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Chemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from the fruit pulp of wood apple

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... Heaqu et al., 2009 [4] reported that the wood apple contains pH (3.1), titrable acidity (4.51), moisture (77.99%), TSS (16), reducing sugar (2.88%), total sugar (11.4g), crude fibre (6.21%), carbohydrates (17.9%), vitamin c(16.4). Titrable acidity (4.16%), pH (3.2), Vitamin-C (2.6%), antioxidant (1412.55µg/g) ...
... The antimicrobial activity of F. limonia would be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and these compounds are most probably soluble in organic polar solvent. According to Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu, (2013) [16] reported that the natural products with dual efficiency in preventing lipid oxidation and antimicrobial properties have incredible potential for extending the shelf life of food products. Among natural products, essential oils of higher plants and their components are gaining interest as food additives and widely accepted by consumers because of their relatively high volatility, ephemeral nature and biodegradability. ...
... The antimicrobial activity of F. limonia would be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and these compounds are most probably soluble in organic polar solvent. According to Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu, (2013) [16] reported that the natural products with dual efficiency in preventing lipid oxidation and antimicrobial properties have incredible potential for extending the shelf life of food products. Among natural products, essential oils of higher plants and their components are gaining interest as food additives and widely accepted by consumers because of their relatively high volatility, ephemeral nature and biodegradability. ...
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Article
Development and standardization of wood apple Katta Meeta (candy), its acceptability, physico-chemical properties and storage stability. Woodapple (Limonia acidissima Linn.), commonly known as Bael. Four variations of wood apple candy (Katta meeta) containing different levels of pulp (45, 55, 65 and 75%) were prepared and compared with control (Tamarind). Proximate composition, textural attributes and microbiological quality of the developed product were determined during storage at room temperature and refrigerated temperature. Overall acceptability of candy decreased from 8.6 to 7.75 on 30 th day of storage, 6.35 on 90 th day of storage. WJC-4 (75%) scored lower values of 8.00, 7.80, 8.10, 7.90, 7.95 and 8.00 for appearance, texture, colour, aroma, taste and overall acceptability, respectively.
... The influence of essential oil from fruits of bergamot on the generation of superoxide anion was measured according to the method described in previous work (Senthilkumar & Venkatesalu, 2013;Zhang, Li, Xing, Yang, & Sun, 2014) with some modifications. Superoxide anion was generated in a non-enzymic system and determined by a spectrophotometric measurement for reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium. ...
... concentration. Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu (2013) compared F. limonia fruit pulp essential oil with the same dose of BHT, the results showed that the IC50 (30.86 μg/mL) value of essential oil was lower than BHT (IC50 = 48.44 μg/mL) and had good antioxidant activity (Senthilkumar & Venkatesalu, 2013). The result of the present study is in agreement with the previous report that antioxidant properties of some essential oils are effective via scavenging of O2¯radical. ...
... concentration. Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu (2013) compared F. limonia fruit pulp essential oil with the same dose of BHT, the results showed that the IC50 (30.86 μg/mL) value of essential oil was lower than BHT (IC50 = 48.44 μg/mL) and had good antioxidant activity (Senthilkumar & Venkatesalu, 2013). The result of the present study is in agreement with the previous report that antioxidant properties of some essential oils are effective via scavenging of O2¯radical. ...
... Further, water extracts of the fruit exhibited potentially high nitric oxide radical scavenging activity than other solvent extracts. The fruit pulp essential oils of wood apple were studied for their chemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity by Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu [27]; they isolated 50 essential oils. Among them thymol (52.22%) was major chemical compound followed by dodecanoic acid (19.3%), α-pinene (4.02%), carvacrol (3.86%), camphoric acid (3.25%), and caryophyllen oxide (3.06%). ...
... 025), carvacrol (3.86%), camphoric acid (3.25%), and caryophyllene oxide (3.06%)[27]. acidic heteropolysaccharide isolated from ripe fruits of wood apple (carboxymethylated α-(1-4) polygalacturonan backbone with 2-and 2,4-O-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl, 2-and 2,3-O-α-L-arabnofuranosyl, and 3, -2,4 and terminal α-D-glactophyranosyl) has demonstrated significant in vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell growth inhibition ...
... Anti-microbial Aqueous extract Essential oil Fruit pulp [20]. ...
... Methanolic extract, Acetone extract, Aqueous extract Essential oil Stem bark, fruit, leaves, fruit pulp [20,24,25]. ...
... %age inhibition = 100 × {1-(No. of tumors in sample /No. of tumors in negative control)} Spectrophotometric DPPH Assay DPPH • (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging potential of Citrus essential oils were assessed according to the reported method [20] with minor modifications. For making essential oil dilutions (1 to 10 mg/mL) methanol used as solvent. ...
... The radical scavenging behavior of the essential oil was due to its phenolic components. In phenolic compounds, hydroxyl group attached to aromatic ring might be responsible for its antioxidant behavior, that has capacity to give hydrogen atoms with electrons and it stabilized the free radicals [20]. The lipid peroxidation inhibition was assessed with β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. ...
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Article
Essential oils and their volatile constituents are used extensively to prevent and treat human diseases. In the past decades, worldwide demand for citrus essential oils has greatly increased. Citrus essential oils containing 85-99% volatile and 1-15% non-volatile components. Essential oils from Citrus pseudolimon and Citrus grandis peels were extracted through steam distillation and characterized by GC-MS. C. pseudolimon has thirty six and C. grandis has thirty three total components; limonene 47.07% and 71.48% was the major component in both oils respectively. Antioxidant activity was checked by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching test. Both oils have modest activity. The antimicrobial potential was assessed against different bacterial and fungus strains. C. pseudolimon oil possessed strong activity against all tested strains while C. grandis has moderate activity. The antitumor activity was evaluated by potato disc assay, C. pseudolimon showed 81.25% inhibition. Hence the essential oils could have a great potential in pharmaceutical industry.
... Wood apple fruit is considered to be one of the natural sources of anti-oxidants due to its potential radical scavenging activity of various phytochemicals (Nithya & Saraswathi, 2010). The diverse pharmacological properties of the fruit include anti-diabetic (Gupta, Johri, & Saxena, 2009; Gupta, Sharma, & Saxena, 2006), anti-ulcerative (Mishra et al., 2009), hepatoprotective (Jain et al., 2011; Kangralkar, Patil, Bandivadekar, Nandagaon, & Burli., 2010), wound healing (Ilango & Chitra, 2010), anti-tumour (Saima, Das, Sarkar, Sen, & Sur, 2000), anti-microbial activity (Senthilkumar & Venkatesalu, 2013). People consume the raw fruit pulp as such with or without sugars, or as a beverage after blending it with other ingredients. ...
... Wood apple fruit is considered to be one of the natural sources of anti-oxidants due to its potential radical scavenging activity of various phytochemicals ( Nithya & Saraswathi, 2010). The diverse pharmacological properties of the fruit include anti-diabetic ( Gupta, Johri, & Saxena, 2009;Gupta, Sharma, & Saxena, 2006), anti-ulcerative ( Mishra et al., 2009), hepatoprotective ( Jain et al., 2011;Kangralkar, Patil, Bandivadekar, Nandagaon, & Burli., 2010), wound healing ( Ilango & Chitra, 2010), anti-tumour ( Saima, Das, Sarkar, Sen, & Sur, 2000), anti-microbial activity ( Senthilkumar & Venkatesalu, 2013). People consume the raw fruit pulp as such with or without sugars, or as a beverage after blending it with other ingredients. ...
