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Modelling of free space optical link for ground-to-train communications using a Gaussian source


Abstract and Figures

The demand for access to broadband data services in high-speed trains is increasing as more people are travelling to and from work, which is not met by the existing radio frequency technology. Therefore an alternative technology known as free space optics (FSO) could be readily adopted that could overcome the bandwidth bottleneck problem. The study presents a mathematical model of an FSO link for ground-to-train communications link and analyses the system performance in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio and the bit error rate (BER). The authors show that the simulated BER is in good agreement with the predicted results for bit rates up to 50 Mbps. The link budget analysis for the proposed system is also presented showing a link margin of 17.75 dB.
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Abstract The demand for access to broadband data services in high speed trains is increasing as
more people are travelling to and from work, which is not met by the existing radio frequency (RF)
technology. Therefore an alternative technology known as free space optics (FSO) could be readily
adopted that could overcome the bandwidth bottleneck problem. The paper presents a mathematical
model of an FSO link for ground-to-train communications link and analyses the system performance
in terms of the signal to noise ratio and the bit error rate (BER). We show that the simulated BER is in
good agreement with the predicted results for bit rates up to 50 Mbps. The link budget analysis for the
proposed system is also presented showing a link margin of 17.75 dB.
Index Termscommunications, free space optical, Gaussian beam, ground-to-train.
Free-space optical (FSO) communications is an alternative wireless access technology to the existing radio
frequency (RF) wireless systems. FSO also known as the optical wireless communications (OWC) have
multiple advantages that can complement the existing RF links such as a huge unregulated spectrum,
immunity to electromagnetic interference, high security since optical beams do not penetrate opaque objects
and frequency reuse resulting in a high capacity per unit volume [1-5]. The FSO system is the preferred
option where there is limitation or restriction in the use of RF based systems in application including
hospitals, airplane, military where RF interferes with monitoring equipment. The FSO technology can be
utilised in both indoor and outdoor environment capable of supporting very high data rates up to Gigabit per
second. Various works [3, 6, 7] have reported indoor FSO communications with data rates beyond 1 Gb/s.
For outdoor systems, 100 Gb/s per channel link is reported in [8] whereas 1.28 Tb/s FSO link (32×40 Gb/s)
Modelling of Free Space Optical Link for
Ground-to-Train Communications Using a
Gaussian Source
Rupak Paudel, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Hoa Le-Minh,S. Rajbhandari
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment,
Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
is reported in [1] using the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). FSO supports a number of
modulations, forward error correction coding schemes and protocols for a variety of applications, including
voice and multimedia services. FSO is also designed to support a large number of users, with multiple
connections per terminal, each with its own quality of service requirement. In indoor FSO systems mobility
offered is not as advanced as in the RF technology. The FSO technology is relatively young but mature and
its widespread deployment will in parts depend on (i) the cost of devices as compared to the RF technology,
and (ii) how the RF dominated industry will see FSO not as a threat but a complementary technology to RF
in areas where there is a need for a high speed link.
Due to the exponential growth of handheld devices such as smart-phones or tablets, there is a growing
demand for high speed internet connections in trains, ships, buses, etc. The existing infrastructure based on
the RF technology such as Wi-Fi/WiMAX used in trains are capable of delivering, theoretically, peak data
rates up to 54/75 Mbps, where in real scenario this could be lower than 10 Mbps at the best of times [9]. This
of course is [10] could
be improved by increasing the carrier frequency, thus by adopting the millimetre wave technology beyond
the 60 80 GHz band. In the future, the offered internet facilities are expected to be falling short of the
increasing demand for high-quality multimedia type services in train. One possible and viable solution to
address the demand for higher data rates is the FSO. A ground-to-train communications system using the
FSO technology is proposed in [11] where a tracking control algorithm is used to establish a stable
communication link between the mobile unit and the ground. In [12], an FSO system with a faster handover
mechanism (124 ms) is proposed to achieve a data rate in excess of 500 Mbps in high speed trains. Although,
practical based data are reported by [11, 12], a detailed mathematical modelling of the FSO ground-to-train
communication link, which is essential for system modelling and performance analysis has not been
addressed. In our previous work [13], we have reported a mathematical model for the FSO ground-to-train
system using a Lambertian source. In such systems, laser sources are the preferred option for higher power
requirements and longer coverage length and can be modelled as Gaussian. This paper outlines a
mathematical model for the FSO ground-to-train communications link and introduces a new expression for
the received optical power based on the proposed geometrical model. The proposed system would be a
complementary technology to RF based schemes providing higher data rates for the end users. In this
proposed system, intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD), which is the most popular method in
FSO, is incorporated due to its simplicity and low cost. The rest of the paper is organised as follows: Section
2 discusses the proposed system along with the mathematical model, Section 3 presents system design,
Section 4 presents results along with discussion and Section 5 concludes the paper.
