Abstract— The demand for access to broadband data services in high speed trains is increasing as
more people are travelling to and from work, which is not met by the existing radio frequency (RF)
technology. Therefore an alternative technology known as free space optics (FSO) could be readily
adopted that could overcome the bandwidth bottleneck problem. The paper presents a mathematical
model of an FSO link for ground-to-train communications link and analyses the system performance
in terms of the signal to noise ratio and the bit error rate (BER). We show that the simulated BER is in
good agreement with the predicted results for bit rates up to 50 Mbps. The link budget analysis for the
proposed system is also presented showing a link margin of 17.75 dB.
Index Terms—communications, free space optical, Gaussian beam, ground-to-train.
Free-space optical (FSO) communications is an alternative wireless access technology to the existing radio
frequency (RF) wireless systems. FSO also known as the optical wireless communications (OWC) have
multiple advantages that can complement the existing RF links such as a huge unregulated spectrum,
immunity to electromagnetic interference, high security since optical beams do not penetrate opaque objects
and frequency reuse resulting in a high capacity per unit volume [1-5]. The FSO system is the preferred
option where there is limitation or restriction in the use of RF based systems in application including
hospitals, airplane, military where RF interferes with monitoring equipment. The FSO technology can be
utilised in both indoor and outdoor environment capable of supporting very high data rates up to Gigabit per
second. Various works [3, 6, 7] have reported indoor FSO communications with data rates beyond 1 Gb/s.
For outdoor systems, 100 Gb/s per channel link is reported in  whereas 1.28 Tb/s FSO link (32×40 Gb/s)
Modelling of Free Space Optical Link for
Ground-to-Train Communications Using a
Rupak Paudel, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Hoa Le-Minh,S. Rajbhandari
Optical Communications Research Group, NCRLab, Faculty of Engineering and Environment,
Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
is reported in  using the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM). FSO supports a number of
modulations, forward error correction coding schemes and protocols for a variety of applications, including
voice and multimedia services. FSO is also designed to support a large number of users, with multiple
connections per terminal, each with its own quality of service requirement. In indoor FSO systems mobility
offered is not as advanced as in the RF technology. The FSO technology is relatively young but mature and
its widespread deployment will in parts depend on (i) the cost of devices as compared to the RF technology,
and (ii) how the RF dominated industry will see FSO not as a threat but a complementary technology to RF
in areas where there is a need for a high speed link.
Due to the exponential growth of handheld devices such as smart-phones or tablets, there is a growing
demand for high speed internet connections in trains, ships, buses, etc. The existing infrastructure based on
the RF technology such as Wi-Fi/WiMAX used in trains are capable of delivering, theoretically, peak data
rates up to 54/75 Mbps, where in real scenario this could be lower than 10 Mbps at the best of times . This
of course is  could
be improved by increasing the carrier frequency, thus by adopting the millimetre wave technology beyond
the 60 80 GHz band. In the future, the offered internet facilities are expected to be falling short of the
increasing demand for high-quality multimedia type services in train. One possible and viable solution to
address the demand for higher data rates is the FSO. A ground-to-train communications system using the
FSO technology is proposed in  where a tracking control algorithm is used to establish a stable
communication link between the mobile unit and the ground. In , an FSO system with a faster handover
mechanism (124 ms) is proposed to achieve a data rate in excess of 500 Mbps in high speed trains. Although,
practical based data are reported by [11, 12], a detailed mathematical modelling of the FSO ground-to-train
communication link, which is essential for system modelling and performance analysis has not been
addressed. In our previous work , we have reported a mathematical model for the FSO ground-to-train
system using a Lambertian source. In such systems, laser sources are the preferred option for higher power
requirements and longer coverage length and can be modelled as Gaussian. This paper outlines a
mathematical model for the FSO ground-to-train communications link and introduces a new expression for
the received optical power based on the proposed geometrical model. The proposed system would be a
complementary technology to RF based schemes providing higher data rates for the end users. In this
proposed system, intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD), which is the most popular method in
FSO, is incorporated due to its simplicity and low cost. The rest of the paper is organised as follows: Section
2 discusses the proposed system along with the mathematical model, Section 3 presents system design,
Section 4 presents results along with discussion and Section 5 concludes the paper.