... The major bioactive compounds e.g. phenolics, flavonoids, sterols, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals are responsible for the prevention of chronical disease (Pande et al., 2010;Senthilkumar & Venkatesalu, 2013). Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites produced by plants and these act as protective compounds against many diseases, pathogens and infections. ...
Article
Ultrasonic assisted extraction is a novel technique to obtain bioactive compounds from plants with great efficiency. The aim of study was optimization of phenolic extraction efficiency and DPPHsc activity from wood apple (Limonia acidissima L.) fruit. Phenols were extracted using different polar solvents methanol and acetone. The conditions of extraction with ultrasonic method using response surface methodology central composite design (CCD) and the variables includes solvent concentration of methanol and acetone (50‐100 %), ultrasonic temperature (30‐50 oC), sonication duration (20‐40 min) and ultrasonic frequency (25‐45 kHz). Optimum extraction conditions were determined as 61.5 % of solvent concentration, extraction temperature of 50 oC for 40 min extraction time at 25 kHz ultrasonic frequency for methanol extract. For these extraction condition of methanol extract, phenolic yield, total phenolic content and DPPHsc were found to be 25.81 %, 224.36 μg GAE/g and 93.49 %, respectively. For acetone extract, optimum extraction conditions were as follows: 52.68 % solvent concentration, 47.89 oC temperature, 39.8 min and 0.73 kHz ultrasonic frequency. The result obtained under these optimized conditions was 23.78 % yield of phenolic extract, 290.76 μg GAE/g TPC and 91.28 % DPPHsc, for acetone. The result demonstrated that the highest phenolic efficiency, phenolic content and DPPHsc were observed in methanolic solvent extract. SEM images of ultrasonicated powder samples showed that sonication results in cell rupturing and thus increasing the mass transfer for bioactive compounds. Furthermore, the results of ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis of phenolic compounds from methanolic extract of wood apple fruit pulp revealed the presence of gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid and quercetin in a magnificent amount.
... The wood apple pulp also contained amount of minerals and vitamins [3] [4], [5]. The high yielding fruits are popularly grown in India Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Burma and many countries of Southeast Asian [6]. The pulp of wood apple fruits can be used to eat raw or used for processing drinks or cream [7]. ...
Article
Wood apple is a fruit, which containing many nutrient values and bioactive compounds. In the present study, The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the input variables of the spray drying process. Three coded independent variables viz. input dry substance concentration (X1), input flow (X2), spray drying temperature (X3), corresponds to the encoded variables Z1 (from 20 to 24 %), Z2 (from 5.35 to 6.72 mL/min.), Z3 (from 140 to 160oC). The R2 correlation coefficient between the experimental values and the predicted values from the model up to 0.967 indicated the satisfactorily of the predicted model. Three optimal input parameters to get the highest efficiency of dry matter recovery (51.80 %) were derived at Z1 = 24 %, Z2 = 5.35 mL/min., Z3 = 160oC. The powder product obtained has a good sensory quality, high contents of antioxidants and nutritional components.
... The fruits are used as a substitute for Aegle marmelos in diarrhea and dysentery. [3][4] The bark and leaves of the plant are used for vitiated conditions of vata and pita while the fruits are used for treating tumours, asthma, wounds, cardiac debility and hepatitis. The fruit contains flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins. ...
Article
Wood apple botanically identified as Limonia acidissima is an indigenous fruit with amazing nutritional and health benefits. Reports from traditional literature of Ayurveda and Siddha portrays the medicinal properties of this fruit. The scooped pulp of the ripe fruit is consumed as such or it can be made into different recipes. But inclusion of this fruit in our diet is not found as a regular practice. Many people are still unaware of the benefits of this fruit. Hence, this study was taken up to unravel the biological potencies of this fruit by conducting in vitro experiments. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins and ascorbic acid have been estimated. Anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of fruit pulp combined with outer rind has been evaluated through inhibition of albumin denaturation. Among the 5 different concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 µg/ml), at 1000 µg/ml wood apple has shown 74.55% of protein denaturation inhibition which was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was expressed as mg/100g ascorbic acid equivalent through phosphomolybdenum assay. Dose dependent increase in the antioxidant activity was observed. About 8 different concentrations of the aqueous extract of L. acidissima were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity on MCF 7 cell line. At a concentration of 1000 µg/ml, the extract has shown 93.43% of cytotoxicity and 6.57% of cell viability. Apoptotic induction was evaluated and confirmed by the formation of DNA ladders through DNA fragmentation assay. GCMS analysis of wood apple fruit pulp and rind revealed the presence of several phytochemicals among which many of them had therapeutic activity reported earlier.
... The essential oils which are extracted from wood apple fruits and seeds are effective against 12 bacteria causing human disease [14]. Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu, (2013) [15] also reported antimicrobial activity of wood apple. Fruit pulp of wood apple is also known to possess antipyretic, antiinflammatory and analgesic activity [16] Even juice extracted from young leaves of wood apple when consumed solely or with milk can cure intestinal problems associated with worms. ...
... The increasing problems associated with the safety of synthetic additives in food and crop resistance to chemical pesticides (Chan et al. 2012;Kim et al. 2015) have contributed to the search for natural alternatives, and have sparked research on the uses of medicinal plants (García-Heredia et al. 2016). Many essential oils (EOs) from medicinal plants have been shown to have antioxidant (Riahi et al. 2013), antibacterial (Senthilkumar & Venkatesalu 2013), antiviral, antifungal, anti-parasitic (Ribeiro et al. 2014) properties. As antioxidants, EOs have exhibited the potential for treating diseases associ-ated with free radical oxidation, such as Alzheimer's disease, hepatitis and liver cirrhosis (Hefnawy & Ramadan 2013). ...
Article
Melaleuca bracteata possesses antioxidant, antibacterial, and herbicidal activities. However, the agricultural applications of M. bracteata have not been explored yet. The M. bracteata leaves were distilled, and the petroleum ether extract of the essential oils (PEEO) was analysed by GC-MS, where methyl eugenol was found to be the most abundant (66.68%). The total polyphenol content (TPC), the total flavonoids content (TFC) of the PEEO were 6.617 ± 0.535 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 7.086 ± 0.452 mg rutin equivalents/g, respectively. The IC<sub>50</sub> values of the DPPH, ABTS and Fe<sup>3+</sup> were 4.180 ± 0.050 mg/ml, 5.400 ± 0.140 mg/ml, and 8.935 ± 0.067 mg/g, respectively. The EC<sub>50</sub> value of the PEEO was 33.78 ± 2.35 μg/ml against the Pyricularia oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values were 0.10 mg/ml and 0.45 mg/ml against Bacillus subtilis. The results indicate that M. bracteata PEEO possesses excellent antioxidant activities and bioactivities.
... Wood apple is a store house of natural non-toxic antioxidants and antimicrobial agents [20]; it can be potent option for antimicrobial resistance prevalent in the food system. Extracts from wood apple in various forms can save the food processing industries from using synthetic antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), citric acid, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); all these can cause onset of certain type of cancer, liver enlargement and other health ailments [8,14]. ...
