of post-intervention.
SP6 acupressure has an immediate pain-relieving effect for dysmenorrhea. Moreover, acupressure applied to the SP6 acupoint for 3 consecutive months was effective in relieving both the pain and menstrual distress level resulting from dysmenorrhea.
Acupressure, a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment, uses fingertips, rather than needles, to stimulate acupoints on the skin and has been implicated as a successful treatment for a variety of medical disorders. However, acupressure's underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One theory is that acupoint stimulation modulates autonomic nervous system activity. Previous studies have suggested that acupressure may positively affect heart rate and blood pressure. The current study investigated the effects of a type of acupressure, Jin Shin, on cardiovascular function in stroke survivors, a population that could especially benefit from a treatment promoting cardiovascular health. The study tested the hypothesis that active acupressure treatments would reduce heart rate and blood pressure (i.e., induce a greater relaxation response) above and beyond that seen during placebo acupressure treatments.
A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover design was utilised, in which 16 participants received 8 weeks of either active or placebo acupressure followed by washout and crossover into the opposite treatment condition. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken throughout treatments.
Active acupressure treatments were associated with a significantly greater (p=.043, eta(2)=.30) and faster (p=.002, eta(2)=.76) reduction in heart rate compared to that seen during placebo treatments. No treatment effect on blood pressure was found.
Active acupressure reduced heart rate significantly more than did placebo acupressure during treatments. Although no treatment effect on blood pressure was found, this could be due to 67% of participants taking antihypertensive medications during the study.
The efficacy of acupressure in relieving pain has been documented; however, its effectiveness for chronic headache compared to the muscle relaxant medication has not yet been elucidated. To address this, a randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in a medical center in Southern Taiwan in 2003. Twenty-eight patients suffering chronic headache were randomly assigned to the acupressure group (n = 14) or the muscle relaxant medication group (n = 14). Outcome measures regarding self-appraised pain scores (measured on a visual analogue scale; VAS) and ratings of how headaches affected life quality were recorded at baseline, 1 month after treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up. Pain areas were recorded in order to establish trigger points. Results showed that mean scores on the VAS at post-treatment assessment were significantly lower in the acupressure group (32.9+/-26.0) than in the muscle relaxant medication group (55.7+/-28.7) (p = 0.047). The superiority of acupressure over muscle relaxant medication remained at 6-month follow-up assessments (p = 0.002). The quality of life ratings related to headache showed similar differences between the two groups in the post treatment and at six-month assessments. Trigger points BL2, GV20, GB20, TH21, and GB5 were used most commonly for etiological assessment. In conclusion, our study suggests that 1 month of acupressure treatment is more effective in reducing chronic headache than 1 month of muscle relaxant treatment, and that the effect remains 6 months after treatment. Trigger points help demonstrate the treatment technique recommended if a larger-scale study is conducted in the future.
Acupressure on the Shenmen point (indexed as HT7) can improve insomnia, but there has been no longitudinal study to evaluate its efficacy for residents of long-term care facilities. No evidence from the existing literature indicates how long its efficacy can be maintained after stopping acupressure.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on the Shenmen point for residents of long-term care facilities with insomnia.
Fifty residents with insomnia in long-term care facilities were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial, with 25 participants allocated to the experimental group and 25 participants to the control group. For a 5-week period, the experimental group received standard acupressure on the HT7 points of both wrists, whereas the control group received only light touch on the same places. Insomnia was measured with the Athens Insomnia Scale-Taiwan form (AIS-T). Participants' self-reported scores were done at baseline, during the 5-week period, and after intervention. This study was analyzed on an intention-to-treat procedure.
The experimental group has significantly better scores on the AIS-T compared to the control group, not only during the intervention period, but also extending after intervention, as shown by generalized estimating equations (p<0.05).
Offering acupressure on a regular basis has the potential to improve insomnia in residents of long-term care facilities. Acupressure on the HT7 point may improve insomnia for up to 2 weeks after the intervention.
