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Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid as a dietary selenium supplement to improve the selenium concentration of table eggs

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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a new organic Se (2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid, HMSeBA) with routinely used mineral and organic Se sources (sodium selenite and selenized yeast) on chosen performance criteria and Se deposition in egg and muscle of laying hens. A total of 240 laying hens (40 wk of age) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments for 56 d with 8 replicates of 5 hens per replicate. The 6 treatments were as follows: control group received basal diet without Se supplementation; the second, fourth, and sixth experimental groups (SS-0.2, SY-0.2, and HMSeBA-0.2, respectively) were fed basal diet supplemented with Se at 0.2 mg/kg from sodium selenite, selenized yeast, and HMSeBA, respectively, and the third and fifth experimental groups (SY-0.1, and HMSeBA-0.1, respectively) were fed basal diet supplemented with Se at 0.1 mg/kg from selenized yeast and HMSeBA, respectively. No difference was observed among dietary treatments on feed intake, egg weight, and laying rate. All hens fed the Se-supplemented diets exhibited greater total Se contents in their eggs compared with control hens (P < 0.01). The egg Se concentrations were greater in hens fed organic Se (HMSeBA-0.2, P < 0.01, and SY-0.2, P < 0.01) than those fed the SS-0.2. In addition, hens fed the diet with HMSeBA-0.2 accumulated more Se in their eggs (+28.78%; P < 0.01) and muscles (+28%; P < 0.01) than those fed the diet supplemented with SY-0.2. These results showed the greater ability of HMSeBA to increase Se deposition in eggs and breast muscle of laying hens, which can subsequently lead to greater supply of Se for humans.
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1745
Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid as a dietary
selenium supplement to improve the selenium concentration of table eggs1
M. Jlali,* M. Briens,*† F. Rouf neau,* F. Mercerand,‡ P.-A. Geraert,* and Y. Mercier*2
*Adisseo France S.A.S., 10, Place du Général de Gaulle, 92160 Antony, France; †Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire,
15, Rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg, France; and ‡INRA, UR83, Recherches Avicoles, F-37380 Nouzilly, France
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare
the effects of a new organic Se [2-hydroxy-4-
methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA)] with routinely
used mineral and organic Se sources (sodium selenite
and selenized yeast) on chosen performance criteria and
Se deposition in egg and muscle of laying hens. A total of
240 laying hens (40 wk of age) were randomly assigned
to 6 treatments for 56 d with 8 replicates of 5 hens per
replicate. The 6 treatments were as follows: control
group received basal diet without Se supplementation;
the second, fourth, and sixth experimental groups (SS-
0.2, SY-0.2, and HMSeBA-0.2, respectively) were
fed basal diet supplemented with Se at 0.2 mg/kg
from sodium selenite, selenized yeast, and HMSeBA,
respectively; and the third and fth experimental
groups (SY-0.1, and HMSeBA-0.1, respectively) were
fed basal diet supplemented with Se at 0.1 mg/kg
from selenized yeast and HMSeBA, respectively. No
difference was observed among dietary treatments on
feed intake, egg weight, and laying rate. All hens fed
the Se-supplemented diets exhibited greater total Se
contents in their eggs compared with control hens (P <
0.01). The egg Se concentrations were greater in hens
fed organic Se (HMSeBA-0.2, P < 0.01, and SY-0.2,
P < 0.01) than those fed the SS-0.2. In addition, hens
fed the diet with HMSeBA-0.2 accumulated more Se
in their eggs (+28.78%; P < 0.01) and muscles (+28%;
P < 0.01) than those fed the diet supplemented with
SY-0.2. These results showed the greater ability of
HMSeBA to increase Se deposition in eggs and breast
muscle of laying hens, which can subsequently lead to
greater supply of Se for humans.
Key words: egg, laying hens, muscle selenium deposition, 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid
© 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. J. Anim. Sci. 2013.91:1745–1752
doi:10.2527/jas2012-5825
INTRODUCTION
Selenium has been recognized as a nutritional
essential trace element that is important in many
biological processes in mammals and birds (Holben
and Smith, 1999; Surai, 2000). It has a crucial role
in embryonic and postnatal development (Surai,
2000; Fortier et al., 2012), immunity, reproduction,
antioxidant system (Choct et al., 2004; Juniper et al.,
2011), and muscle function (Ruan et al., 2012; Zhang
et al., 2012) and is known as a natural antioxidant
(Surai, 2002). In poultry as well as in other animal
species, Se can be added to diets through its mineral or
organic forms, which represent the crucial factor that
determines its metabolic fate (Suzuki, 2005).
Sodium selenite (SS) constitutes the traditional
source of supplemental Se in animal diets (Surai,
2006). Organic Se sources have been developed
through selenized yeast (SY) with Se in the form of
selenomethionine (Surai, 2006). Regardless of Se
source, the maximum amount of supplemental Se that
can be added to animal diets is limited to 0.3 mg/kg of
diet in the United States (FDA, 2004) whereas in the
European Union, the maximum content of total Se
allowed in animal diets is 0.5 mg/kg of diet (EFSA,
2012). Therefore, faced with the ability to add limited
quantities of Se added to animal diets, several researchers
have started to look for other alternative sources of Se
to substitute for the inorganic Se because of its low
1
The present study was supported by ADISSEO France S.A.S
(Antony, France). The authors thank the staff of the poultry breeding
facilities (INRA, UE 1295 Pôle d’Expérimentation Avicole de Tours,
Nouzilly, France) for their valuable technical assistance.
2Corresponding author: yves.mercier@adisseo.com.
Received September 6, 2012.
Accepted January 17, 2013.
Published December 2, 2014
Jlali et al.
1746
bioavailability (Payne and Southern, 2005; Petrovič et al.,
2006) and high toxicity (Spallholz, 1994; Kim and Mahan,
2001). Recently, several studies have been performed to
evaluate the effects of SY supplementation on livestock
species and poultry (Mateo et al., 2007; Čobanová et al.,
2011; Speight et al., 2012). Most of these studies have
reported that this organic Se source was a more ef cient
Se supplier than a mineral source such as sodium selenite.
Recently, a new organic Se source based on the 2-hydroxy-
4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA), which can be
assimilated to hydroxyl-analog of selenomethionine, has
been developed and its high dietary ef cacy has been
demonstrated in broiler chickens (Briens et al., 2013).
In the present study, we examined the relative
bioavailability of HMSeBA compared with other Se
sources used in animal nutrition, selenized yeast and
sodium selenite, as measured by the Se concentration
of eggs. Moreover, the effects of various Se sources and
doses on chosen performance criteria and egg indices
were also determined in laying hens.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All experiments were conducted according to
the European Union Guidelines of Animal Care
and legislation governing the ethical treatment of
animals, and investigators were certi ed by the
French government to conduct animal experiments.
The authorization 37-175-1 was issued to Pôle
d’Expérimentation Avicole de Tours (Nouzilly, France)
by the French Ministry of Agriculture.
