Article

General and Maladaptive Traits in a Five-Factor Framework for DSM-5 in a University Student Sample

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Abstract

The relationships between two measures proposed to describe personality pathology, that is the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-3) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), are examined in an undergraduate sample (N = 240). The NEO inventories are general trait measures, also considered relevant to assess disordered personality, whereas the PID-5 measure is specifically designed to assess pathological personality traits, as conceptualized in the DSM-5 proposal. A structural analysis of the 25 PID-5 traits confirmed the factor structure observed in the U.S. derivation sample, with higher order factors of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. A joint factor analysis of, respectively, the NEO domains and their facets with the PID-5 traits showed that general and maladaptive traits are subsumed under an umbrella of five to six major dimensions that can be interpreted from the perspective of the five-factor model or the Personality Psychopathology Five. Implications for the assessment of personality pathology and the construction of models of psychopathology grounded in personality are discussed.

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... Krueger et al. (2012) developed the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) with five high-order domains (Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism) to operationalize the dimensional approach of personality disorders in DSM-5. The conjoint factor analyses and item response theory analysis of the PID-5 with general personality measures based on the five-factor model of personality structure supported that the PID-5 could represent a maladaptive variant of the normative five-factor personality structure (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Griffin & Samuel, 2014;Suzuki et al., 2015). ...
... Intelligence was considered as the most important personality descriptor through one lexical approach about personality traits from the Chinese perspective (Shao et al., 2019). Given that there are some overlaps between psychoticism and intelligence (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013), we hypothesized that the maladaptive function of psychoticism in adolescence may not be significant. ...
... Indeed, there was some evidence that supported traits loaded in the Psychoticism domain are related to openness in five-factor personality traits. Although some studies found psychoticism had no significant relationship with openness in fivefactor personality traits (Ashton et al., 2012;Quilty et al., 2013;Zimmermann et al., 2014), other studies found they were at least moderately overlapped (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013). The inconsistencies among the existing studies may attribute the combination of disordered openness and intellect in openness trait, both of which describe individual differences in cognitive exploration and have advantages over sensory and abstract information (DeYoung, 2015;DeYoung et al., 2012). ...
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To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in Chinese nonclinical adolescents, a total of 1,442 Chinese middle school youths (Mage = 14.85, girls = 52.4%) were recruited in the present study. All the participants completed the full-length 220-item PID-5. Some participants (n = 1,003) were administered adolescents’ social adjustment as a criterion measure at the same time and 236 participants took part in longitudinal assessment of the PID-5 and adolescents’ social adjustment 6 months later. First, exploratory structural equation modeling analyses supported a six-factor structure of the PID-5 in our present sample. Second, Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonistic, and Disinhibition domains had positive correlations with negative social adjustment, and negativecorrelations with positive social adjustment concurrently and longitudinally, with the exception of Constraint and Psychoticism. Third, Cronbach’s alpha for the PID-5 traits ranged from .57 to .91 in the full sample. The 6-month test–retest reliability by indexes of interclass correlation coefficient showed poor to good stability. As a whole, our findings provided preliminary evidence of the PID-5 as a reliable and valid measure of adolescents’ maladaptive personality traits in mainland China.
... Research effort has been put into relating the PID-5 scales with several measures of the Five-Factor Model (FFM). All studies suggest a considerable alignment of the PID-5 domains and the Big Five (e.g., De Fruyt et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013;Griffin & Samuel, 2014;Thimm, Jordan, & Bach, 2016;Thomas et al., 2013;Wright & Simms, 2014). These studies reported a replicable clear joint five-factor structure, with the dimension-level scales of the FFM and the PID-5 scales merging in the factorial space in a theoretically predictable manner (Griffin & Samuel, 2014). ...
... For instance, Detachment usually also loads on the Negative Affectivity factor. On the other hand, Openness is not related with any factor, with the exception of Psychoticism in some studies (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Zimmermann et al., 2014). ...