Untreated pain during the transportation of patients after minor trauma is a common problem in emergency medicine. Because paramedics usually are not allowed to perform invasive procedures or to give drugs for pain treatment, a noninvasive, nondrug-based method would be helpful. Acupressure is a traditional Chinese treatment for pain that is based on pain relief followed by a short mechanical stimulation of specific points. Consequently, we tested the hypothesis that effective pain therapy is possible by paramedics who are trained in acupressure. In a double-blinded trial we included 60 trauma patients. We randomly assigned them into three groups ("true points," "sham-points," and "no acupressure"). An independent observer, blinded to the treatment assignment, recorded vital variables and visual analog scales for pain and anxiety before and after treatment. At the end of transport, we asked for ratings of overall satisfaction. For statistical evaluation, one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé F test were used. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Morphometric and demographic data and potential confounding factors such as age, sex, pain, anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate before treatment did not differ among the groups. At the end of transport we found significantly less pain, anxiety, and heart rate and a greater satisfaction in the "true points" groups (P < 0.01). Our results show that acupressure is an effective and simple-to-learn treatment of pain in emergency trauma care and leads to an improvement of the quality of care in emergency transport. We suggest that this technique is easy to learn and risk free and may improve paramedic-based rescue systems.
We tested, in a double-blinded manner, the hypothesis that acupressure could be an effective pain therapy in minor-trauma patients. Our results show that acupressure is an effective and simple-to-learn treatment of pain in emergency medical care and can improve the quality of care.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of acupressure on fatigue in patients with end-stage renal-disease (ESRD). The study was a randomized control trial; qualified patients were randomly assigned into acupressure group, sham group or control group. A total of 106 participants were included in the study. The measures included the revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), VAS of Fatigue, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Beck Depression Inventory. Data of fatigue measures were collected at pretreatment and a week following treatment. Sleep quality and depression were collected during post-test only. The statistical methods included the descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, ANCOVA, and repeated-measures ANOVA. ANCOVA that adjusted for differences in baseline fatigue scores (PFS), post-test of depression and sleep quality, result was significant, F(2,100)=3.99, p=0.02. Post-hoc tests revealed that patients in the acupressure group were significantly having lower scores of fatigue than patients in the control group. ANCOVA results also significant for VAS of Fatigue among groups, F(2,100)=5.63, p=0.003. Comparisons indicated that there were significant differences between the acupressure group and the control group (p=0.01) and between the sham group and control group (p=0.003). Predialysis fatigue was assessed routinely by using a rating of 0-10. Repeated-measures ANOVA results demonstrate the group main effect was significant in the perceived fatigue (F(2,88)=19.46, p<0.001). Follow-up tests indicated there were significant differences between the acupressure group and the control group (p<0.001) and between the sham group and control group (p<0.001). The study provided an alternative method for health care providers to managing ESRD patients with fatigue.
Acupressure is said to promote the circulation of blood and qi, the harmony of yin and yang, and the secretion of neurotransmitters, thus maintaining the normal functions of the human body and providing comfort. However, there has been little research-based evidence to support the positive effects of acupressure in the area of obstetric nursing. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of LI4 and BL67 acupressure on labor pain and uterine contractions during the first stage of labor. An experimental study with a pretest and posttest control group design was utilized. A total of 127 parturient women were randomly assigned to three groups. Each group received only one of the following treatments, LI4 and BL67 acupressure, light skin stroking, or no treatment/conversation only. Data collected from the VAS and external fetal monitoring strips were used for analysis. Findings indicated that there was a significant difference in decreased labor pain during the active phase of the first stage of labor among the three groups. There was no significant difference in effectiveness of uterine contractions during the first stage of labor among the three groups. Results of the study confirmed the effect of LI4 and BL67 acupressure in lessening labor pain during the active phase of the first stage of labor. There were no verified effects on uterine contractions.