Birds and Experimental Design
A total of 240 laying hens (40 wk, ISA Brown;
Hubbard, Ploufragan, France) were used in this
experiment. Layers were randomly allocated to 1 of 6
treatments with 8 replicate cages with 5 birds per cage
(660 cm2/bird) equipped with a feed trough and nipple
drinkers. All birds were housed in a conventional poultry
house (INRA, UE1295 Pôle d’Expérimentation Avicole
de Tours, Nouzilly, France) for a period of 56 d. Six
treatments were as follows: control group received basal
diet without Se supplementation; the rst, third, and fth
experimental group (SS-0.2, SY-0.2, and HMSeBA-0.2,
respectively) were fed basal diet supplemented with
0.2 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of SS (Microgan
Se 1% BPM; DSM Nutritional Product AG, Basel,
Switzerland), SY (Sel-Plex2000; Alltech, Nicholasville,
KY), and HMSeBA (Selisseo; Adisseo, Antony, France),
respectively; and the second and fourth experimental
groups (SY-0.1 and HMSeBA-0.1, respectively) were
fed basal diet supplemented with 0.1 mg Se/kg of diet
(Table 1). All hens were given ad libitum access to
water and feed. The temperature was maintained at 22°C
and lighting program was xed to 16 h light/8 h dark
throughout the experimental period.
Laying Hen Performance Criteria
and Egg Indices Determination
Egg production was recorded daily for each pen
whereas egg weight was determined 3 times a week.
Average feed intake, laying rate, and feed ef ciency
(FE) were monitored weekly during the whole
experimental period. At the beginning and on d 2, 4, 6,
8, 14, 28, 54, 55, and 56, 48 eggs (8 eggs per treatment
and 1 egg per each replicate cage) were randomly
collected each day to evaluate the eggshell breaking
strength by using an Instron (Model 5543; Instron,
Table 1. Composition of basal diet fed to laying hens for
56 d (as-feed basis)
Item Basal diet
Ingredient, %
Corn 64.50
Soybean meal, 48% CP 23.10
Calcium carbonate 8.54
Dicalcium phosphate 1.64
Soybean oil 1.30
NaCl 0.38
DL-Met, 99% 0.12
L-Lys HCl, 78% 0.02
Vitamin–mineral premix,1 % 0.40
Calculated content
ME, MJ/kg 11.39
CP, % 16.0
Crude fat, % 4.0
Lys, % 0.83
Met, % 0.39
Total S-AA, % 0.66
Thr, % 0.61
Trp, % 0.18
Arg, % 1.04
Ca, % 3.75
K, % 0.69
Total P, % 0.61
Cl, % 0.27
Phytate P, % 0.21
Na, % 0.16
Determined content
ME, MJ/kg 11.39
CP, % 16.0
Crude fat, % 4.5
Ash, % 11.3
1Supplied per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 12,000 IU; vitamin D3,
2,000 IU; vitamin E, 30 IU; menadione, 2.5 mg; thiamine, 2 mg; ribo avin,
6 mg; pantothenic acid, 15 mg; vitamin B6, 3 mg; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg;
nicotinic acid, 30 mg; folic acid, 1 mg; biotin, 0.1 mg; Fe as ferrous iron,
80 mg; Cu as copper sulfate, 8 mg; Mn as manganese oxide, 60 mg; Zn as zinc
oxide, 40.4 mg; I as potassium iodide, 0.8 mg; and Co as cobalt oxide, 0.4 mg.
Organic selenium and selenium deposition 1747
Elancourt, France) tted with a 50 N load capture at
compression speed of 5 mm/min. Additionally, 16 eggs
obtained from SY-0.2 and HMSeBA-0.2 treatments
were randomly collected at the beginning of the d 8
and 14 of the experimental period for total Se analysis.
Forty-eight eggs (8 eggs per treatment and 1 egg per
each replicate cage) were randomly collected on d 54,
55, and 56 for total Se analysis. Moreover, at the end
of the experimental period, 8 hens from SY-0.2 and
HMSeBA-0.2 treatment were chosen at random (1 hen
per each replicate cage) and slaughtered after 7 h of
feed withdrawal. About 100 g of left pectoralis major
muscle was removed, immediately frozen in liquid N,
and stored at –20°C until analyzed.
Diet, Egg, and Muscle Se Analysis
Total Se concentrations in feed, egg, and muscle
samples were determined according to the method
previously described by Vacchina et al. (2010) with slight
modi cations. Brie y, approximately 1 g of feed sample
was mineralized in a mixture (2:1,vol/vol) of HNO3 (69
to 70%) and H2O2 (35%) at 85°C for 4 h within a closed
vessel heating block system (DigiPrep; SCP Science,
Courtaboeuf, France). For egg and muscle samples
(previously lyophilized and mixed before analysis), the
mass uptake was reduced to 250 mg and then digested
by a mixture (2:1, vol/vol) of HNO3 (69 to 70%) and
H2O2 (35%). The solution was further diluted with
water and total Se content was subsequently measured
by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
(Agilent 7500cx; Agilent, Tokyo, Japan). All values
were calculated on a DM basis.
Calculation of Se Transfer Ef ciency
and its Bioavailability in Egg
Feed intake, egg weight, and egg Se concentrations
were used to determine the Se egg output as well as
the Se transfer ef ciency for SY-0.2 and HMSeBA-0.2
treatments by using these equations:
1) Se egg output (μg) = egg Se concentration × DM
egg content weight, assuming that the DM egg
content is 24% of total egg weight, and
2) Se transfer ef ciency (%) = (Se egg output/Se
feed intake) × 100.
The bioavailability of Se from HMSeBA relative
to SY was calculated according to Finney (1971) by
using 5 point slope ratio design: Control, SY-0.1, SY-
0.2, HMSeBA-0.1, and HMSeBA-0.2. As suggested by
Littell et al. (1997) a nonlinear model was tted to the
data using the NLIN procedure (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary,
NC). The model was as follows:
Egg Se concentration = a + a0 × X0 + bS ×
(bTS × HMSeBA dose + SY dose),
in which egg Se concentration is the content of Se in
egg (in mg/kg of dry product), a is the intercept, a0 ×
X0 is a correction for the Control diet, HMSeBA dose
and SY dose are the Se amounts added to hen diets from
HMSeBA and SY, respectively, bS is the slope for the
effect of SY on the response, and bTS is the ratio between
bT (the slope for the effect of HMSeBA) and bS. This
allows an estimate of the relative biological value (i.e.,
the ratio between slopes bS and bT) and its con dence
interval (CI) to be obtained directly.
Statistical Analysis
All data were analyzed using SAS. The accepted
type I error was 5%. The effects of treatment, period,
and their possible interactions were analyzed in relation
to feed intake, egg weight, egg mass, laying rate, FE,
and eggshell strength using repeated-measures 2-way
ANOVA (GLIMMIX procedure). The period was added
to the model as a repeated factor with the cage as the
subject. For Se variables, the treatment effect, which is
a combination of Se sources and levels, were analyzed
using GLM procedure. Comparisons of means for each
signi cant effect were performed by Tukey’s test using
the least square mean statement. Data are presented as
means ± SEM or SD.
RESULTS
The Se content in each diet is summarized in Table 2.
The results showed that the expected Se levels were
con rmed in control and experimental diets by Se analysis.
