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Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women

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Abstract

To investigate effects of dietary mushrooms and joint effects of mushrooms and green tea on breast cancer, a case-control study was conducted in southeast China in 2004-2005. The incident cases were 1,009 female patients aged 20-87 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer. The 1,009 age-matched controls were healthy women randomly recruited from outpatient breast clinics. Information on frequency and quantity of dietary intake of mushrooms and tea consumption, usual diet, and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Compared with nonconsumers, the Odds ratios (Ors) were 0.36 (95% CI = 0.25-0.51) and 0.53 (0.38-0.73) for daily intake of >or=10 g fresh mushrooms and >or=4 g dried mushrooms, based on multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for established and potential confounders. There were dose-response relationships with significant tests for trend (p < 0.001). The inverse association was found in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Compared with those who consumed neither mushrooms nor green tea, the ORs were 0.11 (0.06-0.20) and 0.18 (0.11-0.29) for daily high intake of fresh and dried mushrooms combined with consuming beverages made from >or=1.05 g dried green tea leaves per day. The corresponding linear trends were statistically significant for joint effect (p < 0.001). We conclude that higher dietary intake of mushrooms decreased breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal Chinese women and an additional decreased risk of breast cancer from joint effect of mushrooms and green tea was observed. More research is warranted to examine the effects of dietary mushrooms and mechanism of joint effects of phytochemicals on breast cancer.

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... In a case-control study with Chinese women, consumption of not less than 10 g of fresh mushrooms or not less than 4 g of dried mushrooms per day was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. This inverse association was found to be greater among women who consumed ≥7 g of fresh mushrooms or ≥2 g of dried mushrooms plus ≥1.05 g of dried green tea leaves per day [Zhang et al., 2009]. In another study, the reduced risk (weak) of breast cancer among pre-menopausal women was dependent on many years of consuming green tea drinks, but in the post-menopausal women, <6years of green tea consumption was enough for a decreased breast cancer risk [Zhang et al., 2009]. ...
... This inverse association was found to be greater among women who consumed ≥7 g of fresh mushrooms or ≥2 g of dried mushrooms plus ≥1.05 g of dried green tea leaves per day [Zhang et al., 2009]. In another study, the reduced risk (weak) of breast cancer among pre-menopausal women was dependent on many years of consuming green tea drinks, but in the post-menopausal women, <6years of green tea consumption was enough for a decreased breast cancer risk [Zhang et al., 2009]. However, a case-control study that investigated the effect of plasma levels of tea polyphenols on breast cancer risk among Japanese women reported no statistically significant association Zhang et al., 2009]. ...
... In another study, the reduced risk (weak) of breast cancer among pre-menopausal women was dependent on many years of consuming green tea drinks, but in the post-menopausal women, <6years of green tea consumption was enough for a decreased breast cancer risk [Zhang et al., 2009]. However, a case-control study that investigated the effect of plasma levels of tea polyphenols on breast cancer risk among Japanese women reported no statistically significant association Zhang et al., 2009]. In another case-control study with Japanese population, high plasma levels of green tea polyphenols, was associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer in women, and positively associated with gastric cancer in men. ...
... The homodimeric 32-kDa Pholiota adiposa lectin showed antiproliferative activity toward MCF7 cells with an IC 50 in the vicinity of 3.2 μM (Zhang et al. 2009b). ...
... Dietary consumption of mushrooms is associated with a diminished risk of breast cancer (Hong et al. 2008;Zhang et al. 2009b;Shin et al. 2010). The use of mushroom extracts or compounds as adjunct therapeutics may enhance the efficacy of the main therapy. ...
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This article reviews mushrooms with anti-breast cancer activity. The mushrooms covered which are better known include the following: button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, Brazilian mushroom Agaricus blazei, Amauroderma rugosum, stout camphor fungus Antrodia camphorata, Jew’s ear (black) fungus or black wood ear fungus Auricularia auricula–judae, reishi mushroom or Lingzhi Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma sinense, maitake mushroom or sheep’s head mushroom Grifola frondosa, lion’s mane mushroom or monkey head mushroom Hericium erinaceum, brown beech mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus, sulfur polypore mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom), Phellinus linteus (Japanese “meshimakobu,” Chinese “song gen,” Korean “sanghwang,” American “black hoof mushroom”), abalone mushroom Pleurotus abalonus, king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, tuckahoe or Fu Ling Poria cocos, and split gill mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Antineoplastic effectiveness in human clinical trials and mechanism of anticancer action have been reported for Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, and Lentinula edodes.
... They have indicated that consumption of medicinal mushrooms in the form of fruiting bodies or extracts may prevent or delay the development of cancer. Previously reported epidemiological studies of gastric and breast cancers were mainly carried out with consumption of G. frondosa, G. lucidum, F. velutipes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pholiota nameko (Ikekawa 2001(Ikekawa , 2005Hara et al. 2003;Zhang et al. 2009;Shin et al. 2010;Rossi et al. 2018), A. bisporus, L. edodes, and other edible medicinal mushrooms in combination with green tea (Zhang et al. 2009). The results have shown that three times daily consumption of 3-5 g of hot water extract of A. subrufescens improves quality of life (QoL) by strengthening the innate healing power and immune system (Liu et al. 2008). ...
... They have indicated that consumption of medicinal mushrooms in the form of fruiting bodies or extracts may prevent or delay the development of cancer. Previously reported epidemiological studies of gastric and breast cancers were mainly carried out with consumption of G. frondosa, G. lucidum, F. velutipes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pholiota nameko (Ikekawa 2001(Ikekawa , 2005Hara et al. 2003;Zhang et al. 2009;Shin et al. 2010;Rossi et al. 2018), A. bisporus, L. edodes, and other edible medicinal mushrooms in combination with green tea (Zhang et al. 2009). The results have shown that three times daily consumption of 3-5 g of hot water extract of A. subrufescens improves quality of life (QoL) by strengthening the innate healing power and immune system (Liu et al. 2008). ...
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Fungi are considered one of the most diverse, ecologically significant, and economically important organisms on Earth. The edible and medicinal mushrooms have long been known by humans and were used by ancient civilizations not only as valuable food but also as medicines. Mushrooms are producers of high- and low-molecular-weight bioactive compounds (alkaloids, lectins, lipids, peptidoglycans, phenolics, polyketides, polysaccharides, proteins, polysaccharide-protein/peptides, ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptides, steroids, terpenoids, etc.) possessing more than 130 different therapeutic effects (analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiplatelet, antiviral, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, immunomodulatory, immunosuppressive, mitogenic/regenerative, etc.). The early record of Materia Medica shows evidence of using mushrooms for treatment of different diseases. Mushrooms were widely used in the traditional medicine of many countries around the world and became great resources for modern clinical and pharmacological research. However, the medicinal and biotechnological potential of mushrooms has not been fully investigated. This review discusses recent advances in research on the pharmacological potential of mushrooms and perspectives for their clinical application. _____Key-words: Bioactive compounds · Clinical application · Ethno-mycopharmacology · Medicinal mushrooms · Pharmacological potential.
... Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) is the dominant edible and cultivated mushroom worldwide, because of its taste and nutrition. An epidemiological study in China has indicated that Chinese women who consume A. bisporus powder with green tea have lower breast cancer occurrence [13]. Previously, many studies of the effects of various solvent extracts of other mushrooms on various human cancer cell lines have been reported [14][15][16][17]. ...
... Moreover, phase contrast and inverted fluorescence microscopy studies showed changes in the cell shape and the nuclear morphology and structure in all three cell lines treated with 500trations of ABME. The have been in vitro -cancer ration, and the consumption of White Button mushroom powder with green tea prevents breast cancer [13]. Extracts of Agaricus blazei inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation via suppression of aromatase activity [40,41]. ...
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The edible and wild mushrooms are recognized as important source of anticancer agents. Our aims are to harness methanolic extracts of Agaricus bisporus (ABME) and to test for anticancer effects in HeLa, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. To test anticancer effect of this extract, we adopted some methodology such as cell morphology study by bright field microscope, nuclear morphology study by DAPI staining under inverted fluorescence microscopy, apoptosis assay by fluorescence technique, MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase assays, and expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes by Western blotting. The results showed that under a phase contrast microscope, the cells from the three cancer cell lines exposed to 500-1000 μg/ml concentrations of ABME for 24 h, were round and shrunken. DAPI staining revealed that nuclei in the three treated cell lines were condensed, fragmented and deeply stained. MTT assay revealed that the growth of all three cell lines was inhibited at all tested concentrations of ABME; at 1000 µg/mL, the percentages of inhibition in HeLa, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines were > 80%. Under 500 µg/mL ABME exposure, LDH leakage in all three cell lines; increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Caspase 3, 9) and Bax; and decreased expression of BcL2 in MCF-7 cells validated the anticancer properties. The p53 gene was up-regulated by ABME. The percentage inhibition of migration of MCF-7 cells treated with ABME was 75.25±5.23. The total antioxidant content of ABME was 3.616718±0.24123 mg/ dry weight; the EC 50 was 95.653±9.54067 µg/mL for DPPH, and the FRAP method indicated a free radical scavenging capacity of it. GC-MS analysis of the extract showed 102 compounds. In conclusion, A. bisporus thus contains anticancer compounds, and its consumption may prevent cervical and breast cancer.
... The remaining 15 studies were included for quality synthesis. Nevertheless, two other studies were eliminated because data were not extrapolated [58,59]. At the end of the screening flow, 13 records were included in the meta-analysis. ...
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Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women and several factors are involved in its onset. Green tea (GT) has been shown to have potential beneficial effects on different types of cancer. The aim of this review was to evaluate the association between GT regular consumption and risk of BC in women. The risk of BC recurrence and risk of BC in relation to menopausal status were also evaluated. A literature search of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to perform the systematic review and meta-analysis. Full texts were downloaded for 40 studies; however, only 13 records were included in the meta-analysis. Eight were cohort studies and five were case-control studies. The pooled sample consisted of 163,810 people. An inverse statistically significant relationship between GT and BC risk, with an Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.85 ((95% CI = 0.80–0.92), p = 0.000)), was found. Egger’s linear regression test did not show a potential publication bias (intercept 0.33, t = 0.40, p = 0.695), which was also confirmed by the symmetry of the funnel plot. Moreover, no high statistical heterogeneity (Chi2 = 31.55, df = 13, I2 = 58.79%, p = 0.003) was found. The results of this meta-analysis showed a potential protective effect of GT consumption on BC, especially for BC recurrence.
... Selenium-enriched WB reduced DNA adduct in carcinogen treated rats [24]. The consumption of WB with green tea had an inverse association with breast cancer occurrence in Chinese women [25]. In our anti-proliferative experiments both ethanolic and methanolic extracts were very effective and they showed 83.61% and 72.44% of growth inhibition of CaSki cell lines at 1250μg /mL concentration. ...