Fatigue and depressive mood are the most significant symptoms experienced by patients with end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acupressure with massage in fatigue and depression in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis treatment. The study applied an experimental pretest and posttest design. Sixty-two hemodialysis patients participated in the study. Data were collected from two hemodialysis clinics in major hospitals in southern Taiwan. Following consent to the study, subjects were randomly assigned to an acupressure group or a control group. Patients in the acupressure group received acupoint massage for 12 minutes per day, three days per week, for four weeks. Subjects in the control group only received routine unit care. The measures included the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale, and Beck ' s Depression Inventory. Descriptive statistics, chi 2 tests, t-test and analyses of covariance were used for data analysis. The results indicate that subjects experienced a moderate level of fatigue. Nearly 65 % of hemodialysis patients had a depressed mood. ANCOVA results indicated that fatigue (F((1.54)) = 9.05, p =.004) and depression (F((1.54)) = 4.20, p =.045) among patients in the acupressure group showed significantly greater improvement than patients in the control group. The findings of this study provide an interventional model for nurses taking care of ESRD patients.
Although acupressure has been reported to be effective in managing various types of pain, its efficacy in relieving pain associated with low back pain (LBP) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of acupressure with that of physical therapy in reducing low back pain.
A randomized controlled clinical trial in an orthopedic referral hospital in Taiwan was conducted between December 20, 2000, and March 2, 2001. A total of 146 participants with chronic low back pain were randomly assigned to the acupressure group (69) or the physical therapy group (77), each with a different treatment technique. Self-appraised pain scores were obtained before treatment as baseline and after treatment as outcomes using the Chinese version of Short-Form Pain Questionnaire (SF-PQ).
There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics among patients randomized into the two groups. The mean of posttreatment pain score after a 4-week treatment (2.28, SD = 2.62) in the acupressure group was significantly lower than that in the physical therapy group (5.05, SD = 5.11) (P = 0.0002). At the 6-month follow-up assessment, the mean of pain score in the acupressure group (1.08, SD = 1.43) was still significantly lower than that in the physical therapy group (3.15, SD = 3.62) (P = 0.0004).
Our results suggest that acupressure is another effective alternative medicine in reducing low back pain, although the standard operating procedures involved with acupressure treatment should be carefully assessed in the future.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of SP6 acupressure on labor pain and delivery time in women in labor.
Randomized clinical trial.
Delivery room in a university hospital.
Seventy-five (75) women in labor were randomly assigned to either the SP6 acupressure (n = 36) or SP6 touch control (n = 39) group. The participants were matched according to parity, cervical dilation, labor stage, rupture of amniotic membrane, and husband's presence during labor. There were no additional oxytocin augmentation or administration of analgesics during the study period.
The 30-minute acupressure or touch on SP6 acupoint was performed.
Labor pain was measured four times using a structured questionnaire, a subjective labor pain scale (visual-analogue scale [VAS]): before intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 30 and 60 minutes after the intervention. Length of delivery time was calculated in two stages: from 3 cm cervical dilation to full cervical dilatation, and full cervical dilatation to the delivery.
There were significant differences between the groups in subjective labor pain scores at all time points following the intervention: immediately after the intervention (p = 0.012); 30 minutes after the intervention (p = 0.021); and 60 minutes after the intervention (p = 0.012). The total labor time (3 cm dilatation to delivery) was significantly shorter in the SP6 acupressure intervention group than in the control group (p = 0.006).
These findings showed that SP6 acupressure was effective for decreasing labor pain and shortening the length of delivery time. SP6 acupressure can be an effective nursing management for women in labor.