Laying Hen Performance Parameters and Egg Indices
The main effects of treatment (Se source and level)
on performance criteria are summarized in Table 3. Feed
intake, egg weight, egg mass, and laying rate were not
affected by dietary treatments. These criteria evaluating
the laying hen performance were not in uenced
neither by the Se sources (inorganic vs. organic form)
or within the organic source (SY vs. HMSeBA) nor by
the Se supplementation levels (0.1 vs. 0.2 mg Se/kg).
Conversely and regardless of the dietary treatments, the
experimental period affected all performance criteria
studied especially egg mass and FE (P < 0.01) and
laying rate (P < 0.01). An interaction between dietary
Jlali et al.
1748
treatment and experimental period (P = 0.01) was
observed for FE because of statistically signi cant effect
of dietary treatments (P < 0.01) during the rst week of
the experimental period. Indeed, both treatments with
the organic Se sources at 0.1 mg/kg of diet showed an
improvement of the FE compared with SS treatment at
0.2 mg/kg of diet. The other treatments had intermediate
FE but the HMSeBA-0.2 group tended to be lower (P =
0.08) than those hens supplemented with SS at the same
level of Se. No treatment effects (source and dose of Se)
were observed on the eggshell breaking strength (P =
0.10). In contrast, this measurement used to evaluate
shell quality was affected by the sample day (P < 0.01).
Moreover, the polynomial contrast analysis revealed that
period exert a linear effect on the feed intake, egg mass,
laying rate, FE, and eggshell breaking strength (P < 0.05).
Selenium Concentrations in Eggs and Muscles
No interaction was detected on the average total
Se content between dietary treatments and sampling
day during the last 3 d of experiment (Fig. 1). Total
Se concentrations measured in eggs from the hens
supplemented with Se were greater than those without
supplementation (P < 0.01). At the level of 0.2 mg Se/kg
of diet, Se was more ef ciently deposited in eggs from
hens supplemented with SY (P < 0.05) and HMSeBA
(P < 0.01) compared with those supplemented with SS.
Comparing only organic Se treatments, hens fed the
HMSeBA-0.2 diet exhibited greater (P < 0.01) egg Se
concentrations compared with those fed the SY-0.2 diet.
Selenium content was greater (P < 0.05) in eggs
from hens supplemented with HMSeBA than in those
from hens provided the equivalent amount of SY for all
days studied (Fig. 2A). The results of the kinetic study
showed that HMSeBA at the dose of 0.2 mg Se/kg of
diet have ability to increase the Se content of eggs more
effectively (P < 0.05) compared with the equivalent
amount of SY. In contrast, the use of SY had no effect
on the Se deposition in eggs as compared with basal
level of Se (Fig. 2A). The Se transfer ef ciency values
determined in relation to Se egg output and daily Se
intake showed that the Se transfer ef ciency was greater
(P < 0.01; Fig. 2B) in birds supplemented with Se as
HMSeBA at 0.2 mg/kg of diet (76.26%) than those
provided the same amount of SY (56%). Moreover,
breast muscle concentration of Se was greater (P < 0.01)
in hens fed HMSeBA-0.2 than those fed SY-0.2 (Fig. 3).
Bioavailability of Se in the Organic Se Sources
The results of estimating the bioavailability of Se
from HMSeBA and SY sources to improve the egg
Se concentration after 56 d of supplementation are
presented in Fig. 4. The slope ratio model indicated
that bioavailability of HMSeBA was 28.78% (95% CI:
116.99; 140.57%) more ef cient (P < 0.01) than SY.
DISCUSSION
Our results showed that, regardless of the Se source
or level or both, hen performance criteria were not
affected during the whole experimental period despite
Table 2. Selenium sources and levels supplemented in diets
Treatment1Se source Supplemental Se,
mg/kg
Total Se,2
mg/kg
Control Basal diet 0.069 ± 0.001
SS-0.2 Basal diet +
sodium selenite
0.2 0.18 ± 0.00
SY-0.1 Basal diet +
Se-enriched yeast
0.1 0.13 ± 0.01
SY-0.2 Basal diet +
Se-enriched yeast
0.2 0.23 ± 0.01
HMSeBA-0.1 Basal diet + 2-hydroxy-
4-methylselenobutanoic
acid
0.1 0.13 ± 0.00
HMSeBA-0.2 Basal diet + 2-hydroxy-
4-methylselenobutanoic
acid
0.2 0.21 ± 0.00
1SS-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite;
SY-0.1 = basal diet supplemented with 0.1 mg Se/kg from selenized yeast;
SY-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from selenized yeast;
HMSeBA-0.1 = basal diet supplemented with 0.1 mg Se/kg from 2-hydroxy-
4-methylselenobutanoic acid; HMSeBA-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with
0.2 mg Se/kg from 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid.
2Values are means of 2 replicates.
Table 3. Effects of Se sources and levels and feeding period on performance traits and egg indices in laying hens1
Item
Treatment
SEM P-value
Control SS-0.2 SY-0.1 SY-0.2 HMSeBA-0.1 HMSeBA-0.2
Feed intake, g/d 113.0 117.0 115.4 112.4 111.6 115.4 2.1 0.42
Egg weight, g 66.2 65.7 65.4 65.5 65.1 66.6 0.6 0.47
Egg mass, g/d 61.0 62.3 63.1 60.2 60.2 61.9 1.3 0.53
Laying rate, % 92.2 94.7 96.6 92.8 92.9 92.9 1.6 0.54
Feed ef ciency, g/g 0.54 0.53 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.01 0.93
Eggshell strength, N 38.0 36.3 35.9 35.4 34.9 35.1 0.8 0.10
1Control = basal diet; SS-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite; SY-0.1 = basal diet supplemented with 0.1 mg Se/kg from
selenized yeast; SY-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from selenized yeast; HMSeBA-0.1 = basal diet supplemented with 0.1 mg Se/kg from
2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid; HMSeBA-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid.
Organic selenium and selenium deposition 1749
the treatment effect observed on FE during the rst
week of the experiment. This nding is consistent with
those of numerous other studies previously conducted
in laying hens (Bennett and Cheng, 2010; Scheideler et
al., 2010; Pan et al., 2011). Likewise, Payne et al. (2005)
have reported that the hen production was not affected by
Se provided by inorganic or organic sources at various
levels (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 3.0 mg/kg) of dietary Se.
Similarly, several studies performed on broilers and pigs
have shown that dietary Se supply had no effect on the
main performance criteria such as BW, ADG, and ADFI
(Payne and Southern, 2005; Li et al., 2011). Conversely,
Arpášová et al. (2009) showed egg weight improvement
with addition of Se at 0.4 and 0.9 mg/kg of diet as
SY compared with control group or SS supplemented
group during a 9-mo study. Considering those, it could
be speculated that the Se supplementation levels and
the relative short duration of the present study was not
suf cient to demonstrate the effects of dietary treatments
on laying hen performance.