A typical ground-to-train FSO communication link is shown in Fig. 1. The link consists of optical
transceivers (Tx/Rx) positioned on the roof of the train and base stations (BSs) positioned alongside the train
track. Each BS emits a narrow width optical beam fully covering the entire train. BSs are only active when
the train is within its transmission range and the optical footprint, otherwise they are in the off mode to save
Fig. 1(a): A typical ground-to-train communications system and (b). Front view of the proposed system.
energy. Exchange of information from BS to the service provider will take place via the fibre-optic backbone
network, which is normally laid down along the rail tack as in UK.
The proposed geometrical model of the downlink communications for an over-ground train for a straight
track is depicted in Fig. 2. Usually for a straight track, the maximum span between the power overhead lines
(gantries) is 75 m [14], which is used as the spacing between the BSs in this analysis. Of course the BS
separation can be extended to few hundred metres for a longer track. In this scenario, one could either
increase the transmit power at the BS within the eye-safe limit, which is further explained in section 3.3 or
move to a longer wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm where eye safety is not a major issue compared to
lower wavelengths.
In this section, we will model the available received optical power distributed along the track length L, see
Fig. 2. The BS is positioned a metre away from the track, and is adjustable. Let the half angle divergence be
1/2 (i.e., = 21/2). The BS transmitter (A), which is at the same height as the optical Tx/Rx (i.e. ~ 4 m above
the ground level), could be tilted by an angle 1/2+ represented by along the horizontal plane so that it
points towards the optical Rx.
(d2) is the horizontal separation distance between BS and the shortest
coverage point C, which    .
(d1) is fixed at 1 m (BS separation from the track), is the coverage angle at the longest point B and is the
coverage angle at the shortest point C. Using a simple geometry,  and for ACD and ABD
respectively, we have   
and 
 .The estimated transmitter beam divergence angle can be
Fig. 2 (a). Proposed system geometrical modelling and (b). System geometry.
written as:
 
Hence, based on the position of the BS and the effective coverage length, the beam divergence angle can
be approximated. The optical beam radius of a Gaussian beam is given as [15]:
where wo is the beam waist of the laser source at the transmitter, z is the axis of propagation and is the
operating wavelength of the optical source.
In Fig. 2, let
be denoted by x (= ). The OHB (see Fig. 2(b)) can be written as (1/2 + ) and
represented by . The following analysis is performed in order to derive a general equation for the power
received along the track. Here, the length along the axis of propagation,
(z) would be related to length
CB, which is the effective coverage length L so that the power along L could be determined. From Fig. 2(b),
z = AH + HO and the length AH can be written as AG + GH. Similarly, length HO can be written as HO = (L
- CH) cos. Hence z can be given as. Using basic geometry, z can be written
Rewriting the beam radius from (2) in terms of the effective coverage length along the track using (3) as:
 OHB, denoting OB as the offset r from the axis AO at the point B, we get
 Hence, the radial offset from the axis of propagation AHO orthogonal to the axis can be
written as:
The received power at the receiver along the z axis for a Gaussian beam is given by [15]:
where Ptx is the total transmit power from BS and Acoll is the collection area at the receiver. Using (4), (5) and
(6), Ptx along the track
, when the BS is positioned at a distance d1 from the track based on the Gaussian
beam profile, is given as:
Once the average optical transmitter power, the collection area of the receiver, beam divergence, the tilting
angle of the receiver at the longest coverage point, the BS position and the effective coverage length are
determined, the received power can be evaluated using (7). The angular parameters for the model and the
system model parameters used for the simulation are given in Tables 1 and 2 respectively.
This section describes the optical wireless link for the proposed system, which consists of an optical
transmitter and a receiver and a wireless communications channel. Also the eye safety analysis is discussed
for the average transmitter power and the link budget analysis is performed for the system.
3.1. Transmitter
The transmitter comprises of a laser source and a laser driver, which can be modulated using the most
common modulation format non return-to-zero (NRZ) on-off keying (OOK). The transmitter parameters
Operating wavelength
850 nm
Vertical position of BS
1 m
Horizontal BS position
15 m
Photodetector area
7 mm2
BS optical transmit power
15 mW
Receiver sensitivity
-36 dBm @
10 Mbps
0.59 A/W
Radius of the optical
25 mm
Focal length of the lens
50 mm
Refractive index of the
Coverage length
75 m
Source diameter
5 mm
Noise power
10 µW
such as the beam divergence and the average transmit power for the system is estimated based on the
proposed geometrical model. The beam divergence is estimated from the positions of d1 and d2 and L as
given by (1). The transmit power at the BS can be derived from (6) by replacing the received power with the
receiver sensitivity and for L = 75 m.