... Maximum likelihood was the extraction method (DeYoung, Carey, Krueger, & Ross, 2016;Thomas et al., 2013). Five factors were explicitly extracted since all previously cited papers about factorial validity of PID-5 generally support a five-factor structure (e.g., De Fruyt et al., 2013;Krueger et al., 2012;Roskam et al., 2015). These papers also suggest a lack of orthogonality of the PID-5 domains, so an oblique procedure (Oblimin) was used to rotate the factors (DeYoung et al., 2016;Griffin & Samuel, 2014). ...
Article
A dimensional approach for Personality Disorders was proposed in the DSM-5. To assess this approach, a new instrument (the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 [PID-5]) was developed in 2012. One research line has analyzed its convergent validity with personality traits, focusing almost exclusively on the Five-Factor Model (FFM). However, previous evidence about the relationships between Categorical Personality Disorders and other personality trait models shows that they can improve our understanding of Personality Disorders beyond the FFM. The aim of the present study is to compare the power of three personality models (FFM, Cloninger’s, and Zuckerman’s) to predict PID-5 domains. Three samples from the Spanish and Catalan general population were collected for this study depending on which personality questionnaire was applied (1,052 for revised NEO Personality Inventory [NEO-PI-R], 465 for Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire [ZKA-PQ], and 332 for Temperament and Character Inventory Revised [TCI-R-140]). The PID-5 was also applied to all subjects. Factor and regression results indicate that the three models were able to predict Dimensional Personality Disorders well, although some differences emerge between them. Specific relationships between dimensional disorders and traits, the role of the facets as well as the utility of the results reported are discussed.
... Research using exploratory factor analysis of PID-5's 25 facets and the FFM's five factors taken together stood out as well. De Fruyt et al. (2013) found an adequate fit for a 5-factor structure, where facets have grouped with its corresponding factor of normal personality. For instance, Neuroticism loaded positively with Negative Affectivity facets whereas negative values were obtained for pairs such as Extraversion and Detachment, Agreeableness and Antagonism, Consciousness and Disinhibition. ...
... Yet, Consciousness, behaved in an unexpected way according to theory, loading with a positive sign along with Rigid Perfectionism, and with a negative sign with Impulsivity. Openness showed unusual results as well since the three facets of Psychoticism obtained positive loads along with the Impulsivity facet, as reported in the study by De Fruyt et al. (2013). Suzuki, Samuel, Pahlen, and Krueger (2015) reached similar conclusions employing the Item Response Theory approach to analyze the International Personality Items Pool-NEO PI-R (IPIP-NEO): Openness and the Psychoticism facets did not load together. ...
... Following Hayton, Allen, and Scarpello (2004), a parallel analysis was performed to establish the number of factors to be extracted (Horn, 1965). The congruence between the components reported in this study and the former by Thomas et al. (2013) andby De Fruyt et al. (2013) was examined using Orthosim (Barrett, 2005), by means of an orthogonal configural target rotation without row-normalization (non-Procrustes). ...
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The paper introduces an analysis of the dimensional maladaptive personality traits model stated in the section III of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), conducted on a community sample composed of 906 adults from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Data were gathered using a socio-demographic survey as well as the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R), and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). A joint exploratory factor analysis was carried out including the PID-5’s 25 facets along with BFI’s 5 factors as input variables. Findings showed a 5-factor structure mostly coincident with DSM-5’s hypotheses as well as with previous research. Besides, correlations calculated between PID-5 and BFI scores behaved according to theoretical hypotheses. By means of a two-stage cluster analysis which used WHODAS 2.0 score and the Global Severity Index index from SCL-90-R as segmentation criteria, two groups were differentiated: The High-Adaptation/Low-Symptomatology group vs the Low- Adaptation/High-Symptomatology one. The second group obtained significantly higher means in the five domains, and in 24 of the 25 facets of PID-5.
... In 2013, De Fruyt and colleagues examined the replicability of the DSM-5 personality trait model. They used a Dutch version of the PID-5 (checked via independent back translation) and furthermore explored the common structure of the PID-5 and the NEO-PI-3 (De Fruyt et al., 2013). The findings presented support for the validity of hierarchical conceptualization of personality traits, with both general and maladaptive traits being organized under an umbrella of higher order domains (Anderson et al., 2013;Thomas et al., 2013). ...