Article
Juice was extracted from wood apple (Feronia limoni) by conducting designed experiments with varying incubation temperature (°C), enzyme concentration (mg/100 g) and incubation time (h) as input variables at five different levels. The second-order polynomial models were developed using response surface methodology to understand effect of input variables on the responses in terms of,—juice recovery (%), TSS (°Bx) and clarity (%T at 590 nm). Interaction of incubation temperature with other input variables was observed to affect all the responses. Optimum values for input variables could be obtained with statistically valid models (p < 0.01) for maximized juice recovery and clarity at incubation temperature, enzyme concentration and incubation time of 40 °C, 34.7 mg/100 g and 5.5 h, respectively.
... Further, water extracts of the fruit exhibited potentially high nitric oxide radical scavenging activity than other solvent extracts. The fruit pulp essential oils of wood apple were studied for their chemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity by Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu [27]; they isolated 50 essential oils. Among them thymol (52.22%) was major chemical compound followed by dodecanoic acid (19.3%), α-pinene (4.02%), carvacrol (3.86%), camphoric acid (3.25%), and caryophyllen oxide (3.06%). ...
... The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of CC was evaluated as described by Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu [16], with slight modifications. One millilitre of 0.1 mM DPPH was added to 1 mL of gradient concentration of CC (10-100 µg/mL). ...
Article
Background Cisplatin-induced acute liver and kidney injuries are serious problems in cancer patients during treatment of solid tumours. Objective This study sought to investigate possible protective effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Methods Thirty male albino rats (150–200 g) were divided into five groups (n=6) and treated as follows: group 1: vehicle (10 mL/kg, p.o.; normal control); group 2: vehicle (10 mL/kg); groups 3–5: CC (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively, for 10 days. Cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered on the 7th day to animals in groups (2–5) 1 h after pretreatment. The animals were euthanized on day 10 for haematological, biochemical and histological analysis. Results Cisplatin induced a significant increase in the serum levels of ALT, ALP, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen indicative of hepato-renal injury. More so, cisplatin caused marked increase in granulocyte, lymphocyte and platelets counts which were ameliorated by CC (100–400 mg/kg) treatment. In addition, cisplatin induced marked increase in MDA and nitrite levels coupled with deficits in glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities which were attenuated by CC administration. Conclusions This study showed that
... The fruit is used for curative properties, which make the tree one of the useful medicinal plants of India. The diverse pharmacological properties of the fruit include anti-diabetic ), anti-ulcerative (Mishra et al. 2009), hepatoprotective (Jain et al. 2011), wound healing (Ilango and Chitra 2010), anti-tumour (Saima et al. 2000), anti-132 microbial activity (Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu 2013). It has high medicinal value, astringent properties and has beneficial effect on cardiovascular system. ...
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Article
Considering the wide genetic diversity in wood apple (Feronia limonia) in terms of fruit shape, size, colour and qualitative characters, an extensive survey of diversity rich area of Gujarat was made and twenty five genotypes in the form of fruits were collected from the different locations during 2015-16 to identify elite genotypes having desirable horticultural traits. All the existing trees are of seedling origin which offer a great scope for selection of suitable genotypes of high yield potentiality with good fruit quality traits having precocity in bearing, less spine intensity and other desirable characters. Variations in morphological characters were noticed in the naturally grown trees at their locations, whereas chemical analysis was done in laboratory of the station. Fruits of genotype, viz. GW-1, GW-4, GW-12, GW-14, GW-16, GW-18, Gw-20 and GW-24 were observed to be round, whereas flattened round in GW-2, GW-5, GW-6, GW-8, GW-9, GW-10, GW-13, GW-17, GW-21and GW-23; triangular in GW-7 and GW-11, and oblong in GW-3, GW-15, GW-19, GW-22 and GW-25 fruit shape was observed. Physico-chemical analysis of fruits divulged that the fruit weight ranged between 156.45-432.93g, while fruit length and width between 5.25-9.46 cm and 5.10-9.29 cm, respectively. Shell thickness, shell weight, pulp weight, number of seeds per fruit and seed weight per fruit ranged between 0.31 to 0.47cm, 67.94-109.77g, 80.04 to 319.32g, 132.34 to 525.81 and 2.36 to 7.93g, respectively. Results of study revealed that the different genotypes exhibited wide range of variability in qualitative characters, viz. total soluble solids (11.07-19.36 0 Brix), acidity (3.23-6.86%), ascorbic acid (7.08-19.60mg/ per100 g), potassium (1.29-1.86%), phosphorus (0.037-0.078%), calcium (0.11-0.39%), magnesium (3.18-5.92 %), sodium (3.07-7.54%) and pectin content (1.39-1.65%), among all the genotypes studied for their qualitative characters.
... The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the EOs was evaluated as described by Senthilkumar et al. [42], with slight modifications. A volume of 1 ml of 0.1 mM of methanolic solution of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) was added to 1 ml of increased doses of AcEO ranging from 0.1 mg/ml to 2 mg/ml previously dissolved in methanol. ...
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Article
Background Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat hypertension and many other diseases. Hence, this study is aimed to analyze the essential oil of A. campestris L (AcEO) and to investigate the antiplatelet, antioxidant effects and the mechanisms of its vasorelaxant effect. Methods The chemical composition of AcEO was elucidated using GC/MS analysis. Then, the antioxidant effect was tested on DPPH radical scavenging and on the prevention of β-carotene bleaching. The antiplatelet effect was performed on the presence of the platelet agonists: thrombin and ADP. The mechanism of action of the vasorelaxant effect was studied by using the cellular blockers specified to explore the involvement of NO/GC pathway and in the presence of calcium channels blockers and potassium channels blockers. ResultsAcEO is predominated by the volatiles: spathulenol, ß-eudesmol and p-cymene. The maximal antioxidant effect was obtained with the dose 2 mg/ml of AcEO. The dose 1 mg/ml of AcEO showed a maximum antiplatelet effect of, respectively 49.73% ±9.54 and 48.20% ±8.49 on thrombin and ADP. The vasorelaxation seems not to be mediated via NOS/GC pathway neither via the potassium channels. However, pretreatment with calcium channels blockers attenuated this effect, suggesting that the vasorelaxation is mediated via inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels and the activation of SERCA pumps of reticulum plasma. Conclusion This study confirms the antioxidant, antiplatelet and vasorelaxant effects of A.campestris L essential oil. However, the antihypertensive use of this oil should be further confirmed by the chemical fractionation and subsequent bio-guided assays.
... For the past few years, lots of research work has been done on the extraction processes of essential oil and possible industrial applications, which mainly includes cold press system extraction (Espina et al. 2011), organic solvent extraction (Kaufmann and Christen 2002) and hydrodistillation extraction (Cavar et al. 2012;Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu 2013;Ma et al. 2015), especially supercritical liquid extraction (Hatami et al. 2014). Unfortunately, cold press system extraction is of high energy consumption and low extraction efficiency. ...
Article
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the extraction of essential oils. In this article, polystyrene (PS) nanofibrous membranes (NFM) produced by electrospinning were applied as the extraction medium to extract onion essential oil. The NFM exhibited good compactness and adsorption/desorption. About 2 L of onion juice was completely passed through 500 mg PS NFM round plates of 10 cm diameters, then NFM sheet was spin-dried 5 min at 4,500 rpm and eluted by 50 mL of 100% ethanol. The eluant was distilled at 55°C and an amber oily liquid was obtained. A total of 37 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from onion essential oil, and the most representative compounds were organosulfur-containing compounds. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the essential oil were investigated and the oil showed antioxidant activities in ABTS assay (0.67 mg/mL as IC50 value), DPPH test (IC50 value=0.70 mg/mL), metal chelating assay (IC50 value of 0.54 mg/mL) and O2•- assay (0.95 mg/mL as IC50 value), and the reducing power of the oil was dose-dependent. This work firstly demonstrated the potential of NFM as extraction medium for the extraction of essential oils and the significance of relevant research work.