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Full-text available
Natural products or metabolites from plants and microbes have been recognized as important sources of drug molecules for few decades. Mushrooms offer high sources of new isolable bioactive compounds with diversified chemical structures, which are considered potent sources for drug discovery. The work on potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms, A. bisporus has been less investigated. An attempt has been taken to screen methanolic and ethanolic extract of this mushroom for their anti-cancer potentiality in CaSki cell line. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of unopened fruit bodies were lyophilized. The different Concentrations of both extracts were used against CaSki cell line for anti-proliferative potentiality by MTT assay. The cell morphological changes of CaSki after treatments with extracts were studied by phase contrast microscope. Nuclear morphology and evaluation of apoptotic cells were studied by DAPI staining under fluorescent microscope. The untreated cells (negative control) exhibited normal elongated shaped and reached 90% confluence after 24 h culture. Cells treated with 100 or 250 µg/mL of ABME are more or less similar to the control cells having elongated shape except few cell numbers. However, cells treated with 500 µg/mL or 750 µg/mL of ABME showed that they became shrink and lose their original shape and the cell confluence was reduced. More round, shrunken cells were observed in cells treated with 500 µg/mL or 750 µg/mL of ABEE while cell culture treated with 1000 µg/mL of ABEE, many cell debris were shown. Nuclei of the untreated CaSki cells were round and homogeneous while nuclei treated with ABME or ABEE nuclei were condensed and in few cases are irregular and fragmented. The evaluation of apoptosis showed that exposure of CaSki cells to different doses of both ABEE and ABME for 24 h resulted in increased apoptosis rates, but ABEE is better than ABME. The MTT assay indicated that maximum concentration 1250 µg/mL of ABEE Ghosh et al. 373 and ABME showed 83.61±9.98 and 72.44±5.78 % of cell inhibition after 24 h and the IC 50 values of these extracts against CaSki were 220 and 490 µg /mL respectively. It indicated that out of the two extracts ABEE was best treatment for inhibition of CaSki cells' proliferation. This report on anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of A. bisporus on CaSki cell line is probably first time as we go through literature survey.
... Partner thinks about in China and the USA demonstrated that ongoing drinking of green tea was pitifully connected with a diminished danger of breast malignant growth [12]. The relationship between tea utilization and diminished danger of breast disease was likewise affirmed by populace-based case-control examines completed in China [13], the USA [14] and Singapore [15]. ...
... Ganoderma lucidum has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years to promote better health and to treat various diseases. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]45,46 One important benefit of G lucidum consumption is its ability to modulate the immune system, which enhances the immune response to fight against development of many diseases. [10][11][12][13][14][15] Although many studies have been done in determining the medicinal effects of G lucidum, the mechanism that leads to the immunomodulating effect of G lucidum is largely unknown. ...
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Background: Ganoderma lucidum has been used in Chinese medicine for thousands years to improve health and to promote longevity. One important function of G lucidum is to modulate the immune system. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is a cell surface protein present in certain immune cells ( eg, B- and Tcells) and plays an important role in modulating the immune response. The role of PD-1 protein in G lucidum–mediated immunomodulation is unknown. Methods: Cultured human Blymphocytes and extract prepared from G lucidum spores (GLE) were used to determine PD-1 protein in G lucidum–mediated immunomodulation. Both western blotting and immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy assays were used to determine the effect of GLE treatment on PD-1 protein expression. A reverse transcription-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) assay was used to determine the effect of GLE on transcription of pdcd-1 gene. Results: Both our western blotting and IF staining results demonstrated great reduction in PD-1 protein and in proportion of PD-1+ cells in these B-lymphocytes. Our real-time PCR results indicated that this PD-1 protein reduction was not caused by a transcriptional inhibition of the gene. In addition, our western blotting study further revealed that the GLE treatment caused an increase in expression of CCL5 chemokine in the cultured B-lymphocytes. Conclusions: PD-1 protein is an important target of G lucidum–mediated immunomodulation. G lucidum and its bioactive compounds can be developed into novel immunomodulators for prevention and treatment of cancer and many other diseases.
... Green tea ingestion of 3 cups or more per day in two studies reduced the risk of breast cancer. [17,18] Calcium and Vitamin-D The role of calcium in carcinogenesis derives from its involvement in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (26)(27)(28). The concentration of calcium is inversely proportional to the cell proliferation and induces differentiation of mammary cells in experimental studies (25, 29, and 30). ...
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Micro abstract In now a day's life, cancer deaths are increasing tremendously, especially breast cancer deaths in women increasing rapidly all over the world. Due to change in life style and several other factors breast cancer easily develops in women. The current review article describes the various risk factors associated with breast cancer and also describes the different modes of treatment, preventive factors. Abstract Cancer is a result of uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body caused by genetic and environmental factors. Modern lifestyle changes, food choices, genetic vulnerability, family history, oestrogen exposure, age, late night working, hazardous chemical exposure, obesity in the post-menopausal phase, exposure to high doses of radiation are some of the main factors which increases the risk of breast cancer. It is the frequently diagnosed and leading cause of cancer deaths in women in worldwide. This article presents a systematic review of the Breast Cancer literature describing the risk factors, treatment methods and preventive steps of breast cancer. Breast cancer treatment and prevention are prominent issues in publichealth and medical practice. The current approach to this disease involves early detection and treatment. The available literature in this review aims to bring the awareness of healthcare professionals and clinical doctors to improve the quality of treatment and suggesting breast cancer patients to follow the preventive steps. Key words Breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinomain situ, breast cancer treatment, Risk factors, Treatment and Prevention. Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer of adult females in all over the world (140 of 180 countries) [1], andafter lung cancer, it is thesecond leading cause of cancer death [2}. One in eight women in the UK, USA and one in twenty in Indiadevelop the disease in their lifetimes. Theage-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer is 39.0 per 100,000, which is higher than that of cervical cancer (cervical cancer ASR=15.2 per 100,000)[3, 4, 38, 39]. In 2015, an estimated 60,290 in situ breast cancer cases and 2, 31,240 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed in United States. And approximately 40,290 women expected to die from breast cancer [93]. Between 2008-2012 the breast cancer incidence increased by 25%, while death rate due to breast cancer increased by 14% [36]. In US, it is estimated that there are 3.1 million breast cancer survivors presently [37]. It is estimated that 70% of breast cancers are hormone receptor positive, and genetic mutations like BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes leads to breast cancer development with 60-80% life time risk [40-42].It is more common in the Western countries than South America, Asia, and Africa.Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The causative factors include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, life style, physical inactivity, chemical exposure, previous benign disease, mammographic density and exposure to high dose of ionizing radiation. Each factor has its unique role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and difficult to
... 92 In addition, since 70% of breast cancers are estrogen dependent, the use of natural and synthetic aromatase inhibitors represents another important therapeutic strategy against estrogen-dependent breast cancer and other estrogen-dependent diseases such as endometriosis and endometrial cancer. 75,[93][94][95][96][97][98] Role of estrogen signaling in the repression of the Nrf2-ARE pathway Notably, estrogens can also repress Nrf2-dependent transcription through ER-dependent and independent mechanisms. 22,99,100 For instance, estrogens could increase breast cancer risk by enhancing the expression of several miRNAs with oncogenic activity (eg, miR- 93, miR-153) and downregulating Nrf2 and its downstream cytoprotective genes. ...
Article
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Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. Various studies indicate that prolonged exposure to elevated levels of estrogens is associated with development of breast cancer. Both estrogen receptor-dependent and independent mechanisms can contribute to the carcinogenic effects of estrogens. Among them, the oxidative metabolism of estrogens plays a key role in the initiation of estradiol-induced breast cancer by generation of reactive estrogen quinones as well as the associated formation of oxygen free radicals. These genotoxic metabolites can react with DNA to form unstable DNA adducts which generate mutations leading to the initiation of breast cancer. A variety of endogenous and exogenous factors can alter estrogen homeostasis and generate genotoxic metabolites. The use of specific phytochem-icals and dietary supplements can inhibit the risk of breast cancer not only by the modulation of several estrogen-activating enzymes (CYP19, CYP1B1) but also through the induction of various cytoprotective enzymes (eg, SOD3, NQO1, glutathione S-transferases, OGG-1, catechol-O-methyltransferases, CYP1B1A, etc.) that reestablish the homeostatic balance of estrogen metabolism via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent and independent mechanisms.
... Selenium-enriched WB reduced DNA adduct in carcinogen treated rats [24]. The consumption of WB with green tea had an inverse association with breast cancer occurrence in Chinese women [25]. In our anti-proliferative experiments both ethanolic and methanolic extracts were very effective and they showed 83.61% and 72.44% of growth inhibition of CaSki cell lines at 1250μg /mL concentration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural products or metabolites from plants and microbes have been recognized as important sources of drug molecules for few decades. Mushrooms offer high sources of new isolable bioactive compounds with diversified chemical structures, which are considered potent sources for drug discovery. The work on potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms, A. bisporus has been less investigated. An attempt has been taken to screen methanolic and ethanolic extract of this mushroom for their anti-cancer potentiality in CaSki cell line. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of unopened fruit bodies were lyophilized. The different Concentrations of both extracts were used against CaSki cell line for anti-proliferative potentiality by MTT assay. The cell morphological changes of CaSki after treatments with extracts were studied by phase contrast microscope. Nuclear morphology and evaluation of apoptotic cells were studied by DAPI staining under fluorescent microscope. The untreated cells (negative control) exhibited normal elongated shaped and reached 90% confluence after 24 h culture. Cells treated with 100 or 250 µg/mL of ABME are more or less similar to the control cells having elongated shape except few cell numbers. However, cells treated with 500 µg/mL or 750 µg/mL of ABME showed that they became shrink and lose their original shape and the cell confluence was reduced. More round, shrunken cells were observed in cells treated with 500 µg/mL or 750 µg/mL of ABEE while cell culture treated with 1000 µg/mL of ABEE, many cell debris were shown. Nuclei of the untreated CaSki cells were round and homogeneous while nuclei treated with ABME or ABEE nuclei were condensed and in few cases are irregular and fragmented. The evaluation of apoptosis showed that exposure of CaSki cells to different doses of both ABEE and ABME for 24 h resulted in increased apoptosis rates, but ABEE is better than ABME. The MTT assay indicated that maximum concentration 1250 µg/mL of ABEE Ghosh et al. 373 and ABME showed 83.61±9.98 and 72.44±5.78 % of cell inhibition after 24 h and the IC 50 values of these extracts against CaSki were 220 and 490 µg /mL respectively. It indicated that out of the two extracts ABEE was best treatment for inhibition of CaSki cells' proliferation. This report on anti-proliferative and apoptotic effect of A. bisporus on CaSki cell line is probably first time as we go through literature survey.
... ies in conjunction with allopathic medicines. (Yuen & Gohel, 2005) Several biologically active compounds are present inside fungal extracts, so produce several pharmacological effects. Evidence indicated that fungal extracts consumptions might defend against some kind of cancers, such as breast cancer and gastrointestinal cancer. (Kim et al., 2002;M. Zhang et al., 2009) Some fungal species were involved in anti-cancer activities for different cells. The ethanol and water makings of F. pinicola was made to check the inhibitory effects on different tumorous cells. The results revealed that all the water yields exerted anti-cancer activities in vitro. On the other hand, 3-(4,5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dip ...
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Fomitopsis pinicola is a well-known medicinal mushroom commonly used in Chinese traditional medicine and Korean folk medicine for many years, and it is believed as a non-toxic medicinal mushroom that has many clinical effects on the human body with no sub-acute toxic impacts. In recent years, the use of medicinal mushrooms is enhanced greatly. Several different principal chemical constituents are present in the fruiting bodies of F.pinicola. These principal compounds were extracted from fruiting bodies of F.pinicola, have medicinal qualities and give different pharmacological impacts in the human body. The motive of the current review paper was to intricate the principal chemical constituents that are extracted from F.pinicola fruiting bodies and demonstrate the pharmacological effects of these extracts. F.pinicola extracts have no toxic side effects on vital organs such as liver, kidney, heart, spleen, pancreas, lungs and brain. The present study describes that both low molecular weight and high molecular weight compounds that are present in the fruiting bodies of F.pinicola. This included many useful enzymes, steroids, triterpenes and triterpenes derivatives, anti-tumor active constituents, and health beneficial nutritious compounds. These principal compounds showed important medicinal effects on the human body by providing a shield effect to the internal organs against diseases and also heal the damaged tissues and organs. The pharmacological effects of F.pinicola active constituents include anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic by controlling obesity, anti-oxidant effect, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and also showed an industrial waste treatment effect.