... This study did however provide support for construct validity of the DSM-5 trait model and underscored the psychometric properties of the PID-5. Finally, it suggested that the NEO measures can be used to supplement the PID-5 when both general and maladaptive traits want to be assessed (De Fruyt et al., 2013). Griffin and Samuel (2014) administered a joint EFA of the 30 NEO-PI-R trait scales and the 25 PID-5 trait scales having used a sample of 388 undergraduate psychology students. ...
... Griffin and Samuel (2014) administered a joint EFA of the 30 NEO-PI-R trait scales and the 25 PID-5 trait scales having used a sample of 388 undergraduate psychology students. Their results indicated a five-factor structure similar to the FFM, as supported by previous research having indicated the same (Anderson et al., 2013;De Fruyt et al., 2013;Griffin and Samuel, 2014;Krueger et al., 2012;Thomas et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2012). Their results furthermore indicated that the five joint factors obtained represent the same five factors materialized by normal-range personality measures. ...
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Assessments are regularly used among clinicians within psychology, yet many are deemed too time-consuming and expensive. The Personality Inventory for— Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5)—Brief Form (PID-5-BF) was developed to measure maladaptive personality traits ( negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism), based on the “hybrid model” for personality disorders included in DSM- 5 Section III. Literature indicates that reliability and validity for the PID-5-BF has been established in other countries. We explored these psychometric properties within a South African population using the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview’s (MINI) Subscale K: psychotic disorders and mood disorder with psychotic features, as measures for comparison. Our results indicated support for the PID-5-BF with sufficient reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity. More research is needed on the PID-5-BF, especially in South Africa, but our findings indicate it to be a promising assessment tool that could greatly benefit clinicians in the mental health sector.
... To our knowledge, the PID-5 questionnaire has been translated into 12 languages so far (Italian, Dutch, German, Danish, French, Norwegian, Spanish, Arabic, Portuguese, Czech, Polish, Persian) and validated since 2013. Among these, it was only the German (Zimmermann et al. 2014), the Danish Bo et al. 2016), the Spanish (Gutiérrez et al. 2017), the Portuguese (Pires et al. 2019), and the Czech (Riegel et al. 2018) researchers, who worked on a mixed sample consisting of both general populations and psychiatric patients; the Dutch specialists investigated the psychometric properties of the questionnaire separately in clinical (Bastiaens et al. 2016) and nonclinical (De Fruyt et al. 2013) samples. It is necessary for the reliability and validity of the PID-5 questionnaire to be investigated in clinical and non-clinical samples in as many languages and cultures as possible, thus facilitating the switch to the dimensional approach in personality disorders, and consolidating the use of this measure in clinical practice (Bo et al. 2016). ...
... The facet of Hostility must be interpreted both in the domain of Negative Affectivity and Antagonism. In line with the results of previous studies (Bastiaens et al. 2016;Bo et al. 2016;De Fruyt et al. 2013;Gutiérrez et al. 2017;Pires et al. 2019;Roskam et al. 2015;Strus et al. 2017;Thimm et al. 2017;Wright et al. 2012;Zimmermann et al. 2014), Hostility had high loading on Antagonism in our study as well, supporting Griffin and Samuel's (2014) view, who considered the facet of Hostility to show a better fit to Antagonism rather than Negative Affectivity. Furthermore, in our study the facet of Hostility had the highest loading on Disinhibition, in agreement with a previous finding (Riegel et al. 2018). ...
... It was found both on PID-5 domain and facet level, that the clinical sample had a higher score than the members of the general population. The two samples were very similar in pattern: the facets under Negative Affectivity and Disinhibition exhibited the highest scores on both clinical and community samples, which was consistent with earlier findings (e.g., Al-Attiyah et al. 2017;De Fruyt et al. 2013;Fossati et al. 2013;Fowler et al. 2017;Pires et al. 2017). The only exception was the domain of Antagonism with all its related facets and Risk Taking, as there was no significant difference between the two groups in these respects. ...
