Osteoporosis

ArticleinRevue médicale suisse 9(369):125-31 · January 2013with1 Read
Source: PubMed
Abstract

Bone events related to bariatric surgery remain controversial. Denosumab, used in osteoporosis treatment, is safe and efficient. Romosozumab, an antibody raised against sclerostin, is a promising bone anabolic agent. Odanacatib, a cathepsin-K inhibitor, decreases bone resorption and reduces osteoporotic fracture risk. Denosumab, as bone resorption inhibitor, and Teriparatide, as anabolic agent, have been tested together in patients with osteoporosis. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk are still debated. Drug holiday, after long-term treatment with bisphosphonates, is not associated with an increased fracture rate in patients with moderate risk.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective inhibitor of the collagenase cathepsin K that is highly expressed by osteoclasts. In this 2-year, phase 2, dose-ranging trial, postmenopausal women with bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores -2.0 to -3.5 at spine or hip were randomized to weekly placebo or ODN 3, 10, 25, or 50 mg plus vitamin D(3) and calcium. Prespecified trial-extensions continued through 5 years. In year 3, all women were re-randomized to ODN 50 mg or placebo. For years 4 and 5, women who received placebo or ODN 3 mg in years 1 and 2 and placebo in year 3 received ODN 50 mg; others continued year 3 treatments. Endpoints included lumbar spine (primary), hip, 1/3 radius, and total body BMD; markers of bone metabolism; and safety. Women in the year 4 to 5 extension receiving placebo (n = 41) or ODN 50 mg (n = 100) had similar baseline characteristics. For women who received ODN (10-50 mg) for 5 years, spine and hip BMD increased over time. With ODN 50 mg continually for 5 years (n = 13), mean lumbar spine BMD percent change from baseline (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 11.9% (7.2% to 16.5%) versus -0.4% (-3.1% to 2.3%) for women who were switched from ODN 50 mg to placebo after 2 years (n = 14). In pooled results of women receiving continuous ODN (10-50 mg, n = 26-29), year 5 geometric mean percent changes from baseline in bone resorption markers cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX)/creatinine and cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX) were approximately -55%, but near baseline for bone formation markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) and amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP). In women switched from ODN 10 to 50 mg to placebo after 2 years (n = 25), bone turnover markers were near baseline. In summary, women receiving combinations of ODN (10-50 mg) for 5 years had gains in spine and hip BMD and showed larger reductions in bone resorption than bone formation markers. Discontinuation of ODN resulted in reversal of treatment effects. Treatment with ODN for up to 5 years was generally well-tolerated. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis medications increase bone-mineral density (BMD) and lower but do not eliminate fracture risk. The combining of anabolic agents with bisphosphonates has not improved efficacy. We compared combined teriparatide and denosumab with both agents alone. METHODS: From September, 2009, to January, 2011, we enrolled postmenopausal women with osteoporosis into this randomised, controlled trial. Patients were assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 20 μg teriparatide daily, 60 mg denosumab every 6 months, or both. BMD was measured at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. Women who completed at least one study visit after baseline were assessed in a modified intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00926380. FINDINGS: 94 (94%) of 100 eligible women completed at least one study visit after baseline. At 12 months, posterior-anterior lumbar spine BMD increased more in the combination group (9·1%, [SD 3·9]) than in the teriparatide (6·2% [4·6], p=0·0139) or denosumab (5·5% [3·3], p=0·0005) groups. Femoral-neck BMD also increased more in the combination group (4·2% [3·0]) than in the teriparatide (0·8% [4·1], p=0·0007) and denosumab (2·1% [3·8], p=0·0238) groups, as did total-hip BMD (combination, 4·9% [2·9]; teriparatide, 0·7% [2·7], p<0·0001; denosumab 2·5% [2·6], p=0·0011). INTERPRETATION: Combined teriparatide and denosumab increased BMD more than either agent alone and more than has been reported with approved therapies. Combination treatment might, therefore, be useful to treat patients at high risk of fracture. FUNDING: Amgen, Eli Lilly, National Center for Research Resources.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · The Lancet
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selective cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) progressively increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased bone-resorption markers during 2 years of treatment in postmenopausal women with low BMD. A 1-year extension study further assessed ODN efficacy and safety and the effects of discontinuing therapy. In the base study, postmenopausal women with BMD T-scores between -2.0 and -3.5 at the lumbar spine or femur received placebo or ODN 3, 10, 25, or 50 mg weekly. After 2 years, patients (n = 189) were rerandomized to ODN 50 mg weekly or placebo for an additional year. Endpoints included BMD at the lumbar spine (primary), total hip, and hip subregions; levels of bone turnover markers; and safety assessments. Continued treatment with 50 mg of ODN for 3 years produced significant increases from baseline and from year 2 in BMD at the spine (7.9% and 2.3%) and