3.2. Receiver
The receiver positioned on the roof of the train will be tilted at an angle . This is also the angle made by
the propagation axis with the train track so that the FOV of the receiver at both the longest and shortest
points B and C, respectively will be within the beam divergence of the transmitter. The receiver incorporates
an optical concentrator, a photodiode and receiver electronics. The concentrator collects and focuses the
incoming light onto the photodiode whereas the receiver electronics is used to recover the signal. The
concentrator gain at the receiver can be evaluated as [16]:
 
where n is the refractive index of an optical concentrator and c is the half-angle FOV of the receiver after
the lens. The FOV of the receiver using the optical concentrator is given by [17]:
where Acoll is the effective light collection area of the receiver and Adet is the area of the photodetector. The
proposed system parameters are tabulated in Table 1. The noise source at the detector is the combination of
the shot noise, the thermal noise [18] and the background noise [19]. The typical value for the background
radiation used is 10 µW [20, 21]. The total noise variance can be written as:
where 
, 
and 
is the variance due to shot noise, thermal noise and the background noise
Beam divergence
Receiver FOV
Coverage angle at B
Coverage angle at C
Tx/Rx tilting angle
respectively. The total noise present at the detector can be modelled as the additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver is hence given by [16]:
The BER for OOK-NRZ is then evaluated as:
3.3. Eye safety
In order for the system to operate in public places, the utilised optical source should conform to the
international eye safety standards [22]. The Acceptable Emission Limit (AEL) is determined by the angular
subtense angle and the operating wavelength. The angular subtense of the apparent source should be
calculated in order to classify the laser source used based on Fig. 3, which depends on the source diameter
where rmeasure ( = 100 mm) is the measuring distance and D is the source diameter. D is assumed to be 5 mm,
therefore the source can be classified as an extended source since the angular subtense can be calculated as
50 mrad as given by (13min max of 1.5 mrad and 100 mrad, respectively. With
Ptx = 15 mW, which is below the AEL limit of 20 mW for an exposure time of 100s for extended source
when the operating wavelength is 850 nm, the system proposed conforms to the eye safety standards. If
higher power transmission is required, we can move to higher wavelengths around 1300 nm where the AEL
limit increases by a factor of 20 as compared to that of 850 nm. In this work, 850 nm wavelength is adopted
as this is the most commonly used window for optical communications where the components available are
the cheapest [23].
Fig. 3. Angular subtense measurement.
3.4. Link budget analysis
The link budget analysis is performed in order to evaluate the system link margin after taking into account
losses associated with the system. The losses considered are the atmospheric loss due to weather conditions,
the geometrical loss Lgeom, the pointing loss Lpt, the transmitter loss Ltx and the receiver loss Lrx. The
attenua [24]. The link visibility is derived
from the fog attenuation using the Kim model to reflect the attenuation in dB/km as [2]:
 
where V           q is the size distribution of
scattering particles and is given by [25]:
 (15)
Using (14) for a moderate fog, i.e visibility of 500 m, fog attenuation is calculated as 34 dB/km. The other
loss in the system is due to the spreading of the transmitted beam as it propagates through the atmosphere
known as the Geometrical loss. Geometrical loss can be approximated by the following expression for a
uniform transmitter power distribution [26]:
where dr is the receiver aperture diameter, and dt is the transmitter aperture diameter. Typical
transmitter/receiver loss is considered to be 3 dB. The link budget equation can be written as:
losses (Ltx)
pointing loss (Lpt)
Channel losses(Lfog+Lgeom)
Receiver losses (Lrx)
Receiver telescope gain
Receiver sensitivity
11.80 dBm
-3 dB
-5 dB
-43 dB
-3 dB
24 dB
-36 dBm
Link margin for weather conditions
17.75 dB
 (17)
where M is the link margin of the system, Sr is the receiver sensitivity of the photodetector, and Grx is the
gain of the optical concentrator. Table 3 shows the link budget analysis for this system with a link margin of
nearly 18 dB after considering all different losses in the system.
3.5 Train aerodynamics and turbulence effect
The train moving at a high speed creates aerodynamic forces around the train. These forces are
influenced by three factors namely, train speed, distance from the train and the train geometry [27]. At low
train speeds, there is a significant velocity variation around the train height with high turbulence intensity.