2. SYSTEM MODELLING
A typical ground-to-train FSO communication link is shown in Fig. 1. The link consists of optical
transceivers (Tx/Rx) positioned on the roof of the train and base stations (BSs) positioned alongside the train
track. Each BS emits a narrow width optical beam fully covering the entire train. BSs are only active when
the train is within its transmission range and the optical footprint, otherwise they are in the off mode to save
Fig. 1(a): A typical ground-to-train communications system and (b). Front view of the proposed system.
energy. Exchange of information from BS to the service provider will take place via the fibre-optic backbone
network, which is normally laid down along the rail tack as in UK.
The proposed geometrical model of the downlink communications for an over-ground train for a straight
track is depicted in Fig. 2. Usually for a straight track, the maximum span between the power overhead lines
(gantries) is 75 m , which is used as the spacing between the BSs in this analysis. Of course the BS
separation can be extended to few hundred metres for a longer track. In this scenario, one could either
increase the transmit power at the BS within the eye-safe limit, which is further explained in section 3.3 or
move to a longer wavelengths of 1300 nm and 1550 nm where eye safety is not a major issue compared to
In this section, we will model the available received optical power distributed along the track length L, see
Fig. 2. The BS is positioned a metre away from the track, and is adjustable. Let the half angle divergence be
1/2 (i.e., = 21/2). The BS transmitter (A), which is at the same height as the optical Tx/Rx (i.e. ~ 4 m above
the ground level), could be tilted by an angle 1/2+ represented by along the horizontal plane so that it
points towards the optical Rx.
(d2) is the horizontal separation distance between BS and the shortest
coverage point C, which .
(d1) is fixed at 1 m (BS separation from the track), is the coverage angle at the longest point B and is the
coverage angle at the shortest point C. Using a simple geometry, and for ACD and ABD
respectively, we have
.The estimated transmitter beam divergence angle can be
Fig. 2 (a). Proposed system geometrical modelling and (b). System geometry.
Hence, based on the position of the BS and the effective coverage length, the beam divergence angle can
be approximated. The optical beam radius of a Gaussian beam is given as :
where wo is the beam waist of the laser source at the transmitter, z is the axis of propagation and is the
operating wavelength of the optical source.
In Fig. 2, let
be denoted by x (= ). The OHB (see Fig. 2(b)) can be written as (1/2 + ) and
represented by . The following analysis is performed in order to derive a general equation for the power
received along the track. Here, the length along the axis of propagation,
(z) would be related to length
CB, which is the effective coverage length L so that the power along L could be determined. From Fig. 2(b),
z = AH + HO and the length AH can be written as AG + GH. Similarly, length HO can be written as HO = (L
- CH) cos. Hence z can be given as. Using basic geometry, z can be written
Rewriting the beam radius from (2) in terms of the effective coverage length along the track using (3) as:
OHB, denoting OB as the offset r from the axis AO at the point B, we get
Hence, the radial offset from the axis of propagation AHO orthogonal to the axis can be
The received power at the receiver along the z axis for a Gaussian beam is given by :
where Ptx is the total transmit power from BS and Acoll is the collection area at the receiver. Using (4), (5) and
(6), Ptx along the track
, when the BS is positioned at a distance d1 from the track based on the Gaussian
beam profile, is given as:
Once the average optical transmitter power, the collection area of the receiver, beam divergence, the tilting
angle of the receiver at the longest coverage point, the BS position and the effective coverage length are
determined, the received power can be evaluated using (7). The angular parameters for the model and the
system model parameters used for the simulation are given in Tables 1 and 2 respectively.
3. SYSTEM DESIGN
This section describes the optical wireless link for the proposed system, which consists of an optical
transmitter and a receiver and a wireless communications channel. Also the eye safety analysis is discussed
for the average transmitter power and the link budget analysis is performed for the system.
The transmitter comprises of a laser source and a laser driver, which can be modulated using the most
common modulation format non return-to-zero (NRZ) on-off keying (OOK). The transmitter parameters
SYSTEM MODEL PARAMETERS
Vertical position of BS
Horizontal BS position
BS optical transmit power
-36 dBm @
Radius of the optical
Focal length of the lens
Refractive index of the
such as the beam divergence and the average transmit power for the system is estimated based on the
proposed geometrical model. The beam divergence is estimated from the positions of d1 and d2 and L as
given by (1). The transmit power at the BS can be derived from (6) by replacing the received power with the
receiver sensitivity and for L = 75 m.