... However, only limited data are available on their antifungal activity against human and plant pathogens (Tabassum and Vidyasagar 2013). Nevertheless, essential oils are being used as they are known for their broad spectrum, particularly their antioxydant (Bouzouita et al. 2008;Jazet et al. 2008), insecticidal (Erler et al. 2006;Cheng et al. 2009), cytotoxic (Bakarnga-Via et al. 2014) and antimicrobial (Magina et al. 2009;Sirirat and Kittipot 2010;Xing et al. 2011;Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu 2013) properties. ...
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Article
The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition and the antimicrobial activity of essential oils of dried fruits and buds of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Z. xanthoxyloides) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum or clove), respectively, against Phytophthora megakarya (P. megakarya). Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by gas chromatography and by gas chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of the essential oils against P. megakarya were assessed by the Agar dilution method. The in vivo efficacy study consisted of spraying the essential oil emulsions on cocoa pod husk pieces (CPHP), followed by the inoculation with P. megakarya zoospores. The hydrodistillation yielded 10.54 and 1.89% of essential oils for S. aromaticum and Z. xanthoxyloides, respectively. Both oils were mainly made up of oxygenated monoterpenes (89.58 and 88.2%, respectively). Eugenol (83.02%) and eugenyl acetate (9.15%) were the main components of clove oil while α-citronelol (25.83%) and trans-geraniol (16.49%) were mostly found in the Z. xanthoxyloides oil. Clove oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity with a MIC of 250 μl/l than Z. xanthoxyloides with MIC of 350 μl/l. The symptoms were totally suppressed on pod husk treated with clove oil at 2000 μl/l. The decrease in the growth rate of the necrosis (GRN) and the sporulation of P. megakarya (PS) on cocoa husk after the successful infection was significant after the treatment with essential oils. These results are promising and indicate that the studied essential oils might be further investigated as natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of cocoa black pod diseases.
... The radical scavenging activity of fraction 5 was maximum at 1000 µg/mL (71.63 ±0.15); it was comparable with Butylated hydroxytoluen at 1000 µg/mL (91.24 ± 1.96). Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu, (2013) [11] reported the fruit pulp essential oil of wood apple Feronia limonia for its chemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Totally, 50 constituents were identified by GC-MS analyses and thymol (52.22%) was identified as the major chemical compound. ...
Article
Objective: The leaves of Feronia elephantum are widely used in folk medicine in India to treat various ailments. In the present communication we report the cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of extracts and fractions of F. elephantum leaves. Methods: The leaves of F. elephantum were extracted with hexane and ethyl acetate and checked for cytotoxic properties against human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line. The active extract was subjected to column chromatography and fractions were bio-assayed. The active fraction was subjected to GC-MS analysis. Results: Hexane extract exhibited good cytotoxic activity against A549 lung cancer cell line compared to ethyl acetate extract. Hexane extract showed 77.3% activity at the dose of 500 µg/mL with IC50 Conclusion: The results showed that hexane extract of F. elephantum could be probed further in drug discovery programme. (50.6%) value of 125 µg/mL. Hexane extract was also tested at different time intervals of 12h, 24h, 48h and 72 h. The activity gradually increased. The active hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Based on thin layer chromatography profiles, similar fractions were combined to give 9 fractions. When the fractions were bio-assayed fraction 5 showed maximum cytotoxic activity. Fraction 5 was tested against A549 lung cancer cell line at different time intervals; the activity gradually increased. Fraction 5 was used to test the antioxidant properties using DPPH analysis. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed at 1000 µg/mL (71.63 ± 0.15). Active fraction 5 was identified using GC-MS. It showed the presence of Estragole (50.82%), trans-anethole (p-propenylanisole, anise camphor) (14.98%) and Caryophyllene (9.22%).
... One of the major emerging technologies for reducing quality loss and increasing the safety of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables is the application of natural additives (Ponce et al. 2004;Ayala-Zavala et al. 2008b). Plants and plant products represent a source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials to improve the shelf life and safety of foods including fresh-cut fruit (Cuppett et al. 1997;Donovan et al. 1998;Chouliara et al. 2007;Solomakos et al. 2008;Espina et al. 2011;Dahech et al. 2013;Senthilkumar and Venkatesalu 2013). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of soaking in noni juice on the microbiological and color behavior of minimally processed mango. Two batches of Haden mango cubes were treated by immersion in noni juice for 2.5 or 5.0 min. Each batch was packed in polypropylene boxes and stored at 6 °C for up to 15 days; in addition, a control group of mango cubes was prepared by immersion in sterile water for the same duration. According to the results, the soaking of mango cubes in noni juice had an antimicrobial effect on mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts during storage at 6 °C for 15 days, without significantly (P<0.05) affecting the CIE L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values, in comparison with the control after 12 days of storage. The noni juice soaking treatment was demonstrated to be a potentially valuable technology for decontamination of fresh-cut fruit surfaces.
Article
The antioxidant, total phenolic content, total flavonoid, total flavonol content and antibacterial activities of selected herbs and spices were examined. The spices extracts were prepared by cold solvent extraction method using two different extractants i.e. methanol and ethanol. The antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH scavenging ability. The content of phenols was evaluated by using Folin Ciocalteu Micro method and flavonoid and flavonol contents were analysed by UV-Spectrophotometry. These herbal decoctions were also tested against five food-borne isolates by agar well diffusion, drop agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution and simultaneous determination of their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Significantly higher concentration of bioactive compounds was present in ethanolic extracts of tested herbs and these compounds also displayed higher antibacterial potential against all the tested microorganisms. Results presented here suggested that these extracts can therefore be employed as a natural additive in cosmetic, food and therapeutic industries.
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BACKGROUND: Antioxidants are natural ingredients that can block the oxidation process of free radicals that enter the body so that damage to body cells can be prevented. Kawista plants are one of the plants that have antioxidant activity. AIM: This article review aims to determine the compounds that have antioxidant activity found in Kawista plants, the method used in testing antioxidants on Kawista plants, and the IC50 value found in antioxidant testing on Kawista plants. METHODS: The method used in this study is the Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcome method through inclusion and exclusion criteria using the keywords “Antioxidant activity of Limonia acidissima,” “Antioxidant activity of Feronia limonia,” “Antioxidant activity of Kawista,” “Testing Antioxidants in L. acidissima,” and “L. acidissima” with databases used for literature searches. RESULTS: This review shows that Kawista plants have antioxidant activity of various compounds based on the test method used. CONCLUSION: Compounds in Kawista plants that have antioxidant activity are phenols, especially phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, triterpenoids, saponins, tannins, terpenes, steroids, alkaloids, and glycosides. Kawista plant activity tested had IC50 with an average value of very strong (16.45 g/mL), strong (77.85 g/mL), moderate (135.02 g/mL), weak (196.67 g/mL), and very weak (751.89 g/mL).
