The cutting edge of serrated polyps: A practical guide to approaching and managing serrated colon polyps
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.Gastrointestinal endoscopy (Impact Factor: 5.37). 03/2013; 77(3):360-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.gie.2012.11.013
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ABSTRACT: To examine performances regarding prediction of polyp histology using high-definition (HD) i-scan in a group of endoscopists with varying levels of experience. We used a digital library of HD i-scan still images, comprising twin pictures (surface enhancement and tone enhancement), collected at our university hospital. We defined endoscopic features of adenomatous and non-adenomatous polyps, according to the following parameters: color, surface pattern and vascular pattern. We familiarized the participating endoscopists on optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps using a 20-min didactic training session. All endoscopists were asked to evaluate an image set of 50 colorectal polyps with regard to polyp histology. We classified the diagnoses into high confidence (i.e., cases in which the endoscopist could assign a diagnosis with certainty) and low confidence diagnoses (i.e., cases in which the endoscopist preferred to send the polyp for formal histology). Mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy per endoscopist/image were computed and differences between groups tested using independent-samples t tests. High vs low confidence diagnoses were compared using the paired-samples t test. Eleven endoscopists without previous experience on optical diagnosis evaluated a total of 550 images (396 adenomatous, 154 non-adenomatous). Mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing adenomas were 79.3%, 85.7% and 81.1%, respectively. No significant differences were found between gastroenterologists and trainees regarding performances of optical diagnosis (mean accuracy 78.0% vs 82.9%, P = 0.098). Diminutive lesions were predicted with a lower mean accuracy as compared to non-diminutive lesions (74.2% vs 93.1%, P = 0.008). A total of 446 (81.1%) diagnoses were made with high confidence. High confidence diagnoses corresponded to a significantly higher mean accuracy than low confidence diagnoses (84.0% vs 64.3%, P = 0.008). A total of 319 (58.0%) images were evaluated as having excellent quality. Considering excellent quality images in conjunction with high confidence diagnosis, overall accuracy increased to 92.8%. After a single training session, endoscopists with varying levels of experience can already provide optical diagnosis with an accuracy of 84.0%.
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ABSTRACT: Serrated polyps were once thought to have no clinical implications with regards to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Over the past several years, published data have enabled clinicians to develop a better understanding of these lesions. The serrated pathway associated with these lesions involves an epigenetic mechanism characterized by abnormal hypermethylation of CpG islands located in the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. It is often associated with BRAF mutations and may account for 15-35 % of all CRC. This pathway may also play a major role in proximal neoplasia and missed cancer. There are three distinct subtypes of serrated neoplasia; hyperplastic (70 % of all serrated polyps), sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) (25 %) and traditional serrated adenoma (<2 %). The last two forms are considered to be precursors for CRC. SSA/P are associated with synchronous CRC especially if the polyps are large (≥1 cm), multiple, or if they are in the proximal colon. Lesions containing serrated neoplasia are usually flat or sessile, may be large, and occasionally have a mucous cap. Serrated lesions provide many challenges for the clinician and may be difficult to detect and completely remove. Furthermore, pathologists may misclassify SSA/P as HP. For the first time, the Multi-Society Task Force guidelines for colorectal polyp surveillance have included the management of serrated lesions in their published recommendations. In addition, an expert panel has also recently issued recommendations regarding serrated neoplasia. In this article, we provide the reader with a summary as well as the latest developments regarding serrated colonic lesions.
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