Regardless of the Se sources, the inclusion of this
trace element into the diets did not adversely impact
the eggshell breaking strength. Similarly, Pavlović et
al. (2010) did not nd any effect of Se supplementation,
either organic or mineral form, on egg shell quality
traits, including breaking strength, index of shape, shell
deformation, and thickness. Nevertheless, Arpášová et
al. (2009) reported that dietary supplementation of SS
or SY can lead to negative effects on some shell quality
traits. Therefore, it is likely that low levels of Se used in
this study (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg), compared with those used
in the Arpášová et al. (2009) study (0.4 or 0.9 mg/kg),
have no effect on the use of macrominerals for shell
formation, particularly Ca, well known as a crucial
mineral determinant of eggshell strength (Guinotte and
Nys, 1991). It seems that our supplemented Se doses
were not able to reveal the presumed effects on studied
egg indices. Mohiti-Asli et al. (2008) have demonstrated
that supplementation of diets of hens with Se can improve
the internal egg quality such as yolk and albumen weight
and quality and also decrease the susceptibility of egg
yolk to lipid peroxidation during storage but without any
effect on shell resistance.
The supplementation of the diet with Se led to an
increase of Se concentrations in whole egg in all Se-
treatment groups compared with the control group.
Indeed, the increase of Se in egg content through
dietary supplemental Se appeared to be very consistent
Figure 1. Effects of different Se sources and levels on egg Se
concentrations (mg/kg dry product) in laying hens during last 3 d of the
experimental period. Arpášová = basal diet, SS-0.2 = basal diet supplemented
with 0.2 mg Se/kg from sodium selenite, SY-0.1 = basal diet supplemented
with 0.1 mg Se/kg from selenized yeast, SY-0.2 = basal diet supplemented
with 0.2 mg Se/kg from selenized yeast, HMSeBA-0.1 = basal diet
supplemented with 0.1 mg Se/kg from 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic
acid, and HMSeBA-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from
2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid. Data are expressed as means ±
SD (n = 8 eggs per treatment/d). adMeans with different superscripts are
different (P < 0.05).
Figure 2. Variation of egg Se concentrations (A) and Se transfer
ef ciency (B) in laying hens fed diets supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg of diet
for 56 d. SY-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from selenized
yeast and HMSeBA-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from
2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid. Data are expressed as means ± SD
(n = 4 eggs per treatment at the beginning, 8th, and 14th day and n = 8 eggs
per treatment at the 56th day of the experiment). Means within the same day:
*P < 0.05 and ***P < 0.001.
Jlali et al.
1750
and was reported previously by several authors (Jiakui
and Xiaolong, 2004; Payne et al., 2005; Utterback et
al., 2005; Kralik et al., 2009; Scheideler et al., 2010;
Čobanová et al., 2011). Similarly to our results, some
studies showed that eggs from hens supplemented with
organic Se exhibited greater Se content than those from
hens treated with inorganic forms (Payne et al., 2005;
Utterback et al., 2005; Kralik et al., 2009; Bennett and
Cheng, 2010). Our results con rmed the greater ability
of organic Se sources (SY and HMSeBA) to increase egg
Se content than SS at the same dietary dosage. This result
is probably due to differences in metabolic pathways
between inorganic and organic Se forms (Suzuki,
2005). Inorganic forms of Se can lead to production
of selenocysteine, which is incorporated speci cally
into selenoproteins, and not to de novo synthesis of
selenomethionine whereas both organic Se source used
in our study can leads to production of selenomethionine
as well as selenocysteine (Briens et al., 2013). The cell
can nonspeci cally incorporate selenomethionine into
the structural proteins when synthesized (Schrauzer,
2001, 2003; Navarro-Alarcon and Cabrera-Vique,
2008) and thus increase the Se deposit in all tissues
(Surai, 2002). Moreover, the absorption mode of both
Se forms appeared different, leading to lower apparent
Figure 3. Variation of breast muscle Se concentrations (mg/kg dry
product) in laying hens fed diets supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg of diet for
56 d. SY-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from selenized
yeast and HMSeBA-0.2 = basal diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se/kg from
2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid. Data are expressed as means ± SD
(n = 8 hens per treatment). ***P < 0.001.
Figure 4. Egg Se concentrations in hens receiving diets supplemented with different doses of selenized yeast (SY) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic
acid (HMSeBA). The Se raw data used were obtained from the eggs on d54, 55 and 56 of the experimental period.
Organic selenium and selenium deposition 1751
digestibility of inorganic sources than organic sources
as reported in our previous study with broilers (Briens
et al., 2013) and reported by other authors (Choct et al.,
2004; Yoon et al., 2007).
It is well documented that the amount of Se in eggs
depends on source and level of Se added (Latshaw and
Biggert, 1981; Payne et al., 2005; Surai, 2006; Bennett
and Cheng, 2010). Similarly, in our study, the dietary
organic Se forms (SY and HMSeBA) supplemented at
0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg of diet increased egg Se deposition.
This result is in agreement with those previously reported
in other studies only for SY (Čobanová et al., 2011). We
also demonstrated that the addition of 0.1 mg Se/kg of
diet as SY or HMSeBA led to similar amounts of Se
deposed into the eggs to those induced by SS at 0.2 mg
of Se/kg of diet. This result is consistent with ndings
showing that organic forms of Se are more ef cient
to improve the egg Se content than its inorganic form
(Paton et al., 2002; Payne et al., 2005; Pan et al., 2007;
Čobanová et al., 2011).
Moreover, our results showed that the eggs
from hens fed HMSeBA-0.2 exhibited greater Se
concentrations than those fed SY-0.2, indicating a
better ef ciency of HMSeBA to deposit Se into egg
than SY. In addition, bioavailability of HMSeBA was
found to be 28.78% greater than SY. Interestingly, the
better bioavailability of HMSeBA compared with SY
appeared as early as the eighth day of supplementation.
After the rst week of experiment, the supplementation
of HMSeBA at 0.2 mg Se/kg of diet was suf cient
to demonstrate 18% greater egg Se deposition as
compared with SY at same level of addition.
The total Se deposited in breast muscle also
con rmed the greater availability of Se from HMSeBA
than SY. Indeed, when comparing the organic Se
sources (HMSeBA vs. SY), the muscles of hens fed
HMSeBA-0.2 showed 28.05% more Se deposited
than those fed SY-0.2 treatment. Similarly, Pan et al.
(2007) reported that SY led to greater egg and tissue
(e.g., spleen and muscle) Se concentration than SS in a
dose dependent manner. Similarly, Briens et al. (2013)
observed 39% greater relative bioavailability of Se from
HMSeBA for muscle Se deposition in broilers than those
from SY. Hence, it could be assumed that the relative
bioavailability of both organic Se sources is not different
between broilers and layers although a whole Se balance
study will be needed to con rm that hypothesis. The
99% pure molecule of HMSeBA appeared as a probable
precursor of selenomethionine (Vacchina et al., 2010),
leading to a more ef cient incorporation into proteins
in egg and muscle, whereas SY contains only 54 or 74%
of total Se as selenomethionine (Rayman, 2004) with
upper limits because of the Se enrichment process of
yeast (Schrauzer, 2006). It seems that the chemical form
of Se in these different organic sources can strongly
determine the amount of Se uptake and its deposition
in egg and muscle of laying hens. Cantor et al. (1975)
have suggested that biological availability of dietary Se
seems to depend primarily on its chemical nature rather
than on its digestion or absorption characteristics in the
intestine. However, some complementary studies are
needed to delineate the complete metabolic pathway
of HMSeBA molecule and how it is incorporated into
several proteins in egg and muscle.