The turbulence intensity is low at high train speeds with more uniform velocity profile [28]. The moving
train creates a boundary layer along the train length resulting in the airflow in the direction of the train and a
wake behind it. As shown in Fig. 4, although the movement of the train creates pressure peaks at front and
back ends of the train, there is a uniform pressure along the length of the train carriage [27]. Train moving at
high speed induces wind in its surrounding [27]. At a speed of around 200 km/h, it would generate wind
speeds of around 15 m/s [29]. According to [30], the link performance improves with the wind speed. To
illustrate this, we use the method adopted in [30] where the mean <SNR> as a function of SNR with no
turbulence SNR0 is given by [31]:
where is the scintillation index for various wind speed for a Gaussian beam as given by [30]:
Fig. 4. Air flow around the train (Courtesy of [27])
 
 for Kolmogorov spectrum,
denotes the longitudinal component of the scintillation index,
is a non-Kolmogorov Rytov variance for plane wave, 
and are large scale and small scale
, denotes an effective pointing error, 
is long
term spot size caused by large scale induced beam wander, W is the free-space beam spot radius and r is the
radial distance from the optical axis. Fig. 5 shows the system performance as a function of the wind speed
based on (18) and (19) where <SNR> (gain) increases for increasing wind speed. Positioning the transceiver
in the middle part of the train roof, where the pressure is almost constant and as a result the refractive index
is almost constant would make the FSO link less susceptible to the turbulence effect. Although when the
train is stationary, the scintillation index variation due to the pressure and temperature would be high, but for
a train moving at a constant speed the turbulence effect can be ignored due to the constant pressure and
temperature along the length of the train. The link margin of 17.75 dB would ensure that the system is
functioning at all conditions.
Fig. 5. Mean SNR as a function of SNR with no turbulence for various wind speeds (Adapted
from [30])
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
SNR0 (dB)
<SNR> (dB)
No turbulence
v = 20 m/s
v = 11 m/s
v = 7 m/s
The numerical analysis of the proposed system is performed using MATLAB®. The communications
channel for this terrestrial FSO link is assumed to be AWGN channel in our simulation. In order to estimate
the appropriate beam divergence the horizontal BS position d2 is varied from 5 m to 25 m and the beam
divergence values for a range of d2 are shown in Fig. 6. For d2 below 15 m, due to the wide beam divergence
of over 5° and 10° at d2 of 10 m and 5 m respectively, the required transmitted power is over 20 mW and 50
mW, respectively as most of the transmit power is wasted. This is due to a large amount of power, which is
outside the train-BS communications area as the beam profile is circular. When d2 >15 m, although the
required transmitted power is low (<15 mW) but the received power fades away quickly since the BS
position is further away from the shortest coverage point C. The power profile for different values of d2 is
plotted and compared in Fig. 7 based on (7), which suggests that the power profile appears to be more
uniform for d2 values over 15 m. Since, the desired BS separation distance from the shortest coverage point
C along the track is small, the horizontal BS position value is chosen to be 15 m. Using (1), the beam
divergence for the track coverage length of 75 m, fixing d1 at 1 m and d2 =15 m, would be 3.20° as is evident
from Fig. 6.
Assuming a typical Rx sensitivity of -36 dBm at 10 Mbps, and a radius of receiver optics of 25 mm, the
required transmit power at the BS is taken to be 11.8 dB (15 mW) as in Table 3. The receiver FOV is
estimated based on the size of the receiver optics as given in (9). Based on the parameters considered, the
optimum receiver semi-FOV for a 7 mm2 photodetector would be 5.15° (half angle). For this link, a margin
Fig. 6. Beam divergence for varying d2.
of ~18 dB is used, which is evident from the link budget analysis. The transmitter power could be increased
to the AEL limit as discussed above to ensure 100 % link availability.
The SNR along the track for various bit rates are shown in Fig. 8. The simulation is performed up to a data
rate of 100 Mbps due to the limitation in the bandwidth (50 MHz) of the measured laser impulse response,
which is adopted for simulation. As can be seen, to achieve a SNR of 13.6 dB the effective coverage length
for the data rate of 10 Mbps is 75 m. However, the observed SNR within the link margin offers an additional
SNR of 10 dB i.e., 23.6 dB at 10 Mbps. Increasing the bit rate to 100 Mbps does not affect the theoretical
coverage length of 75 m. The SNR drops from 23.6 dB at 10 Mbps to 13.6 dB at 100 Mbps since the noise
bandwidth increases at higher bit rates for a constant transmit power.
Fig.7. Power profile variation for varying d2.