The receiver positioned on the roof of the train will be tilted at an angle . This is also the angle made by
the propagation axis with the train track so that the FOV of the receiver at both the longest and shortest
points B and C, respectively will be within the beam divergence of the transmitter. The receiver incorporates
an optical concentrator, a photodiode and receiver electronics. The concentrator collects and focuses the
incoming light onto the photodiode whereas the receiver electronics is used to recover the signal. The
concentrator gain at the receiver can be evaluated as :
where n is the refractive index of an optical concentrator and c is the half-angle FOV of the receiver after
the lens. The FOV of the receiver using the optical concentrator is given by :
where Acoll is the effective light collection area of the receiver and Adet is the area of the photodetector. The
proposed system parameters are tabulated in Table 1. The noise source at the detector is the combination of
the shot noise, the thermal noise  and the background noise . The typical value for the background
radiation used is 10 µW [20, 21]. The total noise variance can be written as:
is the variance due to shot noise, thermal noise and the background noise
Coverage angle at B
Coverage angle at C
Tx/Rx tilting angle
respectively. The total noise present at the detector can be modelled as the additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver is hence given by :
The BER for OOK-NRZ is then evaluated as:
3.3. Eye safety
In order for the system to operate in public places, the utilised optical source should conform to the
international eye safety standards . The Acceptable Emission Limit (AEL) is determined by the angular
subtense angle and the operating wavelength. The angular subtense of the apparent source should be
calculated in order to classify the laser source used based on Fig. 3, which depends on the source diameter
where rmeasure ( = 100 mm) is the measuring distance and D is the source diameter. D is assumed to be 5 mm,
therefore the source can be classified as an extended source since the angular subtense can be calculated as
50 mrad as given by (13min max of 1.5 mrad and 100 mrad, respectively. With
Ptx = 15 mW, which is below the AEL limit of 20 mW for an exposure time of 100s for extended source
when the operating wavelength is 850 nm, the system proposed conforms to the eye safety standards. If
higher power transmission is required, we can move to higher wavelengths around 1300 nm where the AEL
limit increases by a factor of 20 as compared to that of 850 nm. In this work, 850 nm wavelength is adopted
as this is the most commonly used window for optical communications where the components available are
the cheapest .
Fig. 3. Angular subtense measurement.
3.4. Link budget analysis
The link budget analysis is performed in order to evaluate the system link margin after taking into account
losses associated with the system. The losses considered are the atmospheric loss due to weather conditions,
the geometrical loss Lgeom, the pointing loss Lpt, the transmitter loss Ltx and the receiver loss Lrx. The
attenua . The link visibility is derived
from the fog attenuation using the Kim model to reflect the attenuation in dB/km as :
where V q is the size distribution of
scattering particles and is given by :
Using (14) for a moderate fog, i.e visibility of 500 m, fog attenuation is calculated as 34 dB/km. The other
loss in the system is due to the spreading of the transmitted beam as it propagates through the atmosphere
known as the Geometrical loss. Geometrical loss can be approximated by the following expression for a
uniform transmitter power distribution :
where dr is the receiver aperture diameter, and dt is the transmitter aperture diameter. Typical
transmitter/receiver loss is considered to be 3 dB. The link budget equation can be written as:
pointing loss (Lpt)
Receiver losses (Lrx)
Receiver telescope gain
Link margin for weather conditions
where M is the link margin of the system, Sr is the receiver sensitivity of the photodetector, and Grx is the
gain of the optical concentrator. Table 3 shows the link budget analysis for this system with a link margin of
nearly 18 dB after considering all different losses in the system.
3.5 Train aerodynamics and turbulence effect
The train moving at a high speed creates aerodynamic forces around the train. These forces are
influenced by three factors namely, train speed, distance from the train and the train geometry . At low
train speeds, there is a significant velocity variation around the train height with high turbulence intensity.