In conclusion, our study showed the greater ability
of HMSeBA to increase the Se concentration in egg and
breast muscle of laying hens than SY and SS given at
the equivalent doses. However, some additional studies
are needed to elucidate the absorption and metabolic
characteristics of this new Se source to validate the
hypothesized pathways contributing to the greater
ef cacy of HMSeBA to deposit Se in egg and tissues.
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... When the efficiency of dietary forms of Se is considered, in terms of transfer of Se to body tissues, OH-SeMet, a pure chemically synthesised organic form of Se, has been proven to be significantly more efficient in transferring Se from the diet to the eggs than both SS or Se-yeast, and in enhancing poultry performances, particularly during critical periods of the production cycle (Jlali et al. 2013;Brito et al. 2019). ...
... Since OH-SeMet is much more efficiently transferred to the egg than SS (Jlali et al. 2013;Brito et al. 2019), it has been hypothesised that the replacement of sodium selenite, supplemented at a commercial level of 0.3 mg Se/kg by OH-SeMet supplemented at the maximum dose allowed by the EU, that is, of 0.2 mg Se/kg in a broiler breeder diet and progeny diet could maintain and potentially improve their Se status and performance. ...
... In the present study, OH-SeMet supplementation in the breeder diet increased the Se concentration in the egg albumen and the whole egg. Greater efficacy of Se transfer and accumulation has been observed in table eggs after dietary supplementation with OH-SeMet than for SS and selenized yeast supplementation (Jlali et al. 2013). The Se concentration in an egg depends on its dietary provision and the form of Se supplementation in the diet (Surai and Fisinin 2014). ...
Article
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The aim of this study has been to compare the effect of sodium selenite (SS) or hydroxy-selenometionine (OH-SeMet) on the performance of broiler breeders and their progeny. A total of 216 broiler breeders (AP95 Aviagen; 55-65 weeks old) were assigned to two treatments: a diet supplemented with 0.3 mg Se Se/kg as SS or a diet supplemented with 0.2 mg Se Se/kg as OH-SeMet. A total of 520 mixed progeny chicks were used for a growth trial (41 d), in a completely randomised 2 × 2 factoria design: 2 sources of Se for the breeder diets and two sources of Se for the progeny diets – SS at 0.3 mg Se Se/kg and OH-SeMet at 0.2 mg Se Se/kg. OH-SeMet increased the egg production, the Se content in the egg, eggshell strength and hatchability (p < .05), compared to SS. The high Se deposition in the hatching eggs benefitted the progeny, as reflected by the better feed conversion ratio (p < .05). No significant changes were observed in the feed intake or weight gain, or the interactions between the maternal diets and progeny diets. Overall, supplementation with OH-SeMet at 0.2 mg Se Se/kg has proved to be an effective approach to help maintain the productive and reproductive performances of ageing breeder flocks and to enhance the performance of their progeny. • Highlights • Replacement of dietary sodium selenite with hydroxy-selenomethionine in the broiler breeder diet increased Se accumulation in the eggs and improved egg production, the Se content in the eggs, eggshell strength and hatchability. • The increased Se deposition in the hatching eggs benefitted the progeny, as reflected by the better feed conversion ratio. • Supplementation with OH-SeMet at 0.2 mg Se/kg proved to be an effective approach to help maintain the productive and reproductive performances of ageing breeder flocks and to enhance the performance of their progeny.
... Increased tissue reserves of Se can enhance the resistance of livestock to stress and diseases, and therefore represent a key strategy to help fight commercially relevant forms of stress, such as heat stress and aging. Studies have shown that OH-SeMet increases the tissue deposition of Se in farm animals more than SS and SY Jlali et al., 2013;Zhao et al., 2017;Marco et al., 2021). Moreover, it has been shown that this higher storage capacity is translated into a higher gene expression and activity of several selenoproteins that play pivotal roles in antioxidant defense (Zhao et al., 2017;Sun et al., 2021). ...
... It has been extensively reported in the literature a higher Se content in eggs when organic Se (containing SeMet) is fed (Pan et al., 2007;Invernizzi et al., 2013;Lu et al., 2020). A higher Se transfer to eggs was observed when OH-SeMet was compared to SS (Zorzetto et al., 2021), and also when compared to SY (Jlali et al. 2013). This generates a greater antioxidant capacity for the bird − as previously pointed out − and for the eggs themselves, thus ensuring not only higher quality eggs for longer storage periods − justified by the increased presence of selenoprotein MsrB1 (Tarrago et al. 2022) which promotes lower oxidation of egg protein − but also Se-rich eggs. ...
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Oxidative stress significantly compromises the production efficiency of laying hens. It has been reported in literature that selenium (Se) in poultry diets has a positive effect on mitigating these effects. This study has been carried out to evaluate the effects of Se supplementation in feeds, from either an inorganic or a hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet) source, on the performance and physiological traits of 50- to 70-week-old Dekalb Brown laying hens under heat stress, and on their egg quality after different storage durations. The treatments consisted in supplementing 0.3 ppm of Se as sodium selenite (SS; 45% - 0.7g/ton) or OH-SeMet (2% - 15g/ton) in twelve 16-bird replicates. Supplementation with OH-SeMet resulted in a better performance of the laying hens than with SS: -5% feed conversion ratio and +3.6% of egg mass. A reduction in egg quality was observed with prolonged egg storage, which was mitigated with the use of OH-SeMet in laying hen diets. The use of OH-SeMet increased the antioxidant capacity of the birds, which showed higher glutathione peroxidase levels in the blood, kidneys, liver, and intestinal mucosa, in addition to a higher Se content in the eggs and a greater bone resistance. Thus, supplementing feeds with 0.3 ppm of OH-SeMet to 50- to 70-week-old semi-heavy laying hens enhances their antioxidant capacity and leads to a higher egg quality and productivity than SS supplementation.
... The results of the present study also highlight differences in Se deposition in the muscle between SY and OH-SeMet, with OH-SeMet showing the highest values. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first direct comparison between SY and OH-SeMet in beef cattle and confirm the higher bio-efficacy of OH-SeMet previously reported for broiler chickens [27], laying hens [18], pigs [28], and dairy cattle [20]. These findings can be explained by considering the different concentrations of SeMet/OH-SeMet of the two different tested organic Se sources, which were about 63% in the SY and >98% ...
... The results of the present study also highlight differences in Se deposition in the muscle between SY and OH-SeMet, with OH-SeMet showing the highest values. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first direct comparison between SY and OH-SeMet in beef cattle and confirm the higher bio-efficacy of OH-SeMet previously reported for broiler chickens [27], laying hens [18], pigs [28], and dairy cattle [20]. These findings can be explained by considering the different concentrations of SeMet/OH-SeMet of the two different tested organic Se sources, which were about 63% in the SY and >98% in the OH-SeMet. ...