Fig. 8. SNR variation along the track length CB.
The BER performance of the ground-to-train system is evaluated based on the angular parameters in Table
1 and system model parameters in Table 2. The BER curve along the train track for various bit rates is
plotted in Figs. 9(a) and 9(b) for beam divergence angles of 3.2° and 4°, respectively. The plot for a 4° beam
angle (commercially available typical value) is used to compare the achievable coverage length with the
proposed beam angle .For an AWGN channel, the simulated BER curve shows a relatively good agreement
with the predicted curve using (12) at 50 Mbps for both beam divergence angles  
Fig. 9. Bit Error Performance along the track for beam divergence of (a) 3.2° and (b) 4°.
30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Length along the track (m)
- log10 (BER)
Simulation 10 Mbps
Theory 10 Mbps
Simulation 50 Mbps
Theory 50 Mbps
Simulation 100 Mbps
Theory 100 Mbps
30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Length along the track (m)
-log10 (BER)
Simulation 10 Mbps
Theory 10 Mbps
Simulation 50 Mbps
Theory 50 Mbps
Simulation 100 Mbps
Theory 100 Mbps
         For 100 Mbps case, there is mismatch between the
predicted and the simulated results. This is due to the rise and fall times of the impulse response of the
system, which is not ideal. The bandwidth of the laser limits the transmitted bit rate beyond 100 Mbps. The
bit error performance of 10-6 is achieved for a track length of 75 m at 50 Mbps for a beam divergence of 3.2°.
The coverage length drops to 68 m for a beam divergence of for the same transmit power. For bit rates
beyond 50 Mbps, the coverage length decreases for the desired BER due to the increase in the noise
bandwidth of the system. The coverage length of 75 m with given beam divergence is to be used as a
reference for the performance analysis of the system. However, moving to longer wavelengths could increase
the transmitted power by up to 50 times, thereby increasing the effective coverage length along the track
over few hundred metres. Thus, the number of BSs alongside the track could be significantly reduced.
Hence, high bandwidth availability of FSO in excess of THz and license free operation [32] would encourage
internet service providers to adopt this technology for ground-to-train communications.
A mathematical modelling for ground-to-train FSO communications link is proposed using Gaussian beam
theory. Receiver power equation for a Gaussian source is derived based on the geometrical position of the
BS from the track. The analytical and simulated BER performance of the proposed system is carried out
showing a good agreement to each other for data rates up to 50 Mbps. With the optimum parameters, it is
possible to have beam coverage for track length of 75 m for data rates up to 50 Mbps. Also, link budget
analysis for the proposed system is presented showing a link margin of 17.75 dB for worse weather
conditions. The paper also pointed out the proper positioning of the receiver on the train based on the
aerodynamics of the train. Hence, FSO technology with the proposed system modelling can be an alternative
to provide a high bandwidth broadband access to high speed trains.
R. Paudel thanks the Faculty of Engineering and Environment Northumbria University for financially
supporting this research. This work was supported in part by the EU FP7 Cost Actions of IC0802 and
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... technologies cannot ensure high QoS for upcoming HSTs in the presence of rapidly time-varying and non-stationary wireless channels, co-channel interference, high path-loss attenuation for millimeter-wave and terahertz bands, high handover frequency, and strong Doppler shifts [3], [4]. To address some fundamental challenges of the proposed radio technologies for HSTs, free-space optic (FSO) has gained research attention, as discussed in [2], [3], and [9]- [17]. ...
... The FSO channel modeling in HSTs is faced with some challenges by reason of unsteady environmental differences, such as tunnels, hills, and dense areas. In this case, an analytical study on ground-to-train channel modeling for typical FSO links has been performed in [9]. An experimental prototype for the demonstration of ground-to-train FSO communications has been also presented in [10]. ...
Full-text available
Free-space optic (FSO) is a promising solution to provide broadband Internet access for high-speed trains (HSTs). Besides, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) are considered as hardware technology to improve performance of optical wireless communication systems. In this paper, we propose a RIS-assisted FSO system to provide access connectivity for HTSs, as an upgrade for the existing direct and relay-assisted FSO access setups. Our motivation is mainly based on well-proven results indicating that a RIS-assisted optical wireless system, with a large enough number of RIS elements, outperforms a relay-assisted one thanks to its programmable structure. We firstly compute the statistical expressions of the considered RIS-assisted FSO channels under weak and moderate-to-strong fading conditions. Then, the network's average signal-to-noise ratio and outage probability are formulated based on the assumed fading conditions, and for two fixed- and dynamic-oriented RIS coverage scenarios. Our results reveal that the proposed access network offers up to around 44% higher data rates and 240% wider coverage area for each FSO base station (FSO-BS) compared to those of the relay-assisted one. The increase of coverage area, on average, reduces 67% the number of required FSO-BSs for a given distance, which results in fewer handover processes compared to the alternative setups. Finally, the results are verified through Monte-Carlo simulations.
