Article

In vitro Intestinal Mucosal Epithelial Responses to Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi and Attenuated Typhoid Vaccines

Department of Pediatrics, Mucosal Biology Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA.
Frontiers in Immunology 02/2013; 4:17. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Typhoid fever, caused by S. Typhi, is responsible for approximately 200,000 deaths per year worldwide. Little information is available regarding epithelium-bacterial interactions in S. Typhi infection. We have evaluated in vitro the effects of wild-type S. Typhi, the licensed Ty21a typhoid vaccine and the leading strains CVD 908-htrA and CVD 909 vaccine candidates on intestinal barrier function and immune response. Caco2 monolayers infected with wild-type S. Typhi exhibited alterations in the organization of tight junctions, increased paracellular permeability, and a rapid decrease in Trans-Epithelial Electrical Resistance as early as 4 h post-exposure. S. Typhi triggered the secretion of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6. Caco2 cells infected with the attenuated strains exhibited a milder pro-inflammatory response with minimal disruption of the barrier integrity. We conclude that wild-type S. Typhi causes marked transient alterations of the intestinal mucosa that are more pronounced than those observed with Ty21a or new generation attenuated typhoid vaccine candidates.

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