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The aim of the study was to compare the effects of sodium selenite (SS), selenium yeast (SY), and hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet) on the meat quality and selenium (Se) deposition of fin-ishing beef cattle. Sixty-three bulls were distributed over 3 treatments and fed SS, SY, or OH-SeMet at 0.2 mg kg–1 dry matter (DM) for 60 d. None of the Se sources affected the growth performance or carcass characteristics. OH-SeMet showed a higher Se transfer to the meat than SS or SY (p < 01). SY and OH-SeMet reduced the shear force of the meat (p < 0001), improved pH (p < 001), and reduced the drip losses (p < 0.001) and the lipid oxidation of the meat (p < 0.001). During 8 d of storage, OH-SeMet showed higher levels of meat lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) than SS (p < 0.001), while the SY meat showed a higher L* than SS, albeit only on d 6. OH-SeMet improved b*, compared to SS, and also compared to SY on days 4, 7, and 8 (p < 0.001). Supplementing beef with SY and OH-SeMet improved several meat quality parameters. OH-SeMet appears to be the most effective strategy to improve the Se content and color stability of beef cattle meat.
... Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of using OH-SeMet in farm animals, such as poultry and pigs. In general, the authors report a better tissue Se enrichment, besides finding higher Se transfer to the eggs in laying hens and better antioxidant status in weaned piglets when OH-SeMet was compared with SS or SY Jlali et al., 2013Jlali et al., , 2014Couloigner et al., 2015;Chao et al., 2019). Recently, good results were also observed on litters from OH-SeMet-supplemented sows, including increased litter size, better transfer of passive immunity for piglets, and enhanced antioxidant capacity Mou et al., 2020). ...
... However, given the intense regimen of semen collection for these animals, it has been supposed that a greater Se input could be necessary for ensuring more consistent sperm production, and so, organic Se forms could be the better choice due to their ability for building Se reserves in the body (Surai and Fisinin, 2015). In the search for increasingly efficient organic sources, several studies have demonstrated the advantages of offering OH-SeMet for pigs and poultry on their productivity Jlali et al., 2013Jlali et al., , 2014Couloigner et al., 2015;Chao et al., 2019;Li et al., 2020;Mou et al., 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the effects of this organic Se form as dietary supplementation in boars on their semen production and quality, fertility, and litter produced. ...
Article
This study aimed to compare different selenium (Se) sources in the diet on boar's semen quality and fertility. For this, 28 boars aged 8 to 28 months were fed with the following dietary treatments for 95 days: 0.3 mg Se/kg as sodium selenite (SS, n = 14) and 0.3 mg Se/kg as hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet, n = 14). During this period, two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, the semen of all boars was evaluated every 2 weeks. Raw semen was initially evaluated for the processing of seminal doses, which were stored at 17 °C for 72 h, followed by sperm quality assessments. Furthermore, Se concentration and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were measured in the seminal plasma. In experiment 2, 728 females were inseminated weekly with seminal doses from boars of the different experimental groups to further assess in vivo fertility and litter characteristics. Results demonstrated that boars fed OH-SeMet had more Se in their seminal plasma (p < 0.05), showing the greater bioavailability of the organic source in the male reproductive system. Moreover, boars fed OH-SeMet tended (p < 0.10) towards a higher total sperm count in the ejaculate (66.60 vs. 56.57 × 10 9 sperm), and the number of seminal doses (22.11 vs. 18.86; 3 × 10 9 sperm/dose) when compared to those fed SS. No effect of the dietary treatments was observed on GPx activity in seminal plasma (p > 0.05), as well as on raw and stored semen quality (p > 0.05). Under in vivo conditions, seminal doses from boars fed OH-SeMet tended (p < 0.10) towards a higher pregnancy rate at weeks 3, 5, and 8, and also resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) percentage of pregnant females in the overall period (99.30 vs. 97.00). In conclusion, the replacement of SS with OH-SeMet in boars' diet can improve sperm production and results in better reproductive performance for them, bringing greater productivity and profitability to artificial insemination centers and commercial pig farms.
... It has been proven that OH-SeMet is fully converted into selenomethionine, conferring the ability to increase Se deposition in tissues of all species, including in muscle of chickens [22][23][24], eggs and breast muscle of laying hens [25], muscle of growing pigs [26], sow milk [27], beef cattle [28,29], and dairy cows [30]. Thus, improving Se availability will help to improve health and to give rise to a biofortified animal products which are beneficial for human consumers. ...
Article
The role of 2-hydroxy-(4-methylseleno)butanoic acid (OH-SeMet), a form of organic selenium (Se), in selenoprotein synthesis and inflammatory response of THP1-derived macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been investigated. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, GPX1 gene expression, selenoprotein P (SELENOP) protein and gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were studied in Se-deprived conditions (6 and 24 h). Then, macrophages were supplemented with OH-SeMet for 72 h and GPX1 and SELENOP gene expression were determined. The protective effect of OH-SeMet against oxidative stress was studied in H2O2-stimulated macrophages, as well as the effect on GPX1 gene expression, oxidative stress, cytokine production (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-10), and phagocytic and killing capacities after LPS stimulation. Se deprivation induced a reduction in GPX activity, GPX1 gene expression, and SELENOP protein and gene expression at 24 h. OH-SeMet upregulated GPX1 and SELENOP gene expression and decreased ROS production after H2O2 treatment. In LPS-stimulated macrophages, OH-SeMet upregulated GPX1 gene expression, enhanced phagocytic and killing capacities, and reduced ROS and cytokine production. Therefore, OH-SeMet supplementation supports selenoprotein expression and controls oxidative burst and cytokine production while enhancing phagocytic and killing capacities, modulating the inflammatory response, and avoiding the potentially toxic insult produced by highly activated macrophages.
... A study in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) reported that dietary OH-SeMet raised Se content in the liver and muscle, promoted retention and synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and increased lipid content in the whole body (Tseng et al., 2021). Its higher bioavailability than that of Se-yeast has been reported in broiler chickens (Se digestibility and Se accumulation in muscle) , hens (Se accumulation in eggs and muscles) (Jlali et al., 2013), and pigs (Se accumulation in muscle) (Jlali et al., 2014). A study in gilthead seabream proved that OH-SeMet was better than sodium selenite in growth promotion, liver and muscle Se accumulation, and enhancing antioxidative status at 0.2 mg Se /kg supplementation level (Mechlaoui et al., 2019). ...
Article
Selenium (Se) is a trace element vital for humans and animals for normal growth, health and stress resistance. Organic and inorganic Se sources are widely explored in fish feed, their absorption, metabolism, and distribution mechanisms are different. Previous studies in fish mainly focused on estimating the optimal dietary Se requirements of different fish species using a single Se source for the best growth performance, antioxidative and immune status. However, systematic information of comparison among various Se sources is needed to estimate Se status in fish. The present review compares the bioavailability, toxicity, and nutritional functions of inorganic, organic, and novel Se sources in fish. Organic Se forms present higher bioavailability, better ability in improving fish immune status but relatively lower toxicity than inorganic Se forms. Dietary Se requirements should be estimated with different Se sources using multiple parameters for various fish species. This review will provide a better understanding of the selenium's functions in the promotion of growth, antioxidative and immune status, and stress resistance ability, as well as the differences in absorption, metabolism, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of different Se sources.