... where S is the phase and χ is the fading log-amplitude having normal distribution with mean μ and variance W . The signal to noise ratio at the Rx for OOK is expressed as [20]: ...
... where z pd , z cd are the Tx and the Rx aperture diameters in meters, respectively and ‡ is the Tx beam divergence. LAtm is the atmospheric attenuation in dB/km and is given by [20]: ...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present and experimentally evaluate a real-time 10 Gbps free-space optical (FSO) link under varying atmospheric conditions. In bandwidth-craving wireless technologies due to the ubiquitous consumption by internet of things devices and requiring high data rate online services, unlicensed FSO systems can be a promising candidate to satisfy the network capacity of the existing data communications technologies. In this work, we verify the experiment using small form-factor pluggable transceivers mounted FPGA as a FSO transmitter and receiver. Here, a high-speed single FSO link is proposed and its performance under turbulence and fog conditions using the dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber is evaluated. We show that the proposed system under the turbulence condition with a scintillation index of 0.35 offers the same data rate as the link under a clear channel, while the bit error rate increases from 10-12 to 5 ×
... where P VE−Rx is the power received for the channel condition under evaluation and P VE−Max is the maximum received power for a clear channel. The atmospheric loss is given by [35] L Atm (dB) = 4.343β a (λ)l . ...
Full-text available
In this paper, we demonstrate the first, to our knowledge, experimental implementation of a gigabit Ethernet multiple input single output free space optical (FSO) communications link using adaptive switching implemented in the software defined open-source software, GNU Radio, and analyze its performance. A fully functional FSO link with a feedback path is implemented using cost effective off-the-shelf components, i.e., media converters and small form-factor pluggable modules. We propose a switching mechanism at the transmitter to improve the link performance under different fog conditions and provide results for the proposed FSO system compared with a single FSO link. The real-time channel estimation is demonstrated and, based on the channel state information, adaptive switching is carried out in GNU Radio. We show that the proposed system under the heavy fog condition offers almost the same packet error rate under the clear channel but with a reduced data rate by about 100 Mbps (i.e., 600 Mbps).
... The FSO-link is assumed as an stand by solution for FO-link when; (1) the FO-link installation become very costly, impracticable, or unattainable to install (Yaseen et al. 2020a(Yaseen et al. , 2021, (2) the FO-link is collapses as a consequence of a bombing during wars or natural disaster (Yu et al. 2015), (3) there is a traffic issue on the first mile or last mile of the FO-link (Patnaik and Sahu 2012). As a result, the integration of FO-link and FSO-link to build a hybrid communication system has received a lot of attention in the last decade (Ahmad Anas et al. 2012;Alnajjar et al. 2019;Esmail et al. 2017;Jurado-Navas et al. 2015;Patnaik and Sahu 2012;Paudel et al. 2013;Yeh et al. 2019;Yu et al. 2015). In spite of the FSO links have all these features, the optical to electrical and electrical to optical transformation limit the communication bandwidth and considered as the main cruel problem facing the traditional FSO link. ...
Full-text available
The simulation and investigation of a 32 × 10 Gb/s WDM all-optical bidirectional hybrid communication system for outdoor applications is presented in this article via multidisciplinary softwares. In order to track the system condition, a strain sensor based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is integrated in-line with the fiber optic link (FO-link). Then, a free space optical link (FSO-link) with 4-channel is simulated to act backup or rescue to the FO-link in the event of disaster or bombing. The FO-link is working well until the strain reach to 180 με, after that the FO-link has degraded. Therefore, an optical switch is incorporated in between these systems (FO-link and FSO-link) to turn-on the FSO-link which act as a backup system to FO-link and maintains the continuity of the data transmission. According to the hybrid link results, there is an efficient enhancement in the Q-factor as compared with the FO-link even when there is heavy rain.
... where L Misc is the miscellaneous loss including the coupling losses (i.e., optics to fibre). The geometric and atmospheric losses are given, respectively by [30], [31]: ...
Full-text available
In this paper, we provide the first software-based implementation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free space optical (FSO) link with the adaptive switching based on the software defined radio developed by GNU Radio software system, which emulates the real-time capability of the proposed scheme. We propose a switching mechanism to independently configure each transmitter and receiver, based on the channel state information provided at the transmitter via a feedback link and evaluate the link performance under atmospheric conditions such as fog and turbulence. We also validate the advantages of mitigating both the turbulence and fog in the proposed MIMO FSO system by means of numerical simulations and the developed GNU Radio software platform.