... In AGING direct support of this notion, it has been demonstrated that a key component of green tea, namely epigallocatechin-3-gallate, behaves as an anti-oxidant and shows anti-tumor effects against breast cancer cells [7,8]. Green tea may also interact with other components of the diet, including those natural products contained within soy and mushrooms [9,10]. Consumption of green tea could partially explain why Asian-American women show a decreased risk for developing breast cancer [11]. ...
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Matcha green tea (MGT) is a natural product that is currently used as a dietary supplement and may have significant anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning its potential health benefits remain largely unknown. Here, we used MCF7 cells (an ER(+) human breast cancer cell line) as a model system, to systematically dissect the effects of MGT at the cellular level, via i) metabolic phenotyping and ii) unbiased proteomics analysis. Our results indicate that MGT is indeed sufficient to inhibit the propagation of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), with an IC-50 of ~0.2 mg/ml, in tissue culture. Interestingly, metabolic phenotyping revealed that treatment with MGT is sufficient to suppress both oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) and glycolytic flux, shifting cancer cells towards a more quiescent metabolic state. Unbiased label-free proteomics analysis identified the specific mitochondrial proteins and glycolytic enzymes that were down-regulated by MGT treatment. Moreover, to discover the underlying signalling pathways involved in this metabolic shift, we subjected our proteomics data sets to bio-informatics interrogation via Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. Our results indicate that MGT strongly affected mTOR signalling, specifically down-regulating many components of the 40S ribosome. This raises the intriguing possibility that MGT can be used as inhibitor of mTOR, instead of chemical compounds, such as rapamycin. In addition, other key pathways were affected, including the anti-oxidant response, cell cycle regulation, as well as interleukin signalling. Our results are consistent with the idea that MGT may have significant therapeutic potential, by mediating the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells.
... (28) High mushroom intake is associated with substantial decreases in breast cancer risk. (29)(30)(31) High intake of lignans (phytoestrogens found in flax, chia and sesame seeds) is associated with a 71 percent reduced risk of death from breast cancer in women already diagnosed with breast cancer.(32) Potential mechanisms for these relationships -including hormone-modulating, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic propertieshave been identified. ...
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Risk of many of the most common cancers, such as those of the prostate, breast, and colorectum, is substantially affected by lifestyle factors. However, there is an alarming lack of awareness among the American public regarding the associations between dietary and other lifestyle factors and cancer risk. The public is largely unaware that an estimated 50 percent of common cancers are preventable via healthful lifestyle practices. This lack of knowledge undermines the perceived importance of behavioral change and the promotion of primary prevention strategies aimed to improve the health of our population. Physicians and other experts are in a unique position to counteract confusing media messages and raise awareness of the value of preventive lifestyle behaviors.
... Since H 2 O 2 induce hepatotoxicity, it clear that mice receiving mushroom extract with peroxide revealed mononuclear cells aggregation (neutrophils and monocytes) Fig (4,5).While liver of mice treated with A bisporus returned like control Fig(6).Agaricusbisporus considered to have therapeutic and protective properties. Studies demonstrated that Agaricusbisporus extract have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities [17], in other study it used in combination with green tea to reduce the risk of breast cancer [18]. It has potent antitumor effect by enhancing immune response. ...
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Hepatic disorders can develop by many causative agents like Reactive oxygen species (ROS). Various antioxidants have been ensured to protect against hepatic damage. The aim of this study is to ensure Agariusbiporus protective effects in experimental mice of liver injury.Forty adult female albino mice were divided to five groups (Ten mice for eachgroup), the first group give normal saline as control, the second one treated with 2ml/kg body weight of peroxide(H 2 O 2) withdrinking water,the third one treated with water aqueous extract (25) mg/ml ofA.bisporusorallywith H 2 O 2 in drinking water and finally the fourth one treated withaqueous extract (25) mg/ml of A.bisporus orally by use of intragastric tube. Results for apoptosis test showed peroxide treated group induced apoptosis while aqueous extract of A. bisporustreated group with peroxide inducednon-apoptotic. Histopathological examination of liver cells exposed to H 2 O 2 showed necrosis and degenerated liver cells by the evidence of tendency to forming granuloma. In sinusoids showed dilation with severe congestion of blood vessel while the tissue treated with (2) ml/kgbody weight of A.bisporus and H 2 O 2 with drinking water showedslightly congested blood vesseland aggregation of mononuclear cells in liver parenchyma. The liver tissue in mice treated with (2) ml/kgbody weightof A.bisporus appeared approximately like the normal tissue.We conclude that the aqueous extract of Agaricusbisporuscan protect the liver against peroxide induced oxidative damage in mice and is an efficient antioxidant agent and hepatoprotectiveagainst peroxide induced liver injury.
... Indeed, research positively associated the mushroom consumption with higher intake of many nutrients and with a reduced breast cancer risk [117,118]. The main nutritional components of the mushrooms are carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, fiber, mineral constituents, vitamins, associated with low fat content [119]. ...
... Medicinal mushrooms have their history as immunostimulatory and immunomodulating therapeutics in the management of tumor, viral, and bacterial diseases; but little is known on dietary intakes of commonly consumed mushrooms in association with Health Benefits of Mushrooms immune functions in humans. A dietary survey of Chinese women showed that mushroom consumption can decrease the risk of breast cancer by over 60% (Zhang et al. 2009). This beneficial effect was associated with a daily consumption of at least 10 g of mushrooms, of which the most commonly eaten was the button mushroom. ...
... [118,[120][121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132]. The results of a case-control study in over 2000 patients in China revealed that the intake of fresh or dried mushrooms alone or in combination with green tea reduced the risk of breast cancer in women and had a positive effect on suppressing malignancy [133]. All these studies validate a potential use of Reishi in breast cancer patients as an adjunct to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. ...
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Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. GLOBOCAN estimated about 1.7 million new cases of breast cancer diagnoses worldwide and about 522,000 deaths in 2012. The burden of breast cancer mortality lies in the developing low-income and middle-income countries, where about 70% of such deaths occur. The incidence of breast cancer is also rising in low-income and middle-income countries in Africa as trend towards urbanization, and adoption of Western lifestyles increases. In general, the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype tends to be frequent in women of African ancestry. What are the factors contributing to this prevalence? Are there genetic predispositions to TNBC in African women? This review addresses these questions and provides an update on the incidence, survival, and mortality of breast cancer in Africans, with a focus on sub-Saharan Africans. We have also addressed factors that could account for ethical disparities in incidence and mortality. Further, we have highlighted challenges associated with access to essential drug and to healthcare treatment in some African countries and outlined alternative/herbal treatment methods that are increasingly implemented in Africa and other developing nations.
... 37 Zhang et al (2009) conducted a case study in which they provide joint effect of mushrooms and green tea on 1,009 female patients aged 20-87 years in southeast China and concluded that higher dietary intake of mushrooms decreased risk of breast cancer in pre-and postmenopausal Chinese women and an additional decreased risk of breast cancer from joint effect of mushrooms and green tea was observed. 38 ...
... In 1997, epidemiological work in Japan suggested that drinking green tea, which is prepared from Camellia sinensis leaves, could reduce risk of breast cancer among women, especially those drinking more than 10 cups of green tea per day (Imai et al., 1997). Since then, numerous cohort studies and case-control studies in China, USA, and Singapore have confirmed an association between green tea consumption and reduction of breast cancer risk (Wu et al., 2003;Yuan et al., 2005;Zhang et al., 2007Zhang et al., , 2009; Ganmaa et al., 2008;Inoue et al., 2008;Kumar et al., 2009;Shrubsole et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2010;Dai et al., 2010;Li et al., 2016). For example, one study involving 5082 women in USA showed that women who drank at least three cups of green tea per day had 37% lower risk of breast cancer than women who did not drink any tea (Kumar et al., 2009). ...
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a bioactive compound in green tea, is the most abundant and biologically active catechin, and it exerts multiple effects in humans through mechanisms that remain to be clarified. The present study used bioinformatics to identify possible mechanisms by which EGCG reduces risk of breast cancer. Possible human protein targets of EGCG were identified in the PubChem database, possible human gene targets were identified in the NCBI database, and then both sets of targets were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to predict molecular networks affected by EGCG in breast cancer. The results suggest that signaling proteins affected by EGCG in breast cancer, which include JUN, FADD, NFKB1, Bcl-2, GNAO1, and MMP14, are involved primarily in cell death and survival; DNA replication, recombination and repair; and the cell cycle. The main networks affected by EGCG are predicted to involve the cell cycle; cellular assembly and organization; DNA replication, recombination and repair; and cell death and survival. These results identify several specific proteins and pathways that may be affected by EGCG in breast cancer, and they illustrate the power of integrative bioinformatics and chemical fragment analysis for focusing mechanistic studies.
... Exopolysaccharide was administrated orally to colitic mice at doses of 10 mg/kg/day. Dose of exopolysaccharide were chosen according to the estimated human intake of mushroom (Zhang, Huang, Xie, & Holman, 2009) and our trial test. SASP was used as a positive reference agent and was given at 50 mg/kg. ...
Article
Intestinal anti-inflammatory activities of exopolysaccharide from S. commune were assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice model. The changes of molecular weight (MW), atomic force microscope morphology, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and viscosity were recorded after sonication treatment. The results indicated that the triple helical structure of exopolysaccharide was dissociated into single helical structure and random coiled structure by ultrasonication via breaking of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The medium (936 kDa) and high MW (1437 kDa) exopolysaccharide had the mixture of triple helix and single helix conformation, while the low MW (197 kDa) exopolysaccharide exhibit random coiled conformation. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity study showed that oral administration of medium and high MW (1437 kDa) exopolysaccharide significantly recovered DSS-induced colitis in inflamed tissues and reduced inflammation induced infiltration of macrophages. These results showed that medium (936 kDa) and high MW (1437 kDa) exopolysaccharide had intestinal anti-inflammatory activity. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide was related to helical structure and molecular weight.
... Since H 2 O 2 induce hepatotoxicity, it clear that mice receiving mushroom extract with peroxide revealed mononuclear cells aggregation (neutrophils and monocytes) Fig (4,5).While liver of mice treated with A bisporus returned like control Fig(6).Agaricusbisporus considered to have therapeutic and protective properties. Studies demonstrated that Agaricusbisporus extract have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities [17], in other study it used in combination with green tea to reduce the risk of breast cancer [18]. It has potent antitumor effect by enhancing immune response. ...
... ies in conjunction with allopathic medicines. (Yuen & Gohel, 2005) Several biologically active compounds are present inside fungal extracts, so produce several pharmacological effects. Evidence indicated that fungal extracts consumptions might defend against some kind of cancers, such as breast cancer and gastrointestinal cancer. (Kim et al., 2002;M. Zhang et al., 2009) Some fungal species were involved in anti-cancer activities for different cells. The ethanol and water makings of F. pinicola was made to check the inhibitory effects on different tumorous cells. The results revealed that all the water yields exerted anti-cancer activities in vitro. On the other hand, 3-(4,5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dip ...