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Nutritional, medicinal aspect of wood apple
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The aim of the study is to determine the presence of some bioactive compounds in Cassia alata L. leaves and seeds extracts such as tannins, saponins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. Total polyphenol contents (TPC) of leaves and seeds extracts are 59.211 mg GAE/g DW and 1.816 mg GAE/g DW, respectively, while their antioxidant capacities (AC) are 8.1 4 µmol Fe/g DW and 2.75 µmol Fe/g DW, respectively. The antimicrobial activity is determined by the paper disc diffusion method combined with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Leaves extract inhibits S. aureus and E. coli at MIC of 400 mg/mL; S. enteritidis and B. subtilis at MIC of 800 mg/mL. Besides, seeds extract also inhibits S. aureus at MIC of 200 mg/mL; E. coli, S. enteritidis and B. subtilis at MIC of 400 mg/mL. However, leaves and seeds extracts of C. alata do not show any inhibitions on the growth of A. niger.
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Objective: The leaves of Feronia elephantum are widely used in folk medicine in India to treat various ailments. In the present communication we report the cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of extracts and fractions of F. elephantum leaves. Methods: The leaves of F. elephantum were extracted with hexane and ethyl acetate and checked for cytotoxic properties against human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line. The active extract was subjected to column chromatography and fractions were bio-assayed. The active fraction was subjected to GC-MS analysis. Results: Hexane extract exhibited good cytotoxic activity against A549 lung cancer cell line compared to ethyl acetate extract. Hexane extract showed 77.3% activity at the dose of 500 μg/mL with IC50 (50.6%) value of 125 μg/mL. Hexane extract was also tested at different time intervals of 12h, 24h, 48h and 72 h. The activity gradually increased. The active hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Based on thin layer chromatography profiles, similar fractions were combined to give 9 fractions. When the fractions were bio-assayed fraction 5 showed maximum cytotoxic activity. Fraction 5 was tested against A549 lung cancer cell line at different time intervals; the activity gradually increased. Fraction 5 was used to test the antioxidant properties using DPPH analysis. Maximum antioxidant activity was observed at 1000 μg/mL (71.63 ± 0.15). Active fraction 5 was identified using GC-MS. It showed the presence of Estragole (50.82%), trans-anethole (p-propenylanisole, anise camphor) (14.98%) and Caryophyllene (9.22%). Conclusion: The results showed that hexane extract of F. elephantum could be probed further in drug discovery programme.
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
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Objective: To analyse the chemical composition and evaluation of antioxidant, cytotoxic and DNA fragmentation activities of essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa. Methods: Chemical composition analysis of hydrodistilled essential oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and in vitro antioxidant activity of oil was determined by DPPH free radical, hydroxyly radical scavenging, metal chelating and prevention of deoxyribose degradation. Cytotoxicity and DNA fragmentation activities against breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were also analyzed. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 24 compounds with caryophyllene oxide (62.29%) as major compound. A considerable antioxidant, cyotoxic and DNA fragmentation activities of oils was observed. Conclusions: The result of this study clearly indicates oil could be useful for food preservation and preparation.
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In the present investigation, the leaf essential oil of Feronia limonia was evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the essential oil contain 51 compounds. Estragole (34.69 %) and β-pinene(23.59 %) were identified as the major constituents followed by methyl (Z)-caryophyllene (11.05 %), eugenol (6.50 %), linalool (3.97 %), phytol (3.27 %), sabinene (2.41 %) and limonene (2.27 %). Larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC(50) = 38.93 and LC(90) = 108.64 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 15.03 and LC(90) = 36.69 ppm (after 24 h)), A. aegypti (LC(50) = 37.60 and LC(90) = 104.69 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 11.59 and LC(90) = 42.95 ppm (after 24 h)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 52.08 and LC(90) = 124.33 ppm (after 12 h); LC(50) = 22.49 and LC(90) = 60.90 ppm (after 24 h)). Based on the results, the essential oil of F. limonia can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of vector mosquitoes.
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The essential oil from the leaves of Feronia limonia was extracted and the chemical constituents and antibacterial activity were studied. The GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the leaf essential oil of F. limonia contained fourteen compounds representing about 98.4% of the total oil. The major chemical compounds identified were Eudesma-4 (14).11-dine (46.3%), carvacrol (29.6%) and 1,5-cyclodecandine (13.4%). The essential oil was screened for its antibacterial activity against different clinically isolated Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assay. The essential oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial strains with MIC values ranging from 125 to 500 μg/mL except Proteus mirabilis. KeywordsAntibacterial activity-Chemical constituents- Feronia limonia -Essential oil
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Fruit rot caused by Aspergillus niger is a major postharvest problem in wood-apple, Feronia limonia Swingle (syns. F. elephantum Correa; Limonia acidissima L.; Schinus limonia L. [Rutaceae]). The effect of four Generally Recommended As Safe (GRAS) compounds—sodium bicarbonate, calcium chloride, citric acid and sodium benzoate—in different concentrations was evaluated on mycelium growth and spore germination. The effectiveness of the compounds was investigated on inoculated and naturally infected fruits. Sodium bicarbonate (4%) completely inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination. Fruits that were first inoculated and then treated with 4% sodium bicarbonate, or the reverse, gave 53.6% and 98.4% disease reduction, respectively. Non-treated control fruits were diseased completely 3days after inoculation. Sodium bicarbonate treatment on naturally infected fruits controlled the disease by 100% and extended the storage life up to 28days at 27 ± 2°C and 65–70% r.h. Sensory attributes of the treated fruits did not change during storage.
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Radical scavenging and antibacterial properties of large thyme extracts isolated from five chemotypes of Thymus pulegioides L. growing wild in Lithuania were studied. The chemotypes were defined according to the main essential oil components: linalool (L), geranial/geraniol/neral (G/G/N), thymol (T), carvacrol/γ-terpinene/p-cymene (C/γT/pC) and thymol/carvacrol/γ-terpinene/p-cymene (T/C/γT/pC). The contents of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonols were determined. It was found that the extracts of phenolic chemotypes containing remarkable concentrations of thymol and/or carvacrol were stronger DPPH and ABTS free radical scavengers in the model systems. The antibacterial activity of the extracts depended on the plant chemotype, extract preparation, solvent used and finally the sensitivity of bacteria. Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were the most sensitive to the all extracts applied, whereas Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes remained resistant.
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Eleven essential oils, namely, Cananga odorata(Annonaceae), Cupressus sempervirens (Cupressaceae), Curcuma longa(Zingiber- aceae), Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae), Eucalyptus globulus(Myrtaceae), Pinus radiata (Pinaceae), Piper crassinervium(Piperaceae), Psidium guayava(Myrtaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis(Lamiaceae), Thymus x citriodorus (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingib- eraceae), were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS and evaluated for their food functional ingredient related properties. These properties were compared to those of Thymus vulgaris essential oil, used as a reference ingredient. Antioxidant and radi- cal-scavenging properties were tested by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, b-carotene bleaching test and lumi- nol-photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. In the DPPH assay, C. odorata, C. citratus, R. officinalisand C. longa showed major effectiveness, with a radical inhibition ranging from 59.6 ± 0.42–64.3 ± 0.45%. In the b-carotene bleaching test, C. odorata (75.5 ± 0.53%), R. officinalis (81.1 ± 0.57%) and C. longa (72.4 ± 0.51%) gave the best inhibition results. Similar results were obtained for the same essential oils in the PCL assay. Antimicrobial properties were obtained on five food-spoilage yeasts:Candida albicans ATCC 48274,Rhodotorula glutinis ATCC 16740,Schizosaccharomyces pomb e ATCC 60232, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 2365, Yarrowia lypoliticaATCC 16617 . C. citratus and T. x citriodorus were the most effective against the tested strains. Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are outlined.