... Note that, the photodetection process, which is discrete in nature, results in the signal-dependent shot noise at the PD [25,26], with the variance given as [26]: ...
Full-text available
Intelligent transport systems (ITS) rely upon the connectivity, cooperation and automation of vehicles aimed at the improvement of safety and efficiency of the transport system. Connectivity, which is a key component for the practical implementation of vehicular light communications (VeLC) systems in ITS, must be carefully studied prior to design and implementation. In this paper, we carry out a performance evaluation study on the use of different vehicle taillights (TLs) as the transmitters in a VeLC system. We show that, the transmission coverage field of view and the link span depend on TLs illumination patterns and the transmit power levels, respectively, which fail to meet the typical communication distances in vehicular environments. This paper proposes an infrared-based VeLC system to meet the transmission range in daytimes under Sunlight noise. We show that, at the forward error correction bit error rate limit of 3.8 10^-3, the communication distances of the proposed link are 63, 72, and > 89 m compared with 4.5, 5.4 and 6.3 m for BMWs vehicle TL at data rates of 10, 6, and 2 Mbps, respectively.
... where is the active area the PD; is the incidence angle; is the solar irradiance; and are the integration limits, i.e., the wavelength band, which are 405-690 nm for the visible range; and represent the gain of the optical concentrator (OC) and the transmittance of the optical filter, respectively. Additionally, the thermal noise, signal-dependent shot noise at the PD, the PD's dark current noise, and consequently the total noise variances are given, respectively, as [33,36,38]: ...
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate the performance of a vehicular visible light communications (VVLC) link with a non-collimated and incoherent light source (a light-emitting diode) as the transmitter (Tx), and two different optical receiver (Rx) types (a camera and photodiode (PD)) under atmospheric turbulence (AT) conditions with aperture averaging (AA). First, we present simulation results indicating performance improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) under AT with AA with increasing size of the optical concentrator. Experimental investigations demonstrate the potency of AA in mitigating the induced signal fading due to the weak to moderate AT regimes in a VVLC system. The experimental results obtained with AA show that the link’s performance was stable in terms of the average SNR and the peak SNR for the PD and camera-based Rx links, respectively with <1 dB SNR penalty for both Rxs, as the strength of AT increases compared with the link with no AT.
This paper aims to study the possibility of deployment of free-space optical communication (FSOC) links in India. We have focused on different locations of India for investigating the feasibility of the FSOC link, and it includes the coastal and inland locations, representing the major commercial areas of India. The atmospheric data related to daily visibilities and wind speeds, over 5 years, along with altitude of locations have been studied to calculate the scattering and turbulent losses. The losses due to scattering and turbulence are further added to find the total atmospheric losses for all locations. The atmospheric losses are maximum for the coastal location of Mumbai, and the inland location of Chandigarh has recorded minimum atmospheric losses. We have calculated maximum achievable link ranges for different locations mathematically by using the power link margin equation and atmospheric losses. Further, the results have revealed that the longest FSOC link of an optimal range of 3.24 km can be deployed in Chandigarh, while Mumbai has the shortest FSOC link of range 1.76 km under the average atmospheric conditions. Additionally, we have designed an FSOC system using Optisystem 13.0 software and analyzed the system performance for different locations of India by incorporating the atmospheric losses of different locations. Furthermore, we have verified the results of the mathematical and simulation model. The maximum achievable link ranges calculated by using the mathematical and simulation model have demonstrated close similarity with an average percentage error of 2.42% only.
Full-text available
The simulation and investigation of a 32×10 Gb/s WDM all–optical bidirectional hybrid communication system for outdoor applications is presented in this article via multidisciplinary softwares. In order to track the system condition, a strain sensor based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is integrated in–line with the fiber optic link (FO–link). Then, a free space optical link (FSO–link) with 4–channel is simulated to act backup or rescue to the FO–link in the event of disaster or bombing. The FO–link is working well until the strain reach to 180 µε, after that the FO–link has degraded. Therefore, an optical switch is incorporated in between these systems (FO–link & FSO–link) to turn–on the FSO–link which act as a backup system to FO–link and maintains the continuity of the data transmission. According to the hybrid link results, there is an efficient enhancement in the Q–factor as compared with the FO–link even when there is heavy rain.