The turbulence intensity is low at high train speeds with more uniform velocity profile . The moving
train creates a boundary layer along the train length resulting in the airflow in the direction of the train and a
wake behind it. As shown in Fig. 4, although the movement of the train creates pressure peaks at front and
back ends of the train, there is a uniform pressure along the length of the train carriage . Train moving at
high speed induces wind in its surrounding . At a speed of around 200 km/h, it would generate wind
speeds of around 15 m/s . According to , the link performance improves with the wind speed. To
illustrate this, we use the method adopted in  where the mean <SNR> as a function of SNR with no
turbulence SNR0 is given by :
where is the scintillation index for various wind speed for a Gaussian beam as given by :
Fig. 4. Air flow around the train (Courtesy of )
for Kolmogorov spectrum,
denotes the longitudinal component of the scintillation index,
is a non-Kolmogorov Rytov variance for plane wave,
and are large scale and small scale
, denotes an effective pointing error,
term spot size caused by large scale induced beam wander, W is the free-space beam spot radius and r is the
radial distance from the optical axis. Fig. 5 shows the system performance as a function of the wind speed
based on (18) and (19) where <SNR> (gain) increases for increasing wind speed. Positioning the transceiver
in the middle part of the train roof, where the pressure is almost constant and as a result the refractive index
is almost constant would make the FSO link less susceptible to the turbulence effect. Although when the
train is stationary, the scintillation index variation due to the pressure and temperature would be high, but for
a train moving at a constant speed the turbulence effect can be ignored due to the constant pressure and
temperature along the length of the train. The link margin of 17.75 dB would ensure that the system is
functioning at all conditions.
Fig. 5. Mean SNR as a function of SNR with no turbulence for various wind speeds (Adapted
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
v = 20 m/s
v = 11 m/s
v = 7 m/s
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The numerical analysis of the proposed system is performed using MATLAB®. The communications
channel for this terrestrial FSO link is assumed to be AWGN channel in our simulation. In order to estimate
the appropriate beam divergence the horizontal BS position d2 is varied from 5 m to 25 m and the beam
divergence values for a range of d2 are shown in Fig. 6. For d2 below 15 m, due to the wide beam divergence
of over 5° and 10° at d2 of 10 m and 5 m respectively, the required transmitted power is over 20 mW and 50
mW, respectively as most of the transmit power is wasted. This is due to a large amount of power, which is
outside the train-BS communications area as the beam profile is circular. When d2 >15 m, although the
required transmitted power is low (<15 mW) but the received power fades away quickly since the BS
position is further away from the shortest coverage point C. The power profile for different values of d2 is
plotted and compared in Fig. 7 based on (7), which suggests that the power profile appears to be more
uniform for d2 values over 15 m. Since, the desired BS separation distance from the shortest coverage point
C along the track is small, the horizontal BS position value is chosen to be 15 m. Using (1), the beam
divergence for the track coverage length of 75 m, fixing d1 at 1 m and d2 =15 m, would be 3.20° as is evident
from Fig. 6.
Assuming a typical Rx sensitivity of -36 dBm at 10 Mbps, and a radius of receiver optics of 25 mm, the
required transmit power at the BS is taken to be 11.8 dB (15 mW) as in Table 3. The receiver FOV is
estimated based on the size of the receiver optics as given in (9). Based on the parameters considered, the
optimum receiver semi-FOV for a 7 mm2 photodetector would be 5.15° (half angle). For this link, a margin
Fig. 6. Beam divergence for varying d2.
of ~18 dB is used, which is evident from the link budget analysis. The transmitter power could be increased
to the AEL limit as discussed above to ensure 100 % link availability.
The SNR along the track for various bit rates are shown in Fig. 8. The simulation is performed up to a data
rate of 100 Mbps due to the limitation in the bandwidth (50 MHz) of the measured laser impulse response,
which is adopted for simulation. As can be seen, to achieve a SNR of 13.6 dB the effective coverage length
for the data rate of 10 Mbps is 75 m. However, the observed SNR within the link margin offers an additional
SNR of 10 dB i.e., 23.6 dB at 10 Mbps. Increasing the bit rate to 100 Mbps does not affect the theoretical
coverage length of 75 m. The SNR drops from 23.6 dB at 10 Mbps to 13.6 dB at 100 Mbps since the noise
bandwidth increases at higher bit rates for a constant transmit power.
Fig.7. Power profile variation for varying d2.
Fig. 8. SNR variation along the track length CB.
The BER performance of the ground-to-train system is evaluated based on the angular parameters in Table
1 and system model parameters in Table 2. The BER curve along the train track for various bit rates is
plotted in Figs. 9(a) and 9(b) for beam divergence angles of 3.2° and 4°, respectively. The plot for a 4° beam
angle (commercially available typical value) is used to compare the achievable coverage length with the
proposed beam angle .For an AWGN channel, the simulated BER curve shows a relatively good agreement
with the predicted curve using (12) at 50 Mbps for both beam divergence angles
Fig. 9. Bit Error Performance along the track for beam divergence of (a) 3.2° and (b) 4°.