Article
Fomitopsis pinicola is a well-known medicinal mushroom commonly used in Chinese traditional medicine and Korean folk medicine for many years, and it is believed as a non-toxic medicinal mushroom that has many clinical effects on the human body with no sub-acute toxic impacts. In recent years, the use of medicinal mushrooms is enhanced greatly. Several different principal chemical constituents are present in the fruiting bodies of F.pinicola. These principal compounds were extracted from fruiting bodies of F.pinicola, have medicinal qualities and give different pharmacological impacts in the human body. The motive of the current review paper was to intricate the principal chemical constituents that are extracted from F.pinicola fruiting bodies and demonstrate the pharmacological effects of these extracts. F.pinicola extracts have no toxic side effects on vital organs such as liver, kidney, heart, spleen, pancreas, lungs and brain. The present study describes that both low molecular weight and high molecular weight compounds that are present in the fruiting bodies of F.pinicola. This included many useful enzymes, steroids, triterpenes and triterpenes derivatives, anti-tumor active constituents, and health beneficial nutritious compounds. These principal compounds showed important medicinal effects on the human body by providing a shield effect to the internal organs against diseases and also heal the damaged tissues and organs. The pharmacological effects of F.pinicola active constituents include anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic by controlling obesity, anti-oxidant effect, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and also showed an industrial waste treatment effect.
... the incidence of breast cancer and prostate cancer is significantly lower than in other countries [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
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Aim: To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combina - tion with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/ or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin- resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6–1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per m ouse per day and 4.0–6.3 mg per rat per day). Results: Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cispla- tin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25– 28% TGI vs. 55–68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81–88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or Nano GTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE, NanoGTE, and NanoGTRW decreased the levels of malondialdehyde in heart, kidney and liver tissue of experimental animals, as well as the levels of urea and creatinine in blood serum, increased erythrocyte and platelet counts , hemo- globin content, and decreased leucocyte counts. Conclusion: The obtained data indicate the prospects for further deve lopment of GTE and corresponding nanocomposites as auxiliary agents in cancer chemotherapy.
... An in vitro study using water-based extracts of some mushroom species significantly inhibited growth of both estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) and estrogenreceptor negative (ER-) breast cancer cells, induction of rapid apoptosis on both ER+ and ER-cells, and significantly inhibited MCF-7 tumor colony formation in vitro. Also, higher dietary intake of mushrooms decreased breast cancer risk in both pre-and postmenopausal women and an additional decreased risk of breast cancer was observed from a synergistic effect of mushrooms and green tea in a case-controlled study (Zhang et al., 2009). Furthermore, vitamin D 2 could be one of the protective phytonutrients against breast cancer as mushrooms are rich in ergosterol (Furlanetto, 2009). ...
... The Agaricus bisporus showed the same effect as the other two mushroom isolates but with a little more reduction in the cell viability of MDA-MD-231. Agaricus bisporus conjugated linoleic acids have been proved to constrain prostate cancer cell types in vitro [67]. In a similar way, Adams et al. [68] reported that this extract suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation, and drinking white button mushroom powder with green tea may help to prevent breast cancer. ...
Article
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In this study, we investigated aqueous extracts of three edible mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom), Pleurotus columbinus (oyster mushroom), and Pleurotus sajor-caju (grey oyster mushroom). The extracts were biochemically characterized for total carbohydrate, phenolic, flavonoid, vitamin, and protein contents besides amino acid analysis. Triple TOF proteome analysis showed 30.1% similarity between proteomes of the two Pleurotus spp. All three extracts showed promising antiviral activities. While Pleurotus columbinus extract showed potent activity against adenovirus (Ad7, selectivity index (SI) = 4.2), Agaricus bisporus showed strong activity against herpes simplex II (HSV-2; SI = 3.7). The extracts showed low cytotoxicity against normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and moderate cytotoxicity against prostate (PC3, DU-145); colorectal (Colo-205); cecum carcinoma (LS-513); liver carcinoma (HepG2); cervical cancer (HeLa); breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) as well as leukemia (CCRF-CEM); acute monocytic leukemia (THP1); acute promyelocytic leukemia (NB4); and lymphoma (U937) cell lines. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2′-Azinobis-(3-Ethylbenzthiazolin-6-Sulfonic Acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. The three extracts showed potential antioxidant activities with the maximum activity recorded for Pleurotus columbinus (IC50 µg/mL) = 35.13 ± 3.27 for DPPH, 13.97 ± 4.91 for ABTS, and 29.42 ± 3.21 for ORAC assays.
... Some epidemiological studies have reported associations between mushroom consumption and low risks of chronic diseases, such as cancers [16,17], metabolic syndrome [18], cognitive impairment [19], and dementia [20] although some studies failed to observe significant associations [21][22][23][24][25]. However, whether the consumption of mushrooms is associated with better survival and low risk of premature mortality remains uncertain using large-scale epidemiologic studies. ...
Article
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Background Whether mushroom consumption, which is rich in several bioactive compounds, including the crucial antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione, is inversely associated with low all-cause and cause-specific mortality remains uncertain. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between mushroom consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Methods Longitudinal analyses of participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) extant data (1988–1994). Mushroom intake was assessed by a single 24-h dietary recall using the US Department of Agriculture food codes for recipe foods. All-cause and cause-specific mortality were assessed in all participants linked to the National Death Index mortality data (1988–2015). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results Among 15,546 participants included in the current analysis, the mean (SE) age was 44.3 (0.5) years. During a mean (SD) follow-up duration of 19.5 (7.4) years , a total of 5826 deaths were documented. Participants who reported consuming mushrooms had lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with those without mushroom intake (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73–0.98) after adjusting for demographic, major lifestyle factors, overall diet quality, and other dietary factors including total energy. When cause-specific mortality was examined, we did not observe any statistically significant associations with mushroom consumption. Consuming 1-serving of mushrooms per day instead of 1-serving of processed or red meats was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.50–0.84). We also observed a dose-response relationship between higher mushroom consumption and lower risk of all-cause mortality (P-trend = 0.03). Conclusion Mushroom consumption was associated with a lower risk of total mortality in this nationally representative sample of US adults.
... Overall, mushrooms have been reported to have anticancer capabilities and protective effects against tumor development (7) and laboratory studies have revealed these anticarcinogenic effects vary according to different types of mushrooms such as shiitake, maitake, and Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom) (8,24,25). Several epidemiological observational studies have also reported an inverse association between mushroom consumption and cancer risk (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32). However, several other epidemiological studies that have examined the effects of mushroom intake on the risk of cancer have yielded nonsignificant associations (33)(34)(35)(36). ...
Article
Mushrooms are rich in bioactive compounds. The potential health benefits associated with mushroom intake have gained recent research attention. We thus conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between mushroom intake and risk of cancer at any site. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify relevant studies on mushroom intake and cancer published from 1 January, 1966, up to 31 October, 2020. Observational studies (n = 17) with RRs, HRs, or ORs and 95% CIs of cancer risk for ≥2 categories of mushroom intake were eligible for the present study. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted. Higher mushroom consumption was associated with lower risk of total cancer (pooled RR for the highest compared with the lowest consumption groups: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.78; n = 17). Higher mushroom consumption was also associated with lower risk of breast cancer (pooled RR for the highest compared with the lowest consumption groups: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.81; n = 10) and nonbreast cancer (pooled RR for the highest compared with the lowest consumption groups: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.97; n = 13). When site-specific cancers were examined, a significant association with mushroom consumption was only observed with breast cancer; this could be due to the small number of studies that were conducted with other cancers. There was evidence of a significant nonlinear dose-response association between mushroom consumption and the risk of total cancer (P-nonlinearity = 0.001; n = 7). Limitations included the potential for recall and selection bias in case-control designs, which comprised 11 out of the 17 studies included in this meta-analysis, and the large variation in the adjustment factors used in the final models from each study. The association between higher mushroom consumption and lower risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer, may indicate a potential protective role for mushrooms in the diet.
... A hospital-based case controlled study was conducted to assess the combined effect of edible mushrooms and green tea on breast cancer. The study showed a reduced risk of breast cancer in both pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer patients due to high intake of A. bisporus, L. edodes and green tea [70]. Another hospital-based case-controlled study showed a reduced risk of stomach cancer from higher intake of mushrooms including Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Corrinellus shiitake and Pholiota nameko [71]. ...
Article
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Mushrooms, the fruiting bodies of fungi, are known for a long time in different cultures around the world to possess medicinal properties and are used to treat various human diseases. Mushrooms that are parts of traditional medicine in Asia had been extensively studied and this has led to identification of their bioactive ingredients. North America, while home to one of the world’s largest and diverse ecological systems, has not subjected its natural resources especially its diverse array of mushroom species for bioprospecting purposes: Are mushrooms native to North America a good source for drug discovery? In this review, we compile all the published studies up to September 2020 on the bioprospecting of North American mushrooms. Out of the 79 species that have been investigated for medicinal properties, 48 species (60%) have bioactivities that have not been previously reported. For a mere 16 selected species, 17 new bioactive compounds (10 small molecules, six polysaccharides and one protein) have already been isolated. The results from our literature suggest that mushrooms native to North America are indeed a good source for drug discovery.
... Since H 2 O 2 induce hepatotoxicity, it clear that mice receiving mushroom extract with peroxide revealed mononuclear cells aggregation (neutrophils and monocytes) Fig (4,5).While liver of mice treated with A bisporus returned like control Fig(6).Agaricusbisporus considered to have therapeutic and protective properties. Studies demonstrated that Agaricusbisporus extract have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities [17], in other study it used in combination with green tea to reduce the risk of breast cancer [18]. It has potent antitumor effect by enhancing immune response. ...
Research
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Hepatic disorders can develop by many causative agents like Reactive oxygen species (ROS). Various antioxidants have been ensured to protect against hepatic damage. The aim of this study is to ensure Agariusbiporus protective effects in experimental mice of liver injury.Forty adult female albino mice were divided to five groups (Ten mice for eachgroup), the first group give normal saline as control, the second one treated with 2ml/kg body weight of peroxide(H 2 O 2) withdrinking water,the third one treated with water aqueous extract (25) mg/ml ofA.bisporusorallywith H 2 O 2 in drinking water and finally the fourth one treated withaqueous extract (25) mg/ml of A.bisporus orally by use of intragastric tube. Results for apoptosis test showed peroxide treated group induced apoptosis while aqueous extract of A. bisporustreated group with peroxide inducednon-apoptotic. Histopathological examination of liver cells exposed to H 2 O 2 showed necrosis and degenerated liver cells by the evidence of tendency to forming granuloma. In sinusoids showed dilation with severe congestion of blood vessel while the tissue treated with (2) ml/kgbody weight of A.bisporus and H 2 O 2 with drinking water showedslightly congested blood vesseland aggregation of mononuclear cells in liver parenchyma. The liver tissue in mice treated with (2) ml/kgbody weightof A.bisporus appeared approximately like the normal tissue.We conclude that the aqueous extract of Agaricusbisporuscan protect the liver against peroxide induced oxidative damage in mice and is an efficient antioxidant agent and hepatoprotectiveagainst peroxide induced liver injury.
... Over 100 species of Tremella are currently recognized worldwide. Two species namely: T. fuciformis and T. aurantialba are commercially cultivated for food [27]. The name comes from the Latin tremere means "to tremble." ...
... On the other hand, entire fungi and fungi extracts are used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cancer, and used as adjuvants to surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Moreover, an inverse correlation between the risk of developing certain cancers (gastric or breast cancer) and mushroom consumption has been demonstrated [6]. However, not only these species have been studied, but also Tricholoma acerbum were evaluated in order to assess their products as sources of nutrients and nutraceuticals due to its antioxidant activity [7]. ...
Article
The presence of medicinal properties increases the food and agricultural interest of wild species. In this sense, based on backgrounds, the aim of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities and cytotoxicity as potential anticancer activity of three mushroom species of the genus Tricholoma (Higher fungi; bot.: Basidiomycota) present in Europe, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholoma gausapatum and Tricholoma fracticum which are edible and consumed in the world. Antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts from fruiting bodies was assayed as well as their cytotoxicity against two different cell lines on HT-29 (Human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma) and HeLa (Human cervix carcinoma). The extract of T. terreum showed the highest radical scavenging activity and exhibited an interesting cytotoxicity on HeLa cell line according to NCI criteria. Additional studies are warranted to characterize compounds responsible for these biological activities.