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The essential oil of the leaves of Feronia elephantum Corr. was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The main constituents were beta-pinene (28.4%), Z-anethole (22.1%), methyl chavicol (12.0%) and E-anethole (8.1%), among thirty-three identified compounds, which represented 92.6% of the total oil. The antimicrobial activity was tested against five Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacteria, and four fungi. The oil was active against Micrococcus luteus (Gram-positive bacterium), Proteus mirabilis (Gram-negative bacterium), Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger (fungi) with MIC values of 0.31 +/- 0.06, 0.52 +/- 0.10, 0.20 +/- 0.50 and 0.26 +/- 0.52 mg/mL, respectively.
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The essential oil composition of Feronia elephantum Correa (family: Rutaceae) was examined by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The analysis revealed the presence of 24 constituents, of which 18 constituents were identified. Trans-anethole (57.73%) and methyl chavicol (37.48%) were the major compounds, while cis-anethole, p-anisaldehyde, (E)-jasmone, methyl eugenol, β-caryophyllene, linalool and (E)-methyl isoeugenol were also present as the minor constituents.
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An antioxidant fraction of Chinese green tea (green tea antioxidant; GTA), containing several catechins, has been previously shown to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor promotion in mouse skin. In the present study, GTA was shown to have antioxidative activity toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the superoxide radical (O2−). GTA also prevented oxygen radical and H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication in cultured B6C3F1 mouse hepatocytes and human keratinocytes (NHEK cells). GTA (0.05–50 μg/ml) prevented the killing of hepatocytes (measured by lactate dehydrogenase release) by paraquat (1–10 mM) and glucose oxidase (0.8–40 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent fashion. GTA (50μg/ml) also prevented the inhibition of hepatocyte intercellular communication by paraquat (5 mM), glucose oxidase (0.8 μg/ml), and phenobarbital (500 μg/ml). In addition, GTA (50 μg/ml) prevented the inhibition of intercellular communication in human keratinocytes by TPA (100 ng/ml). Cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication, two possible mechanisms by which tumor promoters may produce their promoting effects were therefore prevented by GTA. The inhibition of these two effects of pro-oxidant compounds may suggest a mechanism by which GTA inhibits tumor promotion in vivo.
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To analyse the chemical composition and evaluation of antioxidant, cytotoxic and DNA fragmentation activities of essential oil of Feronia elephantum Correa.
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding winter savory (Satureja montana L) essential oil (EO) at concentrations of 7.80, 15.60 and 31.25 mu l/g on color and lipid oxidation (TBARS) in mortadella-type sausages formulated with different sodium nitrite (NaNO2) levels (0, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and stored at 25 degrees C for 30 days. The EO was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Twenty-six chemical compounds were identified; the most prominent of which were thymol (28.99 g/100 g), p-cymene (12.00 g/100 g), linalool (11.00 g/100 g) and carvacrol (10.71 g/100 g). Among the nitrite levels tested, a concentration of 100 mg/kg of sodium nitrite appeared to be sufficient for the formation of the characteristic red color. The use of EO at concentrations exceeding 15.60 mu l/g adversely affected the color of the product by reducing redness (a*) (p <= 0.05) and increasing yellowness (b* h*). The EO antioxidant activity was confirmed by beta-carotene bleaching method and DPPH assay. Reduced values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p <= 0.05) were observed in mortadellas formulated with the lowest concentrations of EO without added nitrite. This significant effect on lipid oxidation was also observed in samples containing EO and reduced amounts of sodium nitrite. The results suggest possible benefits from the combined use of EOs and minimal amounts of sodium nitrite in cured meat products.
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As of November/December 2016, this highly cited paper received enough citations to place it in the top 1% of the academic field of Agricultural Sciences based on a highly cited threshold for the field and publication year (Data from Essential Science Indicators). The aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of 17 essential oils to inhibit the growth of seven food-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacterial strains (Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella typhimurium and Shewanella putrefaciens). Additionally, the antioxidant activity (by free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power) and the chemical composition of these essential oils were evaluated. All essential oils inhibited the growth of at least four bacteria tested, and lower values of minimum inhibitory concentration (<3.0 mg mL−1) were needed to inhibit P. putida. The highest reductions (8.0 log CFU mL−1) were achieved with coriander, origanum and rosemary essential oils for L. innocua, as well as with thyme essential oil for both Listeria strains. The results showed that for the evaluation of antibacterial activity of plant essential oils, bacterial counts should be performed instead of absorbance readings when using microdilution methods. Regarding the antioxidant activity, clove and origanum essential oils showed the strongest antioxidant properties. Essential oils showed a great variety of compounds in their chemical compositions, some of those with known antibacterial and antioxidant properties. In conclusion, all tested essential oils have very strong potential applicability as antibacterial and antioxidant agents for food and pharmaceutical industries.
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Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first described in the 1940s, but whereas new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. At present, the paucity of new antimicrobials coming into the market has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance fast escalating into a global health crisis. Although the selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (particularly overuse or misuse) has been deemed the major factor in the emergence of bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials, concerns about the role of the food industry have been growing in recent years and have been raised at both national and international levels. The selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (primary production) and biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) is the main driving force behind the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance throughout the food chain. Genetically modified (GM) crops with antibiotic resistance marker genes, microorganisms added intentionally to the food chain (probiotic or technological) with potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, and food processing technologies used at sub-lethal doses (e.g., alternative non-thermal treatments) are also issues for concern. This paper presents the main trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development in recent decades, as well as their economic and health consequences, current knowledge concerning the generation, dissemination, and mechanisms of antibacterial resistance, progress to date on the possible routes for emergence of resistance throughout the food chain and the role of foods as a vehicle for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main approaches to prevention and control of the development, selection, and spread of antibacterial resistance in the food industry are also addressed.
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There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants because of the world-wide trend toward the use of natural additives in food and cosmetics. Herbs and spices are one of the most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. This review presents the results on stabilization of lipids and lipid-containing foods with different herbs and spices (ground materials or extracts) and reports the structure of the main antioxidatively acting compounds isolated from them. The review presents information about the antioxidative effects of rosemary, sage, oregano, thyme, ginger, summer savory, black pepper, red pepper, clove, marjoram, basil, peppermint, spearmint, common balm, fennel, parsley, cinnamon, cumin, nutmeg, garlic, coriander, etc. Among the herbs of the Labiatae family, rosemary has been more extensively studied and its extracts are the first marketed natural antioxidants. Sage and oregano, which belong to the same family, have gained the interest of many research groups as potential antioxidants.
Article
The chemical composition of hydrodistilled oil (yield ∼0.17%, w/v), from the residues of Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. (sagebrush or wormweed), was analysed for the first time by GC/GC–MS. Of the 49 compounds present in the oil, 48, accounting for 99.28% of the oil, were identified. The volatile oil contained 24 monoterpenoids (56.7%), 19 sesquiterpenoids (28.7%), 2 ketones (0.25%), 1 ester (1.87%), 1 chromene (precocene II, 0.65%) and a hydrocarbon compound. Citronellal (15.2%) followed by β-citronellol (11%) were the major monoterpene constituents of the oil. The residue essential oils (25–200 μg/ml) exhibited a strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activity against hydroxyl ion (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This study concludes that residues of A. scoparia could serve as an important bioresource for extraction of monoterpenoid-rich oil exhibiting antioxidant activity, and thus hold a good potential for use in the food and pharmaceutical industry.