... In 2013, it was approved for the use as an organic selenium source in some countries (EFSA, 2013), and in July 2021, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Document No. 2021-15072, which approved selenomethionine hydroxyl analogues as the source of selenium in the feed of beef cattle and dairy cows (FDA, 2021). Although SM has been shown to improve the relative bioavailability of Se compared with selenium yeast in monogastric animals by several studies (Briens et al., , 2014Jlali et al., 2013), little research has been conducted regarding the effects of SM on dairy cow production. Wei et al. (2019) found that SM has been shown to promote rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient digestibility compared with SS, suggesting that it has greater apparent absorption. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of hydroxy-selenomethionine supplementation on the in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics and microorganisms of Holstein cows. Methods and results: Five fermentation substrates, including control (without selenium supplementation, CON), sodium selenite supplementation (0.3 mg kg-1 DM, SS03), and hydroxy-selenomethionine supplementation (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mg kg-1 DM, SM03, SM06, and SM09, respectively) were incubated with rumen fluid in vitro. The results showed that in vitro dry matter disappearance and gas production at 48 h was significantly higher in SM06 than SM03, SS03, and CON; propionate and total volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) production was higher in SM06 than CON. Moreover, higher species richness of rumen fluid was found in SM06 than others. Higher relative abundance of Prevotella and Prevotellaceae-UCG-003 and lower relative abundance of Ruminococcus-1 were detected in SM06 than CON. Besides, higher relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005 was found in CON than other treatments. Conclusions: 0.6 mg kg-1 DM hydroxy-selenomethionine supplementation could increase cumulative gas production, propionate, and total VFAs production by altering the relative abundance of Prevotella, Prevotellaceae-UCG-003, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005 and Ruminococcus-1, so that it can be used as a rumen fermentation regulator in Holstein cows. Significance and impact of the study: This study provides an optimal addition ratio of hydroxy-selenomethionine on rumen fermentation and bacterial composition via an in vitro test.
... To date, the functional benefits of OH-SeMet, compared to both SS and SY, have been described for dairy cows [18,19], swine [20,21], layers [22,23] and broilers [24,25]. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that OH-SeMet has a unique ability to increase the deposition of Se in the tissues of broilers and to significantly increase the expression and translation of several selenoproteins compared to SS and SY [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study has determined whether hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet) exerts a better protective action on broilers against environmental stress than sodium selenite (SS) or seleno-yeast (SY). Day-old male Cobb 500 broilers (12 cages/diet, 9 broilers/cage) were fed a selenium (Se)-deficient diet (0.047 mg/kg) supplemented with SS, SY or OH-SeMet at 0.3 mg Se/kg under a high stocking density and heat stress condition for six weeks. OH-SeMet improved the FCR and Se concentration in the tissues than SS and SY. SY and OH-SeMet both reduced the serum cortisol, T3, IL-6, IgA, IgM and LPS, more than SS, while only OH-SeMet further increased IL-10 and IgG. SY and OH-SeMet improved the intestinal morphology and increased the T-AOC, TXRND, SELENON and OCCLUDIN activities but decreased CLAUDIN2 in the jejunum than SS, while OH-SeMet further improved these values than SY. SY and OH-SeMet both increased SELENOS and TXNRD2 in the muscles than SS, and OH-SeMet further raised T-AOC, GPX4, SELENOP, SELENOW and TXNRD1, and reduced malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl in the muscles than SS and SY. OH-SeMet showed a better ability to maintain the performance and the redox and immune status of broilers under a high stocking density and heat stress challenge than SS and SY.
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Selenium (Se) is a mineral with natural antioxidant properties that constitutes a number of enzymes with a fundamental role in the immunity and antioxidant systems and may confer a protective role against oxidative stress in fish following exposure to physical stressors. Adopting an integrated approach, this study investigated simultaneously the role of hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet) supplementation in performance, hematological parameters, innate immune, antioxidant capacity and tissue Se retention of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and the possible protective role of dietary selenium when fish are exposed to a physical stressor (transport). Juvenile specimens (15.71 ± 1.90 g) were fed one of five diets: a basal unsupplemented diet (0.0 mg kg⁻¹ Se) or diets supplemented with OH-SeMet to provide 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mg kg⁻¹ Se of diet for 75 days prior to subjection of fish to transport stress. Dietary supplementation with Se in the form of OH-SeMet for 75 days did not affect the production performance of juvenile tambaqui, but increased innate immunity parameters (oxidative burst) from the Se inclusion level of 0.6 mg kg⁻¹ and induced the activation of the antioxidant defense system (GPX, GSH and GST) especially at the Se inclusion level of 0.9 mg kg⁻¹. In addition, the Se content in the fillet rose significantly, as the OH-SeMet contents in the diet were increased. The stress caused by transport resulted in alterations in hematological parameters, blood protein profile and immune and enzymatic responses in the species. However, Se supplementation at 0.9 mg kg⁻¹ had a positive effect, increasing innate immunity and activating antioxidant defenses (CAT and GPx, especially) after this physical stressor was applied. These results demonstrate that, when submitted to transport stress, juvenile tambaqui use Se stored in the muscle and dietary supplementation with OH-SeMet at 0.9 mg kg⁻¹ improves the innate immunity and antioxidant system parameters of fish after transport. These findings reinforce the need for supplementing hydroxy-selenomethionine in commercial diets for tambaqui to ensure tissue Se reserves as a contingency in cases of stress.
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Selenised glucose (SeGlu) is a newly invented organic selenium compound being synthesised through the selenisation reaction of glucose with NaHSe. We hypothesised that glucose could be used as a carrier for the stable low-valent organoselenium to enhance the selenium concentrations of eggs. To probe the effects of SeGlu on production performances of laying hens, egg selenium concentration, egg quality, and antioxidant indexes, 360 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to three treatment groups fed with a basal diet alone or the diet supplemented with 5 or 10 mg/kg of Se from SeGlu. The results showed that SeGlu treatment not only enhanced (P < 0.001) the Se concentration in albumen and yolks, glutathione peroxidase activity, and total antioxidant capacity of eggs but also increased (P = 0.032) the Haugh unit of eggs being stored for 2 weeks, while the production performances and egg qualities of fresh eggs were not affected. Moreover, SeGlu supplementation linearly (P < 0.001) increased the scavenging ability of superoxide radicals in eggs. Briefly, SeGlu can enhance the selenium deposition and antioxidant activity of eggs, thereby meeting the nutritional requirement for Se-deficient humans.