total hip (5.8% and 2.4%). Urine cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx) remained suppressed at year 3 (-50.5%), but bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) was relatively unchanged from baseline. Treatment discontinuation resulted in bone loss at all sites, but BMD remained at or above baseline. After ODN discontinuation at month 24, bone turnover markers increased transiently above baseline, but this increase largely resolved by month 36. There were similar overall adverse-event rates in both treatment groups. It is concluded that 3 years of ODN treatment resulted in progressive increases in BMD and was generally well tolerated. Bone-resorption markers remained suppressed, whereas bone-formation markers returned to near baseline. ODN effects were reversible: bone resorption increased transiently and BMD decreased following treatment discontinuation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) could be modulated. Calcium supplements are still in the middle of a cardiovascular controversy. New immunological properties of vitamin D are reported. Denosumab is effective for the prevention of all fractures and can be used without renal limitation. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral fractures are more frequent in case of treatment with bisphosphonates. The teriparatide is effective in various bone diseases. Bazedoxifene, a new SERM is now available. A meta-analysis fails to demonstrate the effectiveness of vertebroplasty on pain relief in case of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Revue médicale suisse
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of bariatric surgery on skeletal health are poorly understood. We found that bariatric surgery patients are more prone to fracture when compared to the general population. While further studies of fracture risk in this population are needed, bone health should be discussed in bariatric surgery clinics. Bariatric surgery is an increasingly common treatment for medically complicated obesity. Adverse skeletal changes after bariatric surgery have been reported, but their clinical importance remains unknown. We hypothesized that bariatric surgery patients are at increased risk of fracture. We conducted a historical cohort study of fracture incidence among 258 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents who underwent a first bariatric surgery in 1985-2004. Relative fracture risk was expressed as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), while potential risk factors were evaluated by hazard ratios (HR) obtained from a time-to-fracture regression model. The mean (±SD) body mass index at bariatric surgery was 49.0 ± 8.4 kg/m(2), with an average age of 44 ± 10 years and 82 % (212) females. Gastric bypass surgery was performed in 94 % of cases. Median follow-up was 7.7 years (range, 6 days to 25 years), during which 79 subjects experienced 132 fractures. Relative risk for any fracture was increased 2.3-fold (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.8) and was elevated for a first fracture at the hip, spine, wrist, or humerus (SIR, 1.9; 95 % CI, 1.1-2.9), as well as for a first fracture at any other site (SIR, 2.5; 95 % CI, 2.0-3.2). Better preoperative activity status was associated with a lower age-adjusted risk (HR, 0.4; 95 % CI, 0.2-0.8) while prior fracture history was not associated with postoperative fracture risk. Bariatric surgery, which is accompanied by substantial biochemical, hormonal, and mechanical changes, is associated with an increased risk of fracture.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Osteoporosis International
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate fracture risk in patients receiving bariatric surgery versus matched controls. Population based, retrospective cohort study. Use of records from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, now known as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (from January 1987 to December 2010). Patients with a body mass index of at least 30, with a record of bariatric surgery (n=2079), and matched controls without a record (n=10,442). Each bariatric surgery patient was matched to up to six controls by age, sex, practice, year, and body mass index. Patients were followed from the date of bariatric surgery for the occurrence of any fracture. We used time dependent Cox regression to calculate relative rates of fracture, adjusted for disease and previous drug treatment, and time-interaction terms to evaluate fracture timing patterns. Relative rates of any, osteoporotic, and non-osteoporotic fractures. Mean follow-up time was 2.2 years. Overall, there was no significantly increased risk of fracture in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, compared with controls (8.8 v 8.2 per 1000 person years; adjusted relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.33). Bariatric surgery also did not affect risk of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic fractures. However, we saw a trend towards an increased fracture risk after three to five years following surgery, as well as in patients who had a greater decrease in body mass index after surgery, but this was not significant. Bariatric surgery does not have a significant effect on the risk of fracture. For the first few years after surgery, these results are reassuring for patients undergoing such operations, but do not exclude a more protracted adverse influence on skeletal health in the longer term.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · BMJ (online)
    0Comments 44Citations
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