... The consumption of fresh mushrooms was found to increase anti-β-glucan antibodies in the serum of humans; it was also suggested to provide better defense against pathogenic fungi (Ishibashi et al. 2005). In addition, dietary intakes of A. bisporus (fresh) and L. edodes (dried) mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women (Zhang et al. 2009). Although many patents have been published claiming immunopotentiator effects of β-glucans in functional foods, in some cases β-glucan is incorporated in such a low quantity that the real health benefit is difficult to determine (Laroche & Michaud 2007). ...
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Mushrooms are becoming a vital component of the human diet for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The use of mushrooms for developing functional foods, drugs, and nutraceuticals is reviewed in this chapter, with emphasis on present or potential medical implications. As functional foods, mushrooms represent a paradigm of integrating tradition and novelty, due to their wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Their bioactive components can be extracted or concentrated as nutraceuticals, and/or a diverse class of dietary supplements. Functional foods and nutraceuticals, particularly mushrooms, are immunoceuticals with antitumor and immunomodulatory effects which target and modulate biological processes that foster the development of diseases. Several mushroom products, mainly polysaccharides such as β‐D‐glucans, have proceeded successfully through clinical trials and are used as drugs to treat cancer and chronic diseases. In sum, the present status and future prospects open new avenues for upgrading mushroom species from functional food to translational mushroom medicine.
... Overall, mushrooms have been reported to have anticancer capabilities and protective effects against tumor development (7) and laboratory studies have revealed these anticarcinogenic effects vary according to different types of mushrooms such as shiitake, maitake, and Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom) (8,24,25). Several epidemiological observational studies have also reported an inverse association between mushroom consumption and cancer risk (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32). However, several other epidemiological studies that have examined the effects of mushroom intake on the risk of cancer have yielded nonsignificant associations (33)(34)(35)(36). ...
Article
Objectives The potential health benefits associated with mushroom consumption, including reductions in risk of cancer have gained recent research attention. We thus conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between mushrooms intake and risk of cancer at any site. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify relevant studies on mushrooms intake and cancer published from January 1, 1966 to October 1, 2019. Observational studies with relative risks (RRs) or hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for two or more categories of mushroom intake were eligible for the present studies. Random-effects models were used to pool study results and to assess dose-response relationships between mushroom consumption and the risk of cancer. Results There were 17 studies (6 cohort and 11 case-control studies) for a total of 20,797 cancer cases. Mushroom consumption was associated with lower risk of cancer – the pooled RR was 0.66 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.55–0.78) for the highest vs lowest mushroom intakes groups. There was substantial heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 77%; p for heterogeneity < 0.01). Mushroom consumption was associated with lower risk of cancer in cohort studies (RR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.99; n = 6) and case-control studies (RR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.66; n = 11). Subgroup analysis showed that the significant mushroom cancer association was only observed in studies from non-western regions (RR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.47–0.71, p = 0.02; n = 14). Mushroom consumption was associated with low risk of breast cancer (RR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.52–0.81) compared to non-breast cancer. Dose-response analysis suggested that 10 g/day increase in mushroom intakes was associated with a 17% lower risk of cancer (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73–0.96, P-trend = 0.01). Conclusions The current meta-analysis showed a significant inverse association between greater mushroom consumption and low risk of cancer. In particular, breast cancer appeared to be the most affected site as significant association with mushroom intake were only observed for cancers at this site. Large prospective studies, ideally randomized controlled trials, are needed to investigate the association between mushrooms intake and risk of cancer. Funding Sources There was no external or internal funding to support this study.
... In another study, the reduced risk (weak) of breast cancer among pre-menopausal women was dependent on many years of consuming green tea drinks, but in the post-menopausal women, <6years of green tea consumption was enough for a decreased breast cancer risk . However, a case-control study that investigated the effect of plasma levels of tea polyphenols on breast cancer risk among Japanese women reported no statistically significant association Zhang et al., 2009]. In another case-control study with Japanese population, high plasma levels of green tea polyphenols, was associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer in women, and positively associated with gastric cancer in men. ...
Article
Several case-control studies have reported that mushroom consumption may be associated with reduced risk of certain cancers. However, epidemiologic studies have not yet prospectively examined the association of mushroom consumption with total and various site-specific cancer risk. This prospective cohort study included 68,327 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1986-2012) and 44,664 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986-2012) who were free of cancer at baseline. Mushroom consumption was assessed at baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Covariates were assessed using biennial questionnaires during the follow-up. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of total and 17 site-specific cancers associated with mushroom consumption. During up to 26 years of follow up, we documented 22,469 incident cancer cases (15,103 in women and 7,366 in men). In the pooled multivariable analysis, participants who consumed 5 or more servings of mushrooms per week had no significantly different risk of total cancer (HR=1.06, 95% CI=0.98-1.14) than participants who almost never consumed mushrooms. We consistently found no association between mushroom consumption and risk of 16 site-specific cancers. However, there was a marginal positive association between mushroom consumption and risk of lung cancer (P-trend=0.05). In conclusion, we found no association between mushroom consumption and total and site-specific cancers in US women and men. More prospective cohort studies are needed to examine the associations for specific cancer types in diverse racial/ethnic groups.
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Background: Mushrooms exist as an integral and vital component of the ecosystem and are very precious fungi. Mushrooms have been traditionally used in herbal medicines for many centuries. Scope and approach: There are a variety of medicinal mushrooms mentioned in the current work such as Agaricus, Amanita, Calocybe, Cantharellus, Cordyceps, Coprinus, Cortinarius, Ganoderma, Grifola, Huitlacoche, Hydnum, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Rigidoporus, Tremella, Trametes sp., etc., which play a vital role in various diseases because of several metabolic components and nutritional values. Medicinal mushrooms can be identified morphologically on the basis of their size, color (white, black, yellow, brown, cream, pink and purple-brown, etc.), chemical reactions, consistency of the stalk and cap, mode of attachment of the gills to the stalk, and spore color and mass, and further identified at a molecular level by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of gene sequencing. There are also other methods that have recently begun to be used for the identification of mushrooms such as high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), microscopy, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), DNA sequencing, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), chemical finger printing, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-TOF) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Lately, the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique is also used for the identification of fungi. Key finding and conclusion: Medicinal mushrooms possess various biological activities like anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-parasitic, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, anti-HIV, anti-diabetic, and many others that will be mentioned in this article. This manuscript will provide future direction, action mechanisms, applications, and the recent collective information of medicinal mushrooms. In addition to many unknown metabolites and patented active metabolites are also included.
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Edible mushrooms are fungi that can be seen with the naked eye and are relatively easy to gather by hand. This review article highlights the health benefit and the biochemistry of several mushroom species. Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus species. Lentinus edodes, and Volvariella species are the most acceptable varieties among the cultivated mushroom. Various biochemical methods such as methanol, ethanol, and water extract of different parts of the edible mushroom in the laboratory have been applied to determine and/or quantify the presence and effectiveness of their chemical compounds, food value, and medicinal properties. They contain varying amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, minerals, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, and lectins and vitamins, as well as lowering cholesterol levels in the body. Due to the presence of those vital nutrients, mushrooms are the best food item with high nutritional value. These compounds have a wide range of therapeutic effects and can act as immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agents. Routine consumption of edible mushrooms would give adequate protection due to the presence of all the necessary nutrients from them. Therefore, edible mushrooms are herbal antibiotics to many diseases as well as various cancers of humans.
Article
Background Mushrooms contain numerous bioactive compounds that may be associated with reduced anxiety including vitamin B12, nerve growth factor, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory agents. We hypothesized that mushroom consumption is associated with a lower risk of depression in American adults. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2016 was used. Up to two days of 24 h dietary recall were analyzed to assess mushroom intake frequency. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, score ≥ 10). We used multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Among 24,699 participants (mean (SE) age: 45.5 (0.3) years), the weighted prevalence of depression was 5.9%. Mushrooms were consumed by 5.2% of participants. Compared with the lowest tertile of mushroom intake, participants in the middle tertile (median intake = 4.9 g/d, number of cases = 16) had lower odds of depression (adjusted OR = 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16, 0.60) while those in the highest tertile did not differ (median intake = 19.6 g/d, adjusted OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.78, number of cases = 22) (P-trend = 0.42). Limitations Cross-sectional data and lack of information on specific types of mushrooms consumed. Conclusion Mushroom consumers had a lower odd of depression. However, we did not observe a dose-response relationship.
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European markets have implemented the Commission Regulation (EU) Number 1146/2014 of 23 October 2014 of the MRL for Anthraquinone (9,10-AQ) is 0.02 ppm. After this implementation for 9,10-AQ for tea in the European market, there has been a decreased by 33.6% in Indonesian tea exports. This paper will explain the preliminary study results of 9,10-AQ in Indonesian tea that consist of (1) the results of 9.10-AQ content of Indonesian tea samples, (2) 9,10-AQ content on fresh tea shoot and in each stage of tea processing, (3) the content of 9.10-AQ in tea liquor, and (4) results of antioxidant activity analysis of Indonesian tea in free radical scavenging by DPPH analysis (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl). Samples selection selected from West Java and East Java as center of tea producing province in Indonesia with incidence of high 9,10-AQ levels in tea. The results show that the 9,10-AQ content depend on drying system technologies. The data conclude that 9,10-AQ level increase due to withering process by 0.004 ppm and in drying process it increase higher (0.007 ppm). The data of 9,10-AQ level of tea liquor are all below the MRL, therefore brewed tea is safe for health. Antioxidant activity of Indonesian tea with 9,10-AQ level above the MRL (0.043 ppm) is very strong that very potential to reduce the negative effects of tea contaminants by free radicals scavenging. ABSTRAK Komisi Regulasi Eropa telah menetapkan Peraturan Nomor 1146/2014 pada tanggal 23 Oktober 2014 tentang MRL untuk Anthraquinone (9,10-AQ) sebesar 0,02 ppm untuk teh. Setelah penerapan peraturan tersebut untuk pasar Eropa, ekspor teh Indonesia ke pasar Eropa turun sebesar 33.6%. Tulisan ini menyajikan hasil studi pendahuluan yang mencakup (1) hasil analisis kandungan 9,10-AQ pada sampel-sampel teh Indonesia; (2) kandungan 9,10-AQ pada pucuk segar dan setiap tahap proses pengolahan teh; (3) kandungan 9.10-AQ pada seduhan teh; and (4) hasil analisis aktivitas antioksidan teh Indonesia dalam menangkap radikal bebas menggunakan analisis DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl). Sampel-sampel diambil dari teh asal Jawa Barat dan Jawa Timur sebagai propinsi pengasil teh Indonesia yang memiliki insiden tinggi mengandung 9,10-AQ diatas MRL. Hasil analisis 9,10-AQ menunjukkan bahwa terdapat indikasi bahwa tingkat kandungannya pada teh Indonesia terkait dengan teknologi yang digunakan untuk pengeringan teh. Kandungan 9,10-AQ meningkat sebesar *Korespondensi Penulis:
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Pseudomonas tolaasii strain No. 6264 has been isolated from mushroom tissue and identified as one of the major pathogen causing brown blotch disease. It secretes peptide toxins, known as tolaasin and its analogue peptides. P. tolaasii 6264 has been used as a typical pathogenic strain to study the brown blotch disease for last 20 years after confirming its blotch-forming ability, hemolytic activity, and white line formation. In this study, the characteristics of P. tolaasii 6264 strain were analyzed and compared according to storage period. Strains of P. tolaasii 6264 stored annually since 2012 were cultured and their pathogenic characters were analyzed. When the 16S rRNA sequences were compared, all strains were divided into two groups. Pathogenic characters including hemolytic activity, blotch-forming ability, and white line test were also investigated. The strains, P. tolaasii 6264-15-2 and P. tolaasii 6264-17, had all three activities; however, the rest of stored strains showed only blotch-forming ability losing other pathogenic characters. Tolaasin peptides were purified from the bacterial cultures and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The strains, P. tolaasii 6264-15-2 and P. tolaasii 6264-17, secreted Tol I (1987 Da), Tol II (1943 Da), and its analogues (1973 Da, 2005 Da) while some of these peptides were not found in the media cultured other strains. These results indicate that the pathogenicity of P. tolaasii could be varied during the storage period.