Free space optics (FSO) can be used as an alternative to the currently used wireless radio communication systems to meet the increasing demands for the uninterrupted internet connection in High-Speed Trains (HSTs). FSO is less prone to interference, license-free and more secure as compared to Radio Frequency (RF) technology. In this paper, we have compared three different wavelengths (850, 1330, and 1550 nm) for the dual-wavelength model at a bit rate of 10 Gb/s to see which two wavelengths provide better results. The system is studied for return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) modulation formats this electronic document is a “live” template and already defines the components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] in its style sheet.
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In order to reduce the impact of background radiation on the performance of terrestrial free-space optical systems, we propose to use two laser wavelengths and to perform the data detection at the receiver in a differential mode. We consider first the case of simple on–off keying modulation and show the performance improvement by using the proposed technique when the background noise dominates. We also extend our study to the case of pulse position modulation while proposing special signaling schemes that allow an increase in the data transmission rate at the same time as reducing the background noise effect.
Conference Paper
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In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio , and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a increasing demand for high speed data services while travelling on trains and other means of public transportation. Hence, an alternative technology to radio frequency (RF) communications called free space optics (FSO) could be used to provide truly high-speed broadband services in trains. This paper presents a Lambertian source modelling of FSO ground-to-train communication link along with its link performance analysis. Here, we investigate the use of a single optical base station (BS) that can provide the coverage range up to 75 m at 10 Mbps using on off keying (OOK) non-return to zero (NRZ) data signal with a bit error rate (BER) of 10 -6 .
This book is intended for research scientists, engineers and students with an interest in the topic of free-space laser communications. It is intended as an all-inclusive source to serve the needs of those who require information about both basic concepts, as well as up-to-date advanced knowledge of the state-of-the-art in the technologies available today. This is the first book which provides in a comprehensive and tutorial manner, the fundamental principles and advances of free-space laser communications. Topics addressed include: atmospheric channel effects including available models, system design and performance, laser transmitter/ receiver designs for high performance photon-efficient systems, adaptive optics technology for atmospheric compensation, optical networks, coding techniques, and long wavelength free-space optical communications.
Detailing a systems approach, Optical Wireless Communications: System and Channel Modelling with MATLAB®, is a self-contained volume that concisely and comprehensively covers the theory and technology of optical wireless communications systems (OWC) in a way that is suitable for undergraduate and graduate-level students, as well as researchers and professional engineers. Incorporating MATLAB® throughout, the authors highlight past and current research activities to illustrate optical sources, transmitters, detectors, receivers, and other devices used in optical wireless communications. They also discuss both indoor and outdoor environments, discussing how different factors—including various channel models—affect system performance and mitigation techniques. In addition, this book broadly covers crucial aspects of OWC systems: Fundamental principles of OWC Devices and systems Modulation techniques and schemes (including polarization shift keying) Channel models and system performance analysis Emerging visible light communications Terrestrial free space optics communication Use of infrared in indoor OWC One entire chapter explores the emerging field of visible light communications, and others describe techniques for using theoretical analysis and simulation to mitigate channel impact on system performance. Additional topics include wavelet denoising, artificial neural networks, and spatial diversity. Content also covers different challenges encountered in OWC, as well as outlining possible solutions and current research trends. A major attraction of the book is the presentation of MATLAB simulations and codes, which enable readers to execute extensive simulations and better understand OWC in general.
It is commonly agreed that the next generation of wireless communication systems, usually referred to as 4G systems, will not be based on a single access technique but it will encompass a number of different complementary access technologies. The ultimate goal is to provide ubiquitous connectivity, integrating seamlessly operations in most common scenarios, ranging from fixed and low-mobility indoor environments in one extreme to high-mobility cellular systems in the other extreme. Surprisingly, perhaps the largest installed base of short-range wireless communications links are optical, rather than RF, however. Indeed, 'point and shoot' links corresponding to the Infra-Red Data Association (IRDA) standard are installed in 100 million devices a year, mainly digital cameras and telephones. In this paper we argue that optical wireless communications (OW) has a part to play in the wider 4G vision. An introduction to OW is presented, together with scenarios where optical links can enhance the performance of wireless networks.
We developed a new ground-to-train free-space optical communication system that performs stable high-speed communication even when a train is running at high speed and does fast handover between laser transceivers on the ground.
Given the relative newness of free-space optics (FSO) technology in commercial applications, few standardized metrics exist for comparing the performance of different systems. Our goal here is to explain some of the design issues surround-ing FSO systems and to provide sufficient information to allow potential users to evaluate the suitability of a specific FSO system for a particular application. In addition, we attempt to define the realistic performance limitations of FSO on the basis of existing technology and also to set reasonable expectations with regard to atmospheric conditions.