30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Length along the track (m)
- log10 (BER)
Simulation 10 Mbps
Theory 10 Mbps
Simulation 50 Mbps
Theory 50 Mbps
Simulation 100 Mbps
Theory 100 Mbps
30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Length along the track (m)
Simulation 10 Mbps
Theory 10 Mbps
Simulation 50 Mbps
Theory 50 Mbps
Simulation 100 Mbps
Theory 100 Mbps
For 100 Mbps case, there is mismatch between the
predicted and the simulated results. This is due to the rise and fall times of the impulse response of the
system, which is not ideal. The bandwidth of the laser limits the transmitted bit rate beyond 100 Mbps. The
bit error performance of 10-6 is achieved for a track length of 75 m at 50 Mbps for a beam divergence of 3.2°.
The coverage length drops to 68 m for a beam divergence of 4° for the same transmit power. For bit rates
beyond 50 Mbps, the coverage length decreases for the desired BER due to the increase in the noise
bandwidth of the system. The coverage length of 75 m with given beam divergence is to be used as a
reference for the performance analysis of the system. However, moving to longer wavelengths could increase
the transmitted power by up to 50 times, thereby increasing the effective coverage length along the track
over few hundred metres. Thus, the number of BSs alongside the track could be significantly reduced.
Hence, high bandwidth availability of FSO in excess of THz and license free operation  would encourage
internet service providers to adopt this technology for ground-to-train communications.
A mathematical modelling for ground-to-train FSO communications link is proposed using Gaussian beam
theory. Receiver power equation for a Gaussian source is derived based on the geometrical position of the
BS from the track. The analytical and simulated BER performance of the proposed system is carried out
showing a good agreement to each other for data rates up to 50 Mbps. With the optimum parameters, it is
possible to have beam coverage for track length of 75 m for data rates up to 50 Mbps. Also, link budget
analysis for the proposed system is presented showing a link margin of 17.75 dB for worse weather
conditions. The paper also pointed out the proper positioning of the receiver on the train based on the
aerodynamics of the train. Hence, FSO technology with the proposed system modelling can be an alternative
to provide a high bandwidth broadband access to high speed trains.
R. Paudel thanks the Faculty of Engineering and Environment Northumbria University for financially
supporting this research. This work was supported in part by the EU FP7 Cost Actions of IC0802 and
1. Ciaramella, E., Arimoto, Y., Contestabile, G., Presi, M., D'Errico, A., Guarino, V., et al.: '1.28 terabit/s (32x40
Gbit/s) wdm transmission system for free space optical communications'. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in
Communications. 2009;27(9): pp. 1639-45.
2. Henniger, H., Wilfert, O.: 'An introduction to free-space optical communications'. Radio Engineering.
2010;19(2): pp. 203-12.
3. Wang, K., Nirmalathas, A., Lim, C., Skafidas, E.: 'Experimental demonstration of a full-duplex indoor optical
wireless communication system'. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2012;24(3): pp.188-90.
4. Langer, K. D., Grubor, J., Bouchet, O., El Tabach, M., Walewski, J. W., Randel, S., et al.: 'Optical wireless
communications for broadband access in home area networks'. 10th Anniversary International Conference on
Transparent Optical Networks; 22-26 June 2008.
5. Paraskevopoulos, A. , J., Voss, SH., Swoboda, R., Langer, K. D., 'Optical wireless communication
systems in the Mb/s to Gb/s range, suitable for industrial applications'. IEEE/ASME Transactions on
Mechatronics. 2010;15(4): pp. 541-7.
6. Le-Minh, H., O'Brien, D., Faulkner, G., Bouchet, O., Wolf, M., Grobe, L., et al.: 'A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular
optical wireless communications demonstrator'. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2010;22(21): pp. 1598-
7. Wang, K., Nirmalathas, A., Lim, C., Skafidas, E., 'High-speed optical wireless communication system for
indoor applications'. IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 2011;23(8):519-21.
8. Cvijetic, N., Dayou, Q., Jianjun, Y., Yue-Kai, H., Ting, W., '100 Gb/s per-channel free-space optical
transmission with coherent detection and MIMO processing'. 35th European Conference on Optical
Communication; 20-24 Sept. 2009.