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Diets were fed to laying hens for 12 wk during hot summer weather (34 to 35 degrees C high temperatures daily) to investigate the effects of feeding higher levels of the dietary antioxidants DL-alpha-tocopherol and selenium (from 2 sources, inorganic or organic) on egg production and egg quality. High basal levels of selenium were present in the corn-soybean meal diets (0.25 ppm), resulting in selenium treatment levels of 0.55 or 0.75 ppm; supplemented a-tocopherol treatments were 50, 100, or 150 IU/kg of diet. Increasing dietary selenium had a positive effect on egg production and egg mass (g of egg/d) as well as stored egg vitelline membrane strength. Vitamin E supplementation did not affect egg production except during wk 7 of the trial, during a particularly hot period in which hens fed the higher levels of vitamin E (100 or 150 ppm) did not have a decline in egg production. Yolk vitelline membrane strength improved with vitamin E supplementation in fresh eggs and eggs stored for 2 wk. Vitamin E supplementation also affected egg pH, improving albumen pH by decreasing pH of freshly laid eggs. Yolk a-tocopherol increased linearly with vitamin E supplementation. Yolk selenium content also increased with dietary Se supplementation and was deposited more efficiently when feeding the organic source (Sel-Plex) compared with the inorganic source of selenium. In summary, vitamin E and selenium can be supplemented to a laying hen ration to improve the vitelline membrane strength of fresh and aged eggs while also increasing the levels of these nutrients in the egg yolk.
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Eggshell quality and tibial ossification were studied in ISA brown egg-laying hens. Diet was supplemented with calcium sources differing in origin (seashells treated with phosphoric acid, oyster shells, and limestone) and particle size (ground or particulate). Egg production, egg mass, and feed efficiency were not affected by the origin or particle size of calcium sources. Feed consumption and live weight were higher in birds fed particulate sources, especially when ground and particulate oyster shells were compared. There was a significant interaction (source origin × particle size) in eggshell quality criteria. Egg weight was lower for hens fed ground limestone than for those fed ground seashells and particulate limestone. The latter group also had larger eggs than the group fed particulate oyster shells. Eggshell weight was higher for hens receiving particulate limestone than for those fed ground limestone and particulate oyster shells, but shell index values were similar whatever the calcium sources. Eggshell-breaking strength was higher in eggs of birds fed diets incorporating ground seashells and particulate limestone than in eggs of birds fed ground limestone. Tibial-breaking strength variables and percentage ash were greatly increased by the use of particulate calcium sources but were unaffected by the origin of calcium sources. Plasma concentration of total calcium was increased in the hens fed on the particulate seashell diet during eggshell formation. Plasma level of inorganic phosphorus was higher when the birds were given ground limestone. There was no effect of the particulate seashells and the ground limestone on metabolizable energy, nitrogen, and calcium retention.
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An experiment was conducted to determine if selenium incorporation into egg proteins could be predicted on the basis of methionine or cystine content. Chickens in egg production were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with .2 or .4 ppm selenium from selenite or .2 or .4 ppm selenium from selenomethionine. Eggs were collected from each group after feeding the diet 18 days. All of the egg white proteins and yolk fractions prepared contained selenium, and all of them increased in selenium when more was fed. The increase in selenium in egg white proteins after feeding selenite did not appear to be related to the cystine content of the proteins. However, the increase in selenium in egg white proteins after feeding selenomethionine appeared to parallel the methionine content of the proteins. The selenium level of yolk fractions was more closely related to the cystine content. Livetin fractions had the highest selenium level, and low density fractions had the lowest. The data suggest that proteins synthesized in a tissue will have predictable amounts of selenium but that proteins from different tissues will have different patterns of selenium incorporation.
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A 4-week experiment was carried out on 360 laying hens of the Hy Line Brown hybrid. Laying hens were divided into three groups (C, E 1 and E 2 ) with 120 hens in each group and kept in 24 cages. Hens were fed layer diets containing 18% of crude protein and 11.60 MJ ME. Hens in the control group C were fed diets that contained 0.2 mg/kg of inorganic selenium (sodium selenite). Experimental groups E 1 and E 2 were given diets with increased concentrations of selenium as follows: E 1 = 0.4 mg/kg of selenium (sodium selenite), E 2 = 0.4 mg/kg of organic selenium (Sel- Plex). Selenium concentration in diets affected significantly the content of selenium in albumen (P < 0.001) and yolk (P < 0.05). The highest concentration of selenium was determined in albumen and yolk of eggs produced in group E 2 (345 ng/g and 783 ng/g, respectively), then in eggs of group E 1 (230 ng/g and 757 ng/g, respectively), and group C had the lowest concentration of selenium in albumen and yolk (181 ng/g and 573 ng/g, respectively). After 28 days of storage at 4 °C, the eggs containing organic selenium had more freshness (VN: C = 32.9, E 1 = 2.60, E 2 = 2.11). It was concluded that higher concentration of organic selenium in eggs was a limiting factor in metabolic processes, which positively affected the indicators of egg freshness.
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The biological availability of selenium in feedstuffs and selenium compounds for prevention of exudative diathesis (ED) in chicks was studied. Using a casein soy protein torula yeast basal diet deficient in both vitamin E and selenium, graded levels of selenium as supplied by sodium selenite, used as a standard, or by the test ingredients were fed for periods of 12 to 21 days. Selenium in most of the feedstuffs of plant origin was highly available, ranging from 60 to 90%, but was less than 25% available in animal products. High availability values were obtained for sodium selenate and selenocystine, while low values were found for selenoethionine, sodium selenite, selenomethionine and selenopurine. Gray elemental selenium was almost completely unavailable. Protection against ED was highly correlated with plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in chicks fed sodium selenite or selenomethionine, indicating that biological availability qas determined by the ability of the chick to utilize the various forms of selenium for enzyme activity.
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Selenium is a trace element essential for the normal function of the body. This metalloid is quite unique in its metabolism compared with typical essential metals such as copper and zinc. In the present communication, the metabolism of selenium in the body was reviewed from the viewpoint of metabolomics based on speciation studies. Both inorganic and organic forms of slenium can be the nutritional source, and they are transformed to the common intermediate, selenide or its equivalent. Selenite and selenate are reduced simply to selenide for further utilization and/or excretion. On the other hand, organic selenocysteine is directly lysed to selenide, while selenomethionine is transformed to selenocysteine (trans- selenation pathway), similarly to the trans-sulfuration pathway for methionine to cysteine, and then lysed to selenide. Selenide is known to be transformed to selenocysteine on tRNA, and the selenocysteinyl residue is incorporated into selenoprotein sequences by the codon specific to selenocysteine, UGA. Diverse selenium chemicals in foods seem to be recognized as selenium species and transformed to selenide, and then utilized for the synthesis of selenoproteins. Surplus selenium is methylated stepwise to methylated selenium metabolites from the common intermediate selenide. The major urinary metabolite is 1 beta-methylseleno-N-acetyl-D-glactosamine (selenosugar). Trimethylselenonium has been recognized as the urinary metabolite excreted in re- sponse to excessive doses and as a biological marker for excessive doses. However, recent results contradicted this.
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Selenium yeast, produced by growing select strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Se-rich media, is a recognized source of organic food-form Se, but the determination of its exact composition with respect to the Se species present produced conflicting results. Improved methods of analysis have since revealed it to contain 90+ % of its Se in the form of selenomethionine, the principal organic nutritional form of Se for higher animals and hu- mans. The safety record of Se yeast is excellent: During the three decades of its world-wide use as a source of supplemental Se, no cases of Se poisoning have occurred due to dosage or formulation errors.