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Industrial Crops and Products j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / i n d c r o p Short communication Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Caesulia axillaris Roxb. essential oil against fungi deteriorating some herbal raw materials, and its antioxidant activity a b s t r a c t The study deals with evaluation of antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic Caesulia axillaris Roxb. essential oil (EO) against herbal raw materials deteriorating fungi and its free radical scavenging activity. During mycoflora analysis these herbal raw materials were found to be severely contaminated by different fungi and aflatoxins. A total of nine different fungal species were isolated from three herbal raw materials. Aspergillus flavus LHPtc was recorded as the highest aflatoxin B1 producing strain. EOs of some plants were tested for their fungitoxicity against the toxigenic strain A. flavus LHPtc, and C. axillaris EO was found as potent fungitoxicant. C. axillaris EO was chemically characterized through GC–MS analysis which depicted the presence of 18 compounds, dl-limonene and Euasarone being the major components. The EO exhibited broad spectrum of fungitoxicity against fungi causing postharvest deterioration of herbal raw materials. At 1.0 l ml −1 the oil showed complete inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin B 1 production was inhibited at 0.8 l ml −1 . Free radical scavenging activity of the oil was also recorded by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and its IC 50 value was found 18 l ml −1 . The safety limit of the EO was determined in terms of LD 50 on mice, which was 9166.6 l kg −1 , suggesting its non mammalian toxicity. The EO of C. axillaris may be recommended as a plant based preservative in enhancement of shelf life of herbal raw materials by preventing their lipid peroxidation as well as biodeterioration due to fungal and aflatoxin contamination.
Article
De-odourised aqueous extracts of four commonly consumed herbs belonging to the Lamiaceae family, i.e. oregano (Origanum vulgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), were investigated for their antioxidant properties. Various experimental models were used for the characterisation of the activity, including iron reduction capacity, DPPH, ABTS+ and OH radical-scavenging activities and the capacity of the extracts to inhibit copper-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) ex vivo. The extracts showed varying degrees of reductive and radical scavenging capacity, and were capable of a marked prolongation of the lag-time in the LDL oxidation assay. The hierarchy of the observed antioxidant activity of the extracts was dependent on the type of assay used. The observed antioxidant characteristics were not fully related to the total phenolic contents of the extracts in any of the assays, but were presumably strongly dependent on rosmarinic acid, the major phenolic component present in this type of Lamiaceae extract.
Article
The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay is a popular method for assessing the capacity of a compound to scavenge ABTS radicals (ABTS). Under the conditions in which the assay is performed, the reaction between most antioxidants and ABTS does not reach completion within the time span applied. This leads to an underestimation of the TEAC of these antioxidants. In the present study, incubations with different concentrations of ABTS and a fixed concentration of antioxidant were performed. The decrease in ABTS concentration in 6 min was plotted against the initial concentration of ABTS and fitted by an exponential function. Extrapolation of the fit to an infinite excess of ABTS gives the maximal concentration of ABTS that can be scavenged by the antioxidant at the concentration employed. This can be used to determine the actual TEAC of antioxidants, i.e. the total antioxidant capacity.
Article
The aim of this work is to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of separated essential oils and different solvent extracts of Thymus praecox subsp. skorpilii var. skorpilii (TPS). The ethanol, acetone, methanol, hexane, aqueous extracts and separated essential oils of TPS were assessed for their antioxidant activities. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by reduction of Mo(VI) to Mo(V), reducing power, superoxide scavenging activity, free radical-scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, linoleic acid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and peroxide scavenging activity. Essential oils were characterized in total to be 41 components, whereas 9 components were isolated by column chromatography for antioxidant activity. TPS essential oil was found to contain thymol (40.31%) and o-cymene (13.66%) as the major components. The ethanol, methanol and water extracts exerted significant free radical-scavenging activity. The methanol and water extracts displayed highest superoxide scavenging activity. The water extract has the highest total phenolics (6.211 mg gallic acid (GAE)/g DW) and flavonoids (0.809 mg quercetin/g DW).
Article
Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L., Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb native to central Asia and naturalized in eastern and central Europe. It is commonly consumed as a food-related product and as a herbal preparation because of its reputed medicinal properties. Despite its importance, few reports exist in the literature regarding the chemistry or antioxidant activity of this species. In this study, the aerial material of Moldavian balm collected from Iran was extracted by Soxhlet using seven solvents of different polarity, viz., petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, methanol, n-butanol and water. The qualitative–quantitative chemical composition of each extract was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection. For each extract, the total phenolic content was estimated as was the in vitro antioxidant activity using the iron(III) reduction assay, the β-carotene–linoleic acid bleaching assay and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) free radical scavenging assays. Hydroxylated cinnamic acids, their derivatives and flavonoids were identified and quantified within the extracts, with rosmarinic acid being the most abundant component identified. The extracts demonstrated different degrees of potency within each assay, however, the observed pattern was not necessarily replicated between assays indicating the importance of the use of more than one screening technique to estimate the antioxidant activity of plant extracts.
Article
Different in vitro assays characterise most of the essential oils and phenolic compounds as antioxidants. These molecules can be found in a variety of aromatic plants and have been related to their bioactive properties. For the first time, a comparative study between the antioxidant properties of essential oils and phenolic extracts from Cistus ladanifer leaves, Citrus latifolia fruit peels, Cupressus lusitanica foliage and Eucalyptus gunnii leaves was performed. Overall, the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts (unless scavenging activity of C. latifolia) were excellent and better than those obtained from the essential oils extracts, and even for the standards BHA (2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol) and α-tocopherol. The better EC50 values for all the assays (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) were obtained in the E. gunnii phenolic extract (less than 0.1 mg mL−1). Among the essential oils extracts, the best contribution was given by C. ladanifer.
Article
There are a few reports on the antimicrobial activity of essential oils or their major constituents towards Shigella sp. The antimicrobial effect of basil and thyme essential oil and its major constituents thymol, p-cymene, estragol, linalool, and carvacrol was determined using the agar well diffusion assay. Thyme essential oil and thymol and carvacrol showed inhibition of Shigella sp. in the agar well diffusion method. The potential of thyme essential oil, thymol and carvacrol at 0.5% and 1.0% v/v for decontamination of lettuce was evaluated. A decrease of the shigellae was observed after washing with 0.5% while at 1% Shigella numbers dropped below the detection limit. However, the antimicrobial effect on a subsequent lettuce sample in the same decontamination solution was significantly decreased. In addition, application of thyme essential oil or thymol or carvacrol for decontamination is hampered by sensoric properties of the lettuce (browning, strong odour).
Article
The antioxidant capacity and phenol content of three tropical fruits pulps, namely, honey pineapple, banana and Thai seedless guava, were studied. Three solvent systems were used (methanol, ethanol and acetone) at three different concentrations (50%, 70% and 90%) and with 100% distilled water. The antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts was evaluated using a ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assays. The efficiency of the solvents used to extract phenols from the three fruits varied considerably. The polyphenol content of Thai seedless guava was 123 to 191 gallic acid equivalents/100g (GAE/100g), that of pisang mas was 24.4 to 72.2 GAE/100g, and that of honey pineapple was 34.7 to 54.7 GAE/100g. High phenol content was significantly correlated with high antioxidant capacity.