9. Ahmad, I., Habibi, D., 'A novel mobile WiMAX solution for higher throughput'. 16th IEEE International
Conference on Networks; 12-14 Dec. 2008.
10. , D. C., Katz, M., Wang, P., Kalliojarvi, K., Arnon, S., Israel, N., et al.: 'Short-range optical wireless
communications'. Wireless World Research Forum. 2005.
11. Hiruta, M., Nakagawa, M., Haruyama, S., Ishikawa, S., 'A study on optical wireless train communication
system using mobile object tracking technique'. 11th International Conference on Advanced Communication
Technology 2009 15-18 Feb. 2009.
12. Haruyama, S., Urabe, H., Shogenji, T., Ishikawa, S., Hiruta, M., Teraoka, F., et al.: 'New ground-to-train high-
speed free-space optical communication system with fast handover mechanism'. Optical Fiber Communication
Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC) and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference; 2011.
13. Paudel, R., Ghassemlooy, Z., Le Minh, H., Rajbhandari, S., Leitgeb, E., 'Lambertian source modelling of free
space optical ground-to-train communications'. 8th International Symposium on Communication Systems,
Networks and Digital Signal Processing; 18-20 July 2012; Poznan, Poland.
14. Railway Electrification: 25kV a.c. Design on British Railways. (1988).
15. Goldsmith, P., 'Gaussian Beam Quasioptical Propogation and Applications'. 1st ed: Wiley-IEEE Press, 1998.
16. Kahn, J. M., Barry, J. R., 'Wireless infrared communications'. Proceedings of the IEEE. 1997;85(2): pp. 265-
17. O'Brien, D. C., Faulkner, G., Le Minh, H., Bouchet, O., El Tabach, M., Wolf, M., et al.: 'Gigabit optical
wireless for a Home Access Network'. 20th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile
Radio Communications;13-16 Sept. 2009.
18. Majumdar, A. K., Ricklin, J. C., 'Free-Space Laser Communications: Principles and Advances'. New York:
19. Manor, H., Arnon, S., 'Performance of an optical wireless communication system as a function of wavelength'.
Optical Society of America. 2003;42(21): pp. 4285-94.
20. Hu, G. Y., Chen, C. Y., Chen, Z. Q., 'Free-space optical communications using visible light'. Journal of
Zhejiang University Science A [online]. 2007; 8(2): Available from:
21. Khalighi, M., Xu, F., Jaafar, Y., Bourennane, S., 'Double-laser differential signaling for reducing the effect of
background radiation in free-space optical systems'. IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and
Networking. 2011;3(2): pp. 145-54.
22. Safety of laser products- Part 1: Equipment classification and requirements: IEC 60825-1:2007.
23. Leitgeb, E., Plank, T., Awan, M. S., Brandl, P., Popoola, W., Ghassemlooy, Z., et al.: 'Analysis and evaluation
of optimum wavelengths for free-space optical transceivers. 12th International Conference on Transparent
Optical Networks; 2010.
24. Weichel, H., 'Laser beam propagation in the atmosphere'. Bellingham: SPIE; 1990.
25. Kim, I. I., McArthur, B., Korevaar, E., 'Comparison of laser beam propagation at 785 nm and 1550 nm in fog
and haze for optical wireless communications'. SPIE Proceedings: Optical Wireless Communications III.
2001;4214: pp. 26-37.
26. Bloom, S., Korevaar, E., Schuster, J., Willebrand, H., 'Understanding the performance of free-space optics'.
Journal of Optical Networking. 2003;2(6): pp. 178-200.
27. Lee, H. S., 'Assessment of potential aerodynamic effects on personnel and equipment in proximity to high-
speed train operations'. Washington, D.C: U. S. Department of Transportation, Contract No.: DOT-VNTSC-
28. Baker, C., 'The flow around high speed trains'. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics.
2010;98: pp. 27798.
29. Ray, S., 'T-box harnesses wind-energy when trains move across the tracks., (2011); Available from:
30. Deng, P., Yuan, X., Zeng, Y., Zhao, M., Luo, H., 'Influence of wind speed on free space optical
communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence'.
Journal of Physics. 2011;276: pp. 1-11.
31. Andrews, L. C., Phillips, R. L., 'Laser beam propagation through random media'. 2nd ed. Bellingham: SPIE
modelling with Matlab®: CRC Press; 2012.