Pre-operative anxiety is associated with many unwanted effects such as increased analgesic and anaesthetic requirement, postoperative pain and prolonged hospital stay. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acupressure on pre-operative anxiety and bispectral index (BIS) values. Seventy-six adults, ASA grade I and II, undergoing elective surgery, were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Group 1 (control) received acupressure at an inappropriate site and group 2 (acupressure) received acupressure at extra 1 point. The study was conducted during the pre-operative period and the duration of the study was 40 min (acupressure was applied for 10 min and thereafter patients were observed for another 30 min). Anxiety was recorded on a visual stress scale (VSS) at the start of the study and thereafter at 10 and 40 min. BIS was recorded at 0, 2, 5, 10, 12, 15, 30 and 40 min. The VSS decreased in both groups following pressure application for 10 min: median VSS (interquartile range) were 5 (1) vs. 8 (1) in the acupressure and 7 (0) vs. 8 (1) in the control groups (p < 0.001). Both pre-operative anxiety and BIS decreased significantly during acupressure application at extra 1 point (p < 0.001). Acupressure is effective in decreasing both pre-operative anxiety and BIS; however, these effects are not sustained 30 min following release of acupressure. Further studies are needed to elucidate the duration for which acupressure is effective.
To evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure in terms of disability, pain scores, and functional status.
Randomised controlled trial.
Orthopaedic clinic in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
129 patients with chronic low back pain.
Acupressure or physical therapy for one month.
Self administered Chinese versions of standard outcome measures for low back pain (primary outcome: Roland and Morris disability questionnaire) at baseline, after treatment, and at six month follow-up.
The mean total Roland and Morris disability questionnaire score after treatment was significantly lower in the acupressure group than in the physical therapy group regardless of the difference in absolute score (- 3.8, 95% confidence interval - 5.7 to - 1.9) or mean change from the baseline (- 4.64, - 6.39 to - 2.89). Acupressure conferred an 89% (95% confidence interval 61% to 97%) reduction in significant disability compared with physical therapy. The improvement in disability score in the acupressure group compared with the physical group remained at six month follow-up. Statistically significant differences also occurred between the two groups for all six domains of the core outcome, pain visual scale, and modified Oswestry disability questionnaire after treatment and at six month follow-up.
Acupressure was effective in reducing low back pain in terms of disability, pain scores, and functional status. The benefit was sustained for six months.
Complementary and alternative therapies may be adopted as nursing interventions to alleviate dysmenorrhea and improve productivity, creativity, work performance, and quality of life.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of San Yin Jiao (SP6) acupressure as a non-pharmacologic nursing intervention for dysmenorrhea and identify its effects on temperature changes in two related acupoints as an explanatory mechanism of chi circulation.
A non-equivalent control group pre and post-test design was employed to verify the effects of SP6 acupressure on skin temperature and dysmenorrhea.
Young college women with primary dysmenorrhea were recruited from classrooms at two universities in Korea and 58 eligible participants were allotted to either a SP6 acupressure group or placebo group that received light touch on the SP6 acupoint.
The experimental group received acupressure treatment within the first 8h of menstruation, and severity of dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in the Zhongwan (CV2) and Qugu (CV12) acupoints were assessed prior to and 30 min, 1, 2, and 3h following treatment.
There was a significant difference in severity of dysmenorrhea between the two groups immediately after (F=18.50, p=0.000) and for up to 2h (F=8.04, p=0.032) post treatment. Skin temperature was significantly elevated at 30 min after acupressure at the suprapubic CV2 acupoint in the experimental group compared to the control group. Temperature elevation was also noted at the epigastric CV12 acupoint post treatment but group differences were not significant, indicating that SP6 acupressure relieves dysmenorrhea primarily by temperature elevation in the CV2 pathway.
Acupressure to the SP6 meridian can be an effective non-invasive nursing intervention for alleviation of primary dysmenorrhea, with effects lasting 2h post treatment.
