Article

Ruminative Thought Style and Depressed Mood

University of Western Ontario, Canada.
Journal of Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.12). 01/2009; 65(1):1-19. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20542
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Recent research has suggested that the measure most commonly used to assess rumination, the Response Style Questionnaire (RSQ; L. D. Butler & S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1994), may be heavily biased by depressive symptoms, thereby restricting the scope of research exploring this construct. This article offers a broader conceptualization of rumination, which includes positive, negative, and neutral thoughts as well as past and future-oriented thoughts. The first two studies describe the development and evaluation of the Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTS), a psychometrically sound measure of the general tendency to ruminate. Further, the scale is comprised of a single factor and shows high internal consistency, suggesting that rumination does encompasses the factors mentioned. The final study involved a longitudinal diary investigation of rumination and mood over time. Results suggest that the RTS assesses a related, but separate, construct than does the RSQ. RTS scores predicted future depressed mood beyond the variance accounted for by initial depressed mood whereas RSQ scores did not. The implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.

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    • "Likewise, rumination, a repetitive, recurrent, intrusive and uncontrollable thinking style (Brinker & Dozois, 2009) exacerbates and prolongs emotions (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991; Nolen- Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008). Rumination is associated with the development and duration of depressive episodes (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2008), is related to general anxiety (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2008) and may be associated with stressful life events (Abela, Hankin, Sheshko, Fishman & Stolow, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study sought to explore the relationships between depression, anxiety, stress and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and the mediating roles of rumination and emotion regulation in this relationship. Methods: The sample comprised 1,586 Australian university students who completed a self-report questionnaire assessing the relevant variables. Results: Of the sample, 8.9% engaged in NSSI in the four weeks prior to the survey. Depression, anxiety and stress each exerted a direct effect on NSSI, and each relationship was mediated by cognitive reappraisal. The relationship between stress and NSSI was also mediated by expressive suppression. Conclusion: The results imply intervention efforts aimed at teaching adaptive emotion regulation strategies for students experiencing high levels of psychological distress may reduce the frequency of NSSI.
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    • "Rumination Rumination was assessed using the 20-item Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTSQ; Brinker, and Dozois 2009) measured on a 7-point response scale (1=not all descriptive of me, 7=describes me very well). Example items include, BI find than my mind often goes over things again and again^ and BWhen I am looking forward to an exciting event, thoughts of it interfere with what I am working on^ (α=.96). "
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    ABSTRACT: Variable-centered analyses demonstrate that most facets of mindfulness are associated with improved psychological well-being. Person-centered analyses provide the ability to identify distinct subpopulations defined by individuals’ full response profiles on mindfulness facets. Previous research has used latent profile analysis (LPA) to distinguish four subgroups of college students based on five facets of mindfulness: high mindfulness group, low mindfulness group, judgmentally observing group, and non-judgmentally aware group. On emotional outcomes, they found the judgmentally observing group had the most maladaptive emotional outcomes followed by the low mindfulness group. However, they did not examine experience with mindfulness meditation, other mindfulness related constructs, or psychological well-being. In a sample of 688 college students (481 non-meditators, 200 meditators), we used LPA to identify distinct subgroups defined by their scores on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Using the Lo-Mendell-Rubin Likelihood Ratio Test, we found that a 4-class solution fits optimally for the entire sample as well as subsamples of meditation-naïve and meditation experienced participants.We substantially replicated previous findings in all samples with regard to emotional outcomes. Further, the high mindfulness group demonstrated the highest levels of psychological well-being, decentering, self-regulation, and psychological flexibility. Overall, our results demonstrate the utility of person-centered analyses to examine mindfulness in unique ways.
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    • "trolling for baseline depression, the RTSQ predicted later negative mood, but the RRS did not (Brinker & Dozois, 2009). The authors of that study suggested the RRS and the Beck Depression Inventory—II (BDI–II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) shared similar variance if they both assessed depressive symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) propose that rumination about a trauma may increase particular symptom clusters. One type of rumination, termed counterfactual thinking (CFT), refers to thinking of alternative outcomes for an event. CFT centered on a trauma is thought to increase intrusions, negative alterations in mood and cognitions (NAMC), and marked alterations in arousal and reactivity (AAR). The theorized relations between CFT and specific symptom clusters have not been thoroughly investigated. Also, past work has not evaluated whether the relation is confounded by depressive symptoms, age, gender, or number of traumatic events experienced. Method: The current study examined the unique associations between CFT and PTSD symptom clusters according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013>) in 51 trauma-exposed treatment-seeking individuals. Results: As predicted, CFT was associated with all PTSD symptom clusters. After controlling for common predictors of PTSD symptom severity (i.e., age, depressive symptoms, and number of traumatic life events endorsed), we found CFT to be significantly associated with the intrusion and avoidance symptom clusters but not the AAR or NAMC symptom clusters. Conclusions: Results from the present study provide further support for the role of rumination in specific PTSD symptom clusters above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and number of traumatic life events endorsed. Future work may consider investigating interventions to reduce rumination in PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy
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