Article
The SOS-chromotest in Escherichia coli is a widely used bacterial genotoxicity assay to test potential carcinogens. The aim of this work is to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Pituranthos chloranthus. The tested essential oils were not genotoxic towards both E. coli PQ37 and PQ35 strains. These essential oils reduced significantly Nifuroxazide and H(2)O(2)-induced genotoxicity. Essential oils showed a protective effect against damages induced by radicals, obtained from the photolysis of H(2)O(2), on DNA plasmid through free radical scavenging mechanisms. The scavenging capacity of these essential oils was also estimated by evaluating the inhibition of ABTS(+.) radical.
Article
The essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia lanigera Poir. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Cyprus was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 67 compounds, representing 93.6% of the oil, were identified, and the major components were showed to be thymol (12.1%), hexadecanoic acid (6.0%), carvacrol and α-thujone (5.7%). The essential oil was assayed for its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Antimicrobial activity of the oil, evaluated using the broth dilution method, resulted higher against Gram-positive bacteria than the other referenced strains tested. Antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by using DPPH and FRAP methods together with three antioxidant standards, L-ascorbic acid, tert-butyl-4-hydroxy toluene (BHT) and gallic acid. The activity of the sample in both methods was higher than that of all of standards used at the same dose.
Article
The present study investigated the chemical characterization, and antioxidant activity of essential oil hydrodistilled from young and mature leaves of Artemisia scoparia. GC-MS analyses revealed a monoterpenoid nature (64-67%) with 44 and 31 constituents in young and mature leaves oil, respectively. The oil from young leaf contained greater amount of oxygenated compounds. Beta-myrcene (24.13%) and p-cymene (27.06%) were the major constituents in young and mature leaves oil, respectively. A. scoparia leaf oils (25-200 microg/ml) exhibited a strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. However, the activities of major constituent monoterpenes, beta-myrcene and p-cymene, were less. In general, the DPPH radical scavenging and antioxidant activity was in the order: mature leaf oil > young leaf oil > beta-myrcene > p-cymene.
Article
Hydroxyl radicals, generated by reaction of an iron-EDTA complex with H2O2 in the presence of ascorbic acid, attack deoxyribose to form products that, upon heating with thiobarbituric acid at low pH, yield a pink chromogen. Added hydroxyl radical "scavengers" compete with deoxyribose for the hydroxyl radicals produced and diminish chromogen formation. A rate constant for reaction of the scavenger with hydroxyl radical can be deduced from the inhibition of color formation. For a wide range of compounds, rate constants obtained in this way are similar to those determined by pulse radiolysis. It is suggested that the deoxyribose assay is a simple and cheap alternative to pulse radiolysis for determination of rate constants for reaction of most biological molecules with hydroxyl radicals. Rate constants for reactions of ATP, ADP, and Good's buffers with hydroxyl radicals have been determined by this method.
Article
The reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (NitroBT) with NADH mediated by phenazine methosulfate (PMS) under aerobic conditions was inhibited upon addition of superoxide dismutase. This observation indicated the involvement of superoxide aninon radical (O2−) in the reduction of NitroBT, the radical being generated in the reoxidation of reduced PMS. Similarly, the reduction of NitroBT coupled to D-amino acid oxidase-PMS system under aerobic conditions was also inhibited by superoxide dismutase. A simple method for detecting superoxide dismutase is described.
Article
Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was added at levels of 0.5 and 2.0% to the diet of inbred F344 rats for 2 years. The higher dose of BHA induced a significant increase in the incidence of papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma in both sexes. Both the higher and lower doses increased the incidences of hyperplasia of the forestomach, considered to be associated with neoplasias. The incidences of these neoplastic changes were dose-dependent. Neoplastic changes in other organs were not increased significantly by BHA. These results show that BHA is carcinogenic in the forestomach of F344 rats.
Article
The factors affecting oil yield and quality of essential oils from Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) are analyzed. Distillations of oils from individual plants and GC analyses revealed the presence of three chemotypes with different proportions of alpha- and beta-thujone (alpha/beta 10:1, 1.5:1, and 1:10). Different accessions could also be classified as having high (39-44%), medium (22-28%), or low (9%) total thujone contents. Flowering parts of S. officinalis had higher oil contents (1.6 versus 1.1%) and beta-pinene levels (27 versus 10%) than leaves and lower thujone levels (16 versus 31%). Major seasonal changes were found in the composition of oil distilled from a flowering type of Dalmatian sage, but oil yields from healthy, established plants did not vary greatly. Total thujone levels were lowest (25%) around flowering in spring and summer, so autumn or winter was the best harvest time to obtain oils with high thujone levels.
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The isolated essential oils from seven air-dried plant species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Origanum vulgare (oregano), and Origanumdictamus (dictamus) essential oils were found to be rich in phenolic compounds representing 65.8, 71.1, and 78.0% of the total oil, respectively. Origanum majorana (marjoram) oil was constituted of hydrocarbons (42.1%), alcohols (24.3%), and phenols (14.2%). The essential oil from Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) was characterized by the presence of alcohols (58.8%) and esters (32.7%). Ethers predominated in Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) and Salvia fruticosa (sage) essential oils, constituting 88.9 and 78.0%, respectively. The radial growth, conidial germination, and production of Penicillium digitatum were inhibited completely by oregano, thyme, dictamus, and marjoram essential oils at relatively low concentrations (250-400 microg/mL). Lavender, rosemary, and sage essential oils presented less inhibitory effect on the radial growth and conidial germination of P. digitatum. Conidial production of P. digitatum was not affected by the above oils at concentrations up to 1000 microg/mL. Apart from oregano oil, all essential oils were more effective in the inhibition of conidial germination than of radial growth. The monoterpene components, which participate in essential oils in different compositions, seem to have more than an additive effect in fungal inhibition.
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The essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Origanum scabrum and Origaum microphyllum, both endemic species in Greece, were analyzed by means of GC and GC-MS. Forty-eight constituents were identified, representing 98.59 and 98.66% of the oils, respectively. Carvacrol, terpinen-4-ol, linalool, sabinene, alpha-terpinene, and gamma-terpinene were found as the major components. Furthermore, both samples exhibited a very interesting antimicrobial profile after they were tested against six Gram-negative and -positive bacteria and three pathogenic fungi.
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The mechanism of the antimicrobial action of Spanish oregano (Corydothymus capitatus), Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), and savory (Satureja montana) essential oils against cell membranes and walls of bacteria was studied by the measurement of the intracellular pH and ATP concentration, the release of cell constituents, and the electronic microscopy observations of the cells when these essential oils at their MICs were in contact with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes, two pathogenic foodborne bacteria, were used as gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial models, respectively. Treatment with these essential oils at their MICs affected the membrane integrity of bacteria and induced depletion of the intracellular ATP concentration. Spanish oregano and savory essential oils, however, induced more depletion than Chinese cinnamon oil. An increase of the extracellular ATP concentration was observed only when Spanish oregano and savory oils were in contact with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. Also, a significantly higher (P < or = 0.05) cell constituent release was observed in the supernatant when E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes cells were treated with Chinese cinnamon and Spanish oregano oils. Chinese cinnamon oil was more effective to reduce significantly the intracellular pH of E. coli O157:H7, whereas Chinese cinnamon and Spanish oregano decreased more significantly the intracellular pH of L. monocytogenes. Electronic microscopy observations revealed that the cell membrane of both treated bacteria was significantly damaged. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic membrane is involved in the toxic action of essential oils.