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Green tea from the leaves of plant Camellia sinensis has been shown to have wide range of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antibacterial activity against many pathogens. In addition, Hibiscus sabdariffa (Linn) (HS) (family Malvaceae), showed benefits in the most of body health. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of daily consumption of green tea and hibiscus on some biochemical parameters in healthy volunteers. Fourteen healthy volunteers were divided randomly into two groups each one contains seven volunteers. They were allowed to drink hot tea of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces and the leaves of green tea 2g three times daily for 2 weeks. Then fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood pressure, serum uric acid and testosterone level were measured before and after as well as total body weight was measured daily. Both plants were shown significant reduction in lipid profile, SBP, DBP and mean arterial blood pressure, as well as uric acid only in green tea group, but there is no significant change according to the fasting blood sugar and testosterone level. There is rapid reduction in body weight by using green tea but not significantly. From this study, we conclude that both plants showed potent hypotensive and hypolipidemic effect. These effects made them very efficiently in protection against cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, Green tea showed worthwhile hypouricemic effect compared with hibiscus.
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Background: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2009, Issue 3).Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. Teas from the plant Camellia sinensis can be grouped into green, black and oolong tea, and drinking habits vary cross-culturally. C sinensis contains polyphenols, one subgroup being catechins. Catechins are powerful antioxidants, and laboratory studies have suggested that these compounds may inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Some experimental and nonexperimental epidemiological studies have suggested that green tea may have cancer-preventative effects. Objectives: To assess possible associations between green tea consumption and the risk of cancer incidence and mortality as primary outcomes, and safety data and quality of life as secondary outcomes. Search methods: We searched eligible studies up to January 2019 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of previous reviews and included studies. Selection criteria: We included all epidemiological studies, experimental (i.e. randomised controlled trials (RCTs)) and nonexperimental (non-randomised studies, i.e. observational studies with both cohort and case-control design) that investigated the association of green tea consumption with cancer risk or quality of life, or both. Data collection and analysis: Two or more review authors independently applied the study criteria, extracted data and assessed methodological quality of studies. We summarised the results according to diagnosis of cancer type. Main results: In this review update, we included in total 142 completed studies (11 experimental and 131 nonexperimental) and two ongoing studies. This is an additional 10 experimental and 85 nonexperimental studies from those included in the previous version of the review. Eleven experimental studies allocated a total of 1795 participants to either green tea extract or placebo, all demonstrating an overall high methodological quality based on 'Risk of bias' assessment. For incident prostate cancer, the summary risk ratio (RR) in the green tea-supplemented participants was 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 1.36), based on three studies and involving 201 participants (low-certainty evidence). The summary RR for gynaecological cancer was 1.50 (95% CI 0.41 to 5.48; 2 studies, 1157 participants; low-certainty evidence). No evidence of effect of non-melanoma skin cancer emerged (summary RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.92; 1 study, 1075 participants; low-certainty evidence). In addition, adverse effects of green tea extract intake were reported, including gastrointestinal disorders, elevation of liver enzymes, and, more rarely, insomnia, raised blood pressure and skin/subcutaneous reactions. Consumption of green tea extracts induced a slight improvement in quality of life, compared with placebo, based on three experimental studies. In nonexperimental studies, we included over 1,100,000 participants from 46 cohort studies and 85 case-control studies, which were on average of intermediate to high methodological quality based on Newcastle-Ottawa Scale 'Risk of bias' assessment. When comparing the highest intake of green tea with the lowest, we found a lower overall cancer incidence (summary RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.07), based on three studies, involving 52,479 participants (low-certainty evidence). Conversely, we found no association between green tea consumption and cancer-related mortality (summary RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.07), based on eight studies and 504,366 participants (low-certainty evidence). For most of the site-specific cancers we observed a decreased RR in the highest category of green tea consumption compared with the lowest one. After stratifying the analysis according to study design, we found strongly conflicting results for some cancer sites: oesophageal, prostate and urinary tract cancer, and leukaemia showed an increased RR in cohort studies and a decreased RR or no difference in case-control studies. Authors' conclusions: Overall, findings from experimental and nonexperimental epidemiological studies yielded inconsistent results, thus providing limited evidence for the beneficial effect of green tea consumption on the overall risk of cancer or on specific cancer sites. Some evidence of a beneficial effect of green tea at some cancer sites emerged from the RCTs and from case-control studies, but their methodological limitations, such as the low number and size of the studies, and the inconsistencies with the results of cohort studies, limit the interpretability of the RR estimates. The studies also indicated the occurrence of several side effects associated with high intakes of green tea. In addition, the majority of included studies were carried out in Asian populations characterised by a high intake of green tea, thus limiting the generalisability of the findings to other populations. Well conducted and adequately powered RCTs would be needed to draw conclusions on the possible beneficial effects of green tea consumption on cancer risk.
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We provide an updated version of the Compendium of Physical Activities, a coding scheme that classifies specific physical activity (PA) by rate of energy expenditure. It was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-reports of PA. The Compendium coding scheme links a five-digit code that describes physical activities by major headings (e.g., occupation, transportation, etc.) and specific activities within each major heading with its intensity, defined as the ratio of work metabolic rate to a standard resting metabolic rate (MET). Energy expenditure in MET-minutes, MET-hours, kcal, or kcal per kilogram body weight can be estimated for specific activities by type or MET intensity. Additions to the Compendium were obtained from studies describing daily PA patterns of adults and studies measuring the energy cost of specific physical activities in field settings. The updated version includes two new major headings of volunteer and religious activities, extends the number of specific activities from 477 to 605, and provides updated MET intensity levels for selected activities.
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This case–control study, conducted in Zhejiang, China during 1999–2000, investigated whether dietary factors have an aetiological association with ovarian cancer. Cases were 254 patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovary cancer. The 652 controls comprised 340 hospital visitors, 261 non-neoplasm hospital outpatients without long-term diet modifications and 51 women recruited from the community. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure the habitual diet of cases and controls. The risks of ovarian cancer for the dietary factors were assessed by adjusted odds ratios based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, accounting for potential confounding demographic, lifestyle, familial factors and hormonal status, family ovarian cancer history and total energy intake. The ovarian cancer risk declined with increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits but vice versa with high intakes of animal fat and salted vegetables. The adjusted upper quartile odds ratio compared to the lower quartile was 0.24 (0.1–0.5) for vegetables, 0.36 (0.2–0.7) for fruits, 4.6 (2.2–9.3) for animal fat and 3.4 (2.0–5.8) for preserved (salted) vegetables with significant dose-response relationship. The risk of ovarian cancer also appeared to increase for those women preferring fat, fried, cured and smoked food. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 712–717. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600085 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK
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To evaluate the interactive effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype and dietary factors on the development of breast cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in South Korean study population consisting of 189 histologically confirmed incident breast cancer cases and their 189 age-matched controls without present or previous history of cancer. A PCR-RFLP method was used for the genotyping of MTHFR (C677T) and statistical evaluations were performed by unconditional logistic regression analysis. Consumption of some dietary factors, such as green vegetables (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6), white vegetables (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7) mushrooms (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.7), and meats (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8) significantly decreased or increased the risk of breast cancer. Although the breast cancer risk was 1.7-fold (95% CI: 0.8-3.2) increased in women with MTHFR TT genotype, the association was not statistically significant. Women with MTHFR TT genotype and low green vegetable intake increased 5.6-fold (95% CI: 1.2-26.3) risk of breast cancer compared to high green vegetable intake group containing MTHFR CC/CT genotype. However, the interaction was not significant (p for interaction = 0.96). Our findings suggest that MTHFR polymorphism did not influence individual susceptibility to breast cancer. However MTHFR (C667T) genotype and green vegetable intakes appeared to have the interactive effect in breast cancer development.
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Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females. Dietary habits may have a role in breast cancer risk and prevention as well. Here, we examined the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on growth and metastasis of highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro and in vivo systems. 4T1 cells were treated with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and the effect was determined on cellular proliferation, induction of apoptosis, proapoptosis, and antiapoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family, and caspase 3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation following 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. Anticarcinogenic and antimetastatic effect of GTP in 4T1 cells was assessed in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Treatment of 4T1 cells with EGCG resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manner. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 concomitantly increase in Bax, cytochrome c release, Apaf-1, and cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP proteins. Treatment of EGCG-rich GTP in drinking water to 4T1 cells bearing BALB/c mice resulted in reduction of tumor growth accompanied with increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen and activation of caspase 3 in tumors. Metastasis of tumor cells to lungs was inhibited and survival period of animals was increased after green tea treatment. This study suggests that GTP have the ability to prevent the development of breast cancer and its metastasis; however, further in vivo studies are required to identify the molecular targets.
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White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporous) are a potential breast cancer chemopreventive agent, as they suppress aromatase activity and estrogen biosynthesis. Therefore, we evaluated the activity of mushroom extracts in the estrogen receptor-positive/aromatase-positive MCF-7aro cell line in vitro and in vivo. Mushroom extract decreased testosterone-induced cell proliferation in MCF-7aro cells but had no effect on MCF-10A, a nontumorigenic cell line. Most potent mushroom chemicals are soluble in ethyl acetate. The major active compounds found in the ethyl acetate fraction are unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid. The interaction of linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid with aromatase mutants expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that these fatty acids inhibit aromatase with similar potency and that mutations at the active site regions affect its interaction with these two fatty acids. Whereas these results suggest that these two compounds bind to the active site of aromatase, the inhibition kinetic analysis indicates that they are noncompetitive inhibitors with respect to androstenedione. Because only conjugated linoleic acid was found to inhibit the testosterone-dependent proliferation of MCF-7aro cells, the physiologically relevant aromatase inhibitors in mushrooms are most likely conjugated linoleic acid and its derivatives. The in vivo action of mushroom chemicals was shown using nude mice injected with MCF-7aro cells. The studies showed that mushroom extract decreased both tumor cell proliferation and tumor weight with no effect on rate of apoptosis. Therefore, our studies illustrate the anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of mushroom extract and its major fatty acid constituents.
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Just as China has struggled with bringing an expanding economy to a country with large areas of economic underdevelopment, the Chinese health care system is experiencing tension between tradition and modernization. Because of this tension, health care in the Peoples' Republic of China has been undergoing significant reform since the beginning of the 1980s. Experiments in market-based health systems have been unsuccessful and have exacerbated disparities. New reforms, announced in 2006, stress the role of family physicians in leading the health care system. This paper discusses the history of the developments that led up to the new reforms and the educational challenges of training sufficient numbers of family physicians to meet the requirements of the new system.