The objective of the study was to examine the effectiveness of auriculotherapy using magnetic pellets for the elderly suffering from low back pain (LBP). Sixty participants who were 60-years old or above and had been suffering from LBP were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to receive auriculotherapy on a 3-week basis using either Semen Vaccariae (control group=30) or magnetic pellets (experimental group=30). Seven auricular acupoints that are believed to have an effect on LBP were selected. Treatment effects were evaluated using the Chinese Pain Intensity Verbal Rating scale (VRS). The experimental group had indeed experienced a significant improvement in pain relief when compared with the control group; and the therapeutic effects were sustained at 2 and 4-week follow-up periods after the therapy. Findings of this study demonstrated that auriculotherapy using magnetic pellets significantly reduce the pain intensity level of the elderly suffering from non-specific LBP.
The onset of depression is often triggered by breathlessness in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is hypothesized that these are the psychologic consequences of chronic dyspnea. Lessening dyspnea might alleviate depressive symptoms. Acupressure has been shown in other studies to produce relaxation. The aim of this study was to determine if it would lessen dyspnea and reduce depression in patients with COPD.
Subjects diagnosed with COPD were chosen from one medical center and three regional hospitals in Taipei, Taiwan. A randomized, block experimental design was used, with subjects and the data collector blinded. Using age, gender, pulmonary function, smoking, and steroid use as matching factors, 44 subjects were randomly assigned to either the true acupressure or the sham acupressure groups. The true acupressure group received a program of acupressure using appropriate acupoints that promote relaxation and relieve dyspnea. The sham acupressure group received acupressure using sham acupoints different from the meridians and ganglionic sections of the true acupressure group. Both acupressure programs lasted 4 weeks, with five sessions per week that lasted 16 minutes per session.
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Dyspnea Visual Analogue Scale (DVAS) were administered prior to the program as a baseline, and again following the completion of the 4-week program. Oxygen saturation and other physiological indicators were measured before and after each session.
The results of this study showed that the GDS scores, DVAS scores, oxygen saturation, and physiological indicators of the true acupressure group were significantly improved, compared to those of the sham acupressure group.
These findings provide health professionals with an evidence-based intervention to use with persons with COPD. Applying this acupressure program in clinical practice, communities, and long-term care units may lessen chronic dyspnea and depression in persons with COPD.
Pain during transportation is a common phenomenon in emergency medicine. As acupressure has been deemed effective for pain management by the National Institutes of Health, we conducted a study to evaluate its effectiveness in prehospital patients with isolated distal radial fracture.
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. Acupressure was performed either at "true" points or at "sham" points. Vital signs and pain and anxiety scores were recorded before and after the acupressure treatment. Normally distributed values were compared using the Student t test.
Pretreatment scores for pain and anxiety were similar in the 2 groups (47.6 +/- 8.9 vs 51.2 +/- 8.7 visual analog scale [VAS] score for pain, 52.4 +/- 6.0 vs 47.5 +/- 9.3 VAS score for anxiety). At the hospital, patients in the true-points group had significantly lower pain (36.6 +/- 11.0 vs 56.0 +/- 13.3 VAS score, P < .001) and anxiety scores (34.9 +/- 22.2 vs 53.4 +/- 19.7 VAS score, P = .022).
Acupressure in the prehospital setting effectively reduces pain and anxiety in patients with distal radial trauma.
This paper sought to determine the efficacy of acupressure application in pregnant women suffering from nausea, with or without associated vomiting, who were unable to receive conventional medication for these symptoms. Sampling consisted of pregnant women complaining of nausea with or without vomiting. The study was controlled by the Maternity and Child Hospital in Istanbul between March 2004 and March 2005. The treatment group comprised 26 women; 25 in the control arm and 24 women were assigned to the placebo arm. The study occurred over a 9-day period. During this time, the treatment group applied acupressure bands to P(6) acupressure point on days 4-6 of the study with the placebo group receiving acupressure bands to a sham acupressure point, on the upper side of their wrists.
Results and conclusion:
Acupressure would appear to be effective in symptom control, and alleviation and placebo effects in reducing the symptoms of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
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Relaxation acupressure re-duces persistent cancer-related fatigue. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved No-vember 05
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