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There has been enormous interest in the biologic activity of mushrooms and innumerable claims have been made that mushrooms have beneficial effects on immune function with subsequent implications for inhibition of tumor growth. The majority of these observations are anecdotal and often lack standardization. However, there remains considerable data on both in vitro and in vivo effects that reflect on the potential of mushroom compounds to influence human immunity. A number of these effects are beneficial but, unfortunately, many responses are still characterized based on phenomenology and there is more speculation than substance. With respect to tumor biology, although many neoplastic lesions are immunogenic, tumor antigens frequently are self antigens and induce tolerance and many patients with cancer exhibit suppressed immune responses, including defective antigen presentation. Therefore, if and when mushroom extracts are effective, they more likely function as a result of improved antigen presentation by dendritic cells than by a direct cytopathic effect. In this review we attempt to place these data in perspective, with a particular focus on dendritic cell populations and the ability of mushroom extracts to modulate immunity. There is, at present, no scientific basis for the use of either mushrooms or mushroom extracts in the treatment of human patients but there is significant potential for rigorous research to understand the potential of mushrooms in human disease and thence to focus on appropriate clinical trials to demonstrate effectiveness and/ or potential toxicity.
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There is significant interest in the use of mushrooms and/or mushroom extracts as dietary supplements based on theories that they enhance immune function and promote health. To some extent, select mushrooms have been shown to have stimulatory action on immune responsiveness, particularly when studied in vitro. However, despite their widespread use for potential health benefits, there is a surprising paucity of epidemiologic and experimental studies that address the biologic activities of mushrooms after oral administration to animals or humans. There have been a number of studies that have addressed the ability of mushrooms to modulate mononuclear cell activation and the phenotypic expression of cytokines and their cognate receptors. There have also been a number of attempts to determine antitumor activities of mushrooms. Such studies are important because many of the components of mushrooms do potentially have significant biologic activity. All data, however, should be tempered by the Possibility that there are toxic levels of metals, including arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury as well as the presence of radioactive contamination with ¹³⁷Cs. In this review, we will Present the comparative biology with respect to both immunological and antitumor activities of mushroom extracts and also highlight the need for further evidence-based research.
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Epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea may decrease the risk of a variety of cancers. In addition, mushroom Ganoderma lucidum has been used for the promotion of health, longevity and treatment of cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study we show that extract from green tea (GTE) increased the anticancer effect of G. lucidum extract (GLE) on cell proliferation (anchorage-dependent growth) as well as colony formation (anchorage-independent growth) of breast cancer cells. This effect was mediated by the down-regulation of expression of oncogene c-myc in MDA-MB-231 cells. Although individual GTE and GLE independently inhibited adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, their combination demonstrated a synergistic effect, which was mediated by the suppression of secretion of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from breast cancer cells. Our study suggests the potential use of combined green tea and G. lucidum extracts for the suppression of growth and invasiveness of metastatic breast cancers.
Article
Incidence rates for a number of cancers in urban Shanghai, China, have been changing markedly. Herein we update the trends using population-based data from the Shanghai Cancer Registry for 1972–1994. During 1993–1994, cancers of the lung, stomach, and liver were the 3 leading forms among men, with age-adjusted (world standard) incidence rates of 50.9, 39.2, and 26.5 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, followed by cancers of the colon (12.4) and esophagus (10.0). Among women, cancers of the breast (27.5), stomach (19.1), and lung (17.7) were the most common tumors, followed by cancers of the colon (11.3) and liver (9.4). Over the 23-year period, the rate for all cancers combined, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, decreased from 247.5 to 215.2 among men and from 173.6 to 154.0 among women. However, trends for individual forms of cancer varied considerably. Rates doubled for cancers of the colon and biliary tract in both sexes, and they increased substantially for cancers of the brain and nervous system, kidney, pancreas, prostate, corpus uteri, female breast, and ovary, and for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Rates for cancers of the lung and rectum changed little. Rates declined by at least one-half for cancers of the esophagus and cervix, with notable decreases also for cancers of the stomach and liver. Some of these trends may reflect variations in diagnostic or screening practices, although changes in lifestyle and other environmental exposures are likely to play important roles. Further epidemiologic research in China is needed to identify risk factors influencing the cancer incidence trends. Int. J. Cancer 83:435–440, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
One in ten of all new cancers diagnosed worldwide each year is a cancer of the female breast, and it is the most common cancer in women in both developing and developed areas. It is also the principal cause of death from cancer among women globally. We review the descriptive epidemiology of the disease, focusing on some of the key elements of the geographical and temporal variations in incidence and mortality in each world region. The observations are discussed in the context of the numerous aetiological factors, as well as the impact of screening and advances in treatment and disease management in high-resource settings.
Article
In a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer among Chinese men and women in western North America and the People's Republic of China, a common protocol was used to assess past life-style characteristics of 905 cases diagnosed during 1981-1986 and 2,488 controls. Risks for cancers of both the colon and rectum increased with increased food energy from fat, protein, carbohydrate, and all energy sources combined, for both sexes and on both continents. Yet, in multivariate analysis, colorectal cancer risk was significantly associated only with saturated fat; no relationships were seen with other dietary sources of energy. Colon cancer risk was elevated among men employed in sedentary occupations. On both continents and in both sexes, risks for cancers of both the colon and rectum increased with increasing time spent sitting. Further, the association between colorectal cancer risk and saturated fat was stronger among the sedentary than among the active. Risk among sedentary Chinese Americans of either sex increased more than fourfold from the lowest to the highest category of saturated fat intake. Among migrants to North America, risk increased with increasing years lived in North America. These observations suggest (a) that colorectal cancer risk increases with duration of exposure to a sedentary life-style and a diet rich in saturated fat; (b) that higher incidence among ChineseAmerican men relative to women is due to longer duration of these habits among men, who have lived longer in North America; and (c) that higher risk among Chinese Americans of both sexes relative to risk among the general population in China is due to differences in such habits. Attributable risk calculations suggest that, if these associations are causal, saturated fat intakes exceeding 10 g/day, particularly in combination with physical inactivity, could account for 60% of colorectal cancer incidence among Chinese-American men and 40% among Chinese-American women.
Article
In a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer among Chinese men and women in western North America and the People's Republic of China, a common protocol was used to assess past life-style characteristics of 905 cases diagnosed during 1981-1986 and 2,488 controls. Risks for cancers of both the colon and rectum increased with increased food energy from fat, protein, carbohydrate, and all energy sources combined, for both sexes and on both continents. Yet, in multivariate analysis, colorectal cancer risk was significantly associated only with saturated fat; no relationships were seen with other dietary sources of energy. Colon cancer risk was elevated among men employed in sedentary occupations. On both continents and in both sexes, risks for cancers of both the colon and rectum increased with increasing time spent sitting. Further, the association between colorectal cancer risk and saturated fat was stronger among the sedentary than among the active. Risk among sedentary Chinese Americans of either sex increased more than fourfold from the lowest to the highest category of saturated fat intake. Among migrants to North America, risk increased with increasing years lived in North America. These observations suggest (a) that colorectal cancer risk increases with duration of exposure to a sedentary life-style and a diet rich in saturated fat; (b) that higher incidence among Chinese-American men relative to women is due to longer duration of these habits among men, who have lived longer in North America; and (c) that higher risk among Chinese Americans of both sexes relative to risk among the general population in China is due to differences in such habits. Attributable risk calculations suggest that, if these associations are causal, saturated fat intakes exceeding 10 g/day, particularly in combination with physical inactivity, could account for 60% of colorectal cancer incidence among Chinese-American men and 40% among Chinese-American women.
Article
The water-soluble (LEM) and alcohol-insoluble (LAP and LAP1) fractions were prepared from the culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia which was composed of bagasse and rice bran. LEM suppressed rat hepatocarcinogenesis and its cell proliferation of rat-ascites hepatoma to about 50% or less of each control group. LAP also suppressed cell proliferation at almost the same rate. LAP1 induced many small cells in the ascites and significantly raised the survival rate of hepatoma-bearing rats. Thus, anticarcinogenic action was revealed in LAP or LAP1 fractions which were mainly composed of xylose-containing polysaccharide and protein.
Article
The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses, the following rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vegetable consumption were found (comparing highest versus lowest quintile): total vegetables (RR, 0.80; CI, 0.57-1.12); prepared vegetables (RR, 0.85; CI, 0.61-1.19); and raw vegetables (RR, 0.96; CI, 0.69-1.34). For vegetables categorized in botanical groups, no associations were found except for consumption of pulses (RR, 0.71; CI, 0.51-0.98; P for trend, 0.01). The RRs for total fruit and citrus fruit were 1.31 (CI, 0.96-1.79) and 1.27 (CI, 0.93-1.73), respectively; the corresponding Ps for trend were 0.02 and 0.01, respectively. In a continuous model, no association for total fruit was observed. Individual vegetables and fruits were evaluated as continuous variables (g/day). Nonsignificant inverse associations (RRs per increment of 25 g/day) were found for consumption of kale (RR, 0.74), raw endive (RR, 0.72), mandarins (RR, 0.75), and raisins or other dried fruit (RR, 0.49). Observed positive associations were significant for consumption of leek (RR, 1.38) and oranges (RR, 1.07) and nonsignificant for sweet peppers (RR, 1.60) and mushrooms (RR, 1.49). Results in subgroups of cases were more or less consistent with the overall results. From our study, we cannot conclude that vegetable consumption is important in prostate cancer etiology, but for certain vegetables or fruits, an association cannot be excluded.
Article
The proceedings of the UICC 17th International Cancer Congress, held in Rio de Janeiro in August, are now available on videotape. The following videos are available: Highlights of the Congress, Interviews with the Panels, Prostate Diseases (ICUD/UICC/WHO), Global Cancer Facts and Figures (Dr. Max Parkin), The Fatal Combination in Cancer Development: Self-Stimulation and Self-Renewal (Dr. Donald Metcalf), Viral Oncology: The HPV Story (Dr. Harald zur Hausen), Nature and Nurture (Sir Richard Doll), Metastases (Dr. Max Burger), Pain Management in Cancer (Dr. Charles Cleeland), Behavioral Science (Dr. David Hill), Eurotrial 40 (Dr. Marco Rosselli del Turco), History and Development of Intravenous Feeding and Use in Cancer Therapy (Dr. Jonathan Rhoads), Cytopathology (Dr. William Frable), Laparoscopic Surgery (Dr. Bruce Ramshaw), Radiology for the Year 2000 (Dr. Carl d'Orsi), Breast Cancer (Dr. Kirby Bland), Rectal Cancer (Dr. Glen Steele), Prostate Cancer (Dr. Michael Brawer), Cervical Cancer (Dr. Hervy Averette), Lymphoma (Dr. Charles Coltman), Chronic Leukemias (Dr. Heinz Ludwig), and Soft Tissue Sarcoma (Dr. Murray Brennan).
Article
Incidence rates for a number of cancers in urban Shanghai, China, have been changing markedly. Herein we update the trends using population-based data from the Shanghai Cancer Registry for 1972-1994. During 1993-1994, cancers of the lung, stomach, and liver were the 3 leading forms among men, with age-adjusted (world standard) incidence rates of 50.9, 39.2, and 26.5 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, followed by cancers of the colon (12.4) and esophagus (10.0). Among women, cancers of the breast (27.5), stomach (19.1), and lung (17.7) were the most common tumors, followed by cancers of the colon (11.3) and liver (9.4). Over the 23-year period, the rate for all cancers combined, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, decreased from 247.5 to 215.2 among men and from 173.6 to 154.0 among women. However, trends for individual forms of cancer varied considerably. Rates doubled for cancers of the colon and biliary tract in both sexes, and they increased substantially for cancers of the brain and nervous system, kidney, pancreas, prostate, corpus uteri, female breast, and ovary, and for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Rates for cancers of the lung and rectum changed little. Rates declined by at least one-half for cancers of the esophagus and cervix, with notable decreases also for cancers of the stomach and liver. Some of these trends may reflect variations in diagnostic or screening practices, although changes in lifestyle and other environmental exposures are likely to play important roles. Further epidemiologic research in China is needed to identify risk factors influencing the cancer incidence trends.
Article
Agaricus blazei Murrill extracts have previously been shown to have anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic properties. These results suggest that antimutagenic activity, besides the modulation of the immune system, might be involved in the anticarcinogenic action of A. blazei. To investigate the possible antimutagenic effect of A. blazei in vivo, we evaluated its effect on clastogenicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in mice, using the micronucleus test in bone marrow (MNPCE) and in peripheral blood (MNRET). Male Swiss mice were treated with CP (25 or 50mg/kg i.p.) or with CP plus mushroom solution at three different temperatures: 4, 21, and 60 degrees C. Aqueous solution of a mixture from various lineages of the mushroom inhibited induction of micronuclei by CP in bone marrow and in peripheral blood of mice. In contrast to the mixture of lineages, a single isolated lineage did not lead to a reduction of CP-induced MN frequencies in either bone marrow or blood cells of mice. The results suggest that under certain circumstances these mushrooms exhibit antimutagenic activities that might contribute to an anticarcinogenic effect.
Article
To assess gastric cancer (GC) risk in relation to dietary intake in Korea, a case-control study was performed. Trained dietitians interviewed 136 patients diagnosed with GC, and the same number of controls were selected by matching sex, age and hospital. A significant decrease in GC risk was observed with increased intake of Baiechu kimchi (prepared with salted Chinese cabbage and red pepper, etc.), Baiechu kimchi-stew, garlic, mushroom and soybean milk. On the contrary, a significant increase in the risk of GC was observed with increased intake of cooked rice with bean, charcoal grilled beef, pollack soup, Kkakduki (a kind of kimchi prepared with salted radish and red pepper, etc.), Dongchimi (a kind of kimchi prepared with radish and a large quantity of salt water) and cooked spinach. In food groups, increased intake of soybean products was associated with decreased risk of GC. Intake of citrus fruits rather than total fruits was shown to have a protective effect on the risk of GC, but was not significant. In this study, intake of total vegetables was shown to have a protective effect, whereas high nitrate-containing vegetables increased the risk of GC. In conclusion, our study suggests that the risk of GC decreased with high consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, whereas high consumption of foods rich in nitrate and carcinogenic substances produced during the cooking process increased the risk of GC.
Article
A case-control study was conducted in China during 1999-2000 to investigate the effects of intensity and duration of physical activity on the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cases were 254 patients with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer. The 652 controls comprised 340 hospital visitors, 261 non-neoplasm hospital outpatients and 51 women recruited from the community. Physical activity was measured by a validated questionnaire. The risks of ovarian cancer were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis accounting for age, demographic, lifestyle and familial factors, hormonal status, family ovarian cancer history and total energy intake. The study found that increasing total physical activity was associated with a lower ovarian cancer risk among Chinese women. The odds ratio was 0.54 (95% CI 0.34-0.87) for high vs. low levels of total weekly metabolic equivalent tasks. Ovarian cancer risk tended to decline with increasing duration of strenuous sports and frequency of activity-induced sweating among pre-menopausal women, with adjusted OR 0.13 (95% CI 0.03-0.64) and 0.45 (95% CI 0.24-0.85), respectively. Increasing duration of moderate activity in post-menopausal women also appeared to be protective against ovarian cancer, with adjusted OR 0.36 (95% CI 0.18-0.73).
Article
There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low soy consumers. Similarly, the protective effect of soy was primarily observed among subjects who were nondrinkers of green tea. In summary, our results point to an important role of both green tea and soy intake in relation to breast cancer risk in Asian-American women.
Article
We assessed the possible association of gastrointestinal cancers with cruciferous vegetables and mushrooms in a multicenter, hospital-based case-control study in an agricultural area of Japan. One hundred forty-nine cases and 287 controls for stomach cancer and 115 cases and 230 controls for colorectal cancer were matched by age, sex, and residential area. In stomach cancer, the protective effect of vegetables (consumption of total vegetable) was obscure, but it became clearer when we examined specific kinds of vegetables. Marginal associations were observed in the group of the highest consumption of Chinese cabbage (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.07), broccoli (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.34-1.08), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji) (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.31-1.04) and Pholita nameko (Nameko) (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.30-1.06). In colorectal cancer, we observed decreased risks from the highest tertile of total vegetables (OR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.08-0.66) and low-carotene-containing vegetables (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.08-0.77), and inverse associations were observed in the group of the highest consumption of broccoli (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.06-0.58). Although the sample size was limited, subgroup analyses showed that the associations differed with the histopathological subtype. These findings suggest that cruciferous vegetables decrease the risk of both stomach and colorectal cancer, and that mushrooms are associated with a decreased risk of stomach cancer.
Article
There is significant interest in the use of mushrooms and/or mushroom extracts as dietary supplements based on theories that they enhance immune function and promote health. To some extent, select mushrooms have been shown to have stimulatory action on immune responsiveness, particularly when studied in vitro. However, despite their widespread use for potential health benefits, there is a surprising paucity of epidemiologic and experimental studies that address the biologic activities of mushrooms after oral administration to animals or humans. There have been a number of studies that have addressed the ability of mushrooms to modulate mononuclear cell activation and the phenotypic expression of cytokines and their cognate receptors. There have also been a number of attempts to determine antitumor activities of mushrooms. Such studies are important because many of the components of mushrooms do potentially have significant biologic activity. All data, however, should be tempered by the possibility that there are toxic levels of metals, including arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury as well as the presence of radioactive contamination with 137Cs. In this review, we will present the comparative biology with respect to both immunological and antitumor activities of mushroom extracts and also highlight the need for further evidence-based research.
Article
Estimates of the worldwide incidence, mortality and prevalence of 26 cancers in the year 2002 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The results are presented here in summary form, including the geographic variation between 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 10.9 million new cases, 6.7 million deaths, and 24.6 million persons alive with cancer (within three years of diagnosis). The most commonly diagnosed cancers are lung (1.35 million), breast (1.15 million), and colorectal (1 million); the most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.18 million deaths), stomach cancer (700,000 deaths), and liver cancer (598,000 deaths). The most prevalent cancer in the world is breast cancer (4.4 million survivors up to 5 years following diagnosis). There are striking variations in the risk of different cancers by geographic area. Most of the international variation is due to exposure to known or suspected risk factors related to lifestyle or environment, and provides a clear challenge to prevention.
Article
Experimental and epidemiological data have implicated a potential chemoprotective role of green tea polyphenols and a potential enhancing role of angiotensin II in the development of breast cancer in humans. Angiotensin II is converted from its precursor by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Women with low-activity genotype of the ACE gene had a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those possessing high-activity ACE genotype. Experimental data showed that green tea polyphenols could inhibit angiotensin II-induced reactive oxygen species production. We reasoned that if this is one of the mechanisms by which green tea polyphenols protect against human breast cancer, then their effect should be more prominent among women possessing high-activity ACE genotype than women with low-activity ACE genotype. In other words, we predict a stronger inverse green tea-breast cancer association among the former versus the latter subgroup of women. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a nested case-control study involving 297 incident breast cancer cases and 665 control subjects within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. There was no association between intake frequencies of green tea and risk of breast cancer among all women or those with low-activity ACE genotype. Among women with high-activity ACE genotype, however, intake frequency of green tea was associated with a statistically significant decrease in risk of breast cancer (P for trend=0.039); the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.33 (0.13-0.82) for women drinking green tea at least monthly and 0.29 (0.10-0.79) for those drinking green tea at least weekly compared with non-drinkers. There was a statistically significant interaction effect between green tea intake and ACE genotype on risk of breast cancer (P for interaction=0.01). Black tea intake was unrelated to breast cancer risk irrespective of the ACE genotype. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of genetically determined factors in evaluating the role of green tea intake in the development of breast cancer.
Article
This study describes the development and reproducibility of a 128-item quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure usual food consumption for women in southeast China. The FFQ was pre-tested using 51 Chinese women who recently migrated to Australia. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.81 for internal consistency. The reliability of the FFQ was then assessed by another test-retest study. A sample of 41 women residing in southeast China was interviewed twice within 12 weeks. Intraclass correlation coefficients were moderate to high for mean food group consumption (0.43-0.96) and mean daily nutrient intakes (0.47-0.89). Kappa statistics for eating habits ranged from 0.27 to 0.89 in the test-retest. The mean ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate was 1.73 (S.D. 0.39) in both test and retest samples. The study confirmed that the FFQ method using standard containers is appropriate to assess dietary intake for women in southeast China.
Article
Experimental studies have shown that tea and tea polyphenols have anti-carcinogenic properties against breast cancer. A number of epidemiologic studies, both case-control and cohort in design, have examined the possible association between tea intake and breast cancer development in humans. This meta-analysis included 13 papers which examined populations in eight countries and provided data on consumption of either green tea or black tea, or both in relation to breast cancer risk. Summary odds ratios (ORs) for highest versus non/lowest tea consumption level were calculated based on fixed and random effects models. Heterogeneity between studies was examined via the Q statistics. For green tea, the combined results from the four studies indicated a reduced risk of breast cancer for highest versus non/lowest intake (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.61-0.98). For black tea, conflicting results were observed in case-control versus cohort studies. The combined results from the eight case-control studies showed a minor inverse association between black tea consumption and risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.84-0.98). This inverse association was stronger in hospital-based (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.50-1.19) than population-based case-control studies (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.81-1.09). Five cohort studies demonstrated a modest increase in risk associated with black tea intake (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02-1.31). The results of this meta-analysis indicate a lower risk for breast cancer with green tea consumption. Available data suggest a possible late-stage, promotional effect of black tea on breast carcinogenesis.
Article
The objective of the study is to evaluate the relation between antioxidant-rich beverages and the incidence of breast cancer. This prospective study consisted of 4396 women without a history of cancer who were participants in the French Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants Study. Beverage consumption was estimated by using three nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls. Incident cancer cases were identified through clinical examinations performed every other year, including, e.g., a screening mammogram, and through a monthly health questionnaire. During the median 6.6 years of follow-up, 95 breast cancers were diagnosed. In a multivariate model, an inverse association between herbal tea consumption and risk for breast cancer was observed (compared with nondrinkers, drinking 1 to 149 mL/d; relative risk [RR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.80, and for > or =150 mL/d; RR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.94; p for trend = 0.04). Consumption of coffee, tea, fruit juices, or wine was not associated with risk for breast cancer. Results of this study suggest that consumption of herbal tea may have a role in the prevention of breast cancer.
Article
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Tea has anticarcinogenic effects against breast cancer in experimental studies. However, epidemiologic evidence that tea protects against breast cancer has been inconsistent. A case-control study was conducted in Southeast China between 2004 and 2005. The incidence cases were 1009 female patients aged 20-87 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer. The 1009 age-matched controls were healthy women randomly recruited from breast disease clinics. Information on duration, frequency, quantity, preparation, type of tea consumption, diet and lifestyle were collected by face-to-face interview using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals. Compared with non-tea drinkers, green tea drinkers tended to reside in urban, have better education and have higher consumption of coffee, alcohol, soy, vegetables and fruits. After adjusting established and potential confounders, green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. The ORs were 0.87 (0.73-1.04) in women consuming 1-249 g of dried green tea leaves per annum, 0.68 (0.54-0.86) for 250-499 g per annum, 0.59 (0.45-0.77) for 500-749 g per annum and 0.61 (0.48-0.78) for >or=750 g per annum, with a statistically significant test for trend (P < 0.001). Similar dose-response relationships were observed for duration of drinking green tea, number of cups consumed and new batches prepared per day. We conclude that regular consumption of green tea can protect against breast cancer. More research to closely examine the relationship between tea consumption and breast cancer risk is warranted.