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The alternative dimensional model for personality disorders characterizes the individual on pathological personality traits, which can be measured by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Our study focused on the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of PID-5 in 239 psychiatric patients and 226 non-clinical participants. The distribution of gender, age, and educational level were the same in the two samples. In the clinical sample, we examined the assumed unidimensionality of the 25 facets. The results of the exploratory factor analysis for five factors indicated the supposed five-factor structure. The convergent validity was studied by correlations with Big Five Inventory. The PID-5 domains showed moderate or strong correlation with the domains of Big Five except for Psychoticism. The comparison of the clinical and non-clinical samples revealed that psychiatric patients had a higher score on all pathological facets and domains, except for the domain of Antagonism with all its related facets, and the facet of Risk Taking. As a whole, we recommend the use of the Hungarian version of the PID-5 in research and clinical practice.
... This may be due to the small number of items in this facet. Consistent with previous findings (7,10,12,16,23,24), eccentricity was the facet with the highest alpha values, and the lowest alpha value was observed for the facet of suspiciousness. ...
... The theoretical model with error covariance between the domains showed good fit indices and standardized regression coefficients were adequate. The five-factor structure of the PID-5 has been confirmed in different studies (7,11,12,23,28). ...
Article
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Background: The fundamental problems with the personality disorders diagnostic system in DSM-IV led to the revision of the DSM approach and proposition of a dimensional model for DSM-5. The DSM-5 Personality and personality disorders workgroup developed the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) to assess the pathological personality traits within this new model. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of PID-5 in psychiatric patients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the Persian translation of the PID-5 was administered to 400 psychiatric patients admitted to the Roozbeh Hospital. After data collection, the reliability of the inventory was investigated using internal consistency and test-retest methods. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis and convergent validity methods were used to evaluate the validity of the scale. Results: Adequate internal consistency coefficients were obtained for domains and facets. In addition, the test-retest coefficients (up to 0.70) suggested scale stability. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original five-factor model of the inventory. The convergent validity of the inventory with the TCI-R scale was appropriate. Conclusions: The results of the study supported the psychometric properties of the Persian version of PID-5 in psychiatric populations.
... At least nine studies-one reporting data on two separate samples-have examined the PID-5 facets in relation to a measure of the FFM, including three studies that provided a full facet-level analysis. Table 2 provides a synthesis of the PID-5 facets' and FFM domains' factor loadings in six of the studies that reported a joint TRAIT MODEL OF THE AMPD: STRUCTURAL REVIEW factor analysis (De Fruyt et al., 2013;DeYoung et al., 2016;Griffin & Samuel, 2014;Thomas et al., 2013;Watson et al., 2013Watson et al., , 2015. ...
Article
Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), which included an alternative model of personality disorders (AMPD), was followed by an explosion of publications on the new model. The large majority of these publications focused on the AMPD's Criterion B, which consists of 25 trait facets arranged in 5 broad domains that bear strong similarity to the established five-factor model (FFM) of personality. The operationalization of AMPD traits that has received the most research attention is its self-report measure, the Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012). Much of this literature concerns its internal structure and relations with FFM measures. Many of these studies report that a number of the facets appear to be (a) interstitial (cross-loading on 2 or more factors), (b) placed in the wrong domain (i.e., considered by the AMPD to be a facet of a different domain from the one on which it typically loads), or (c) both. Clarifying the structural location of measures is fundamental in understanding their nomological net-and, thereby, the constructs they assess. Therefore, this review focuses on the PID-5 structure in the context of the broader domain of personality, especially the FFM, and primarily examines (1) which facets are interstitial and (2) the best domain(s) in which to place each facet. Also considered are important PD constructs-including multiple facets and one domain-that the AMPD does not include. The review ends with a set of recommendations for AMPD-5.1 and PID-5.1. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... On the other hand, the alternative dimensional model offers an evaluation based on a continuum expressing different levels of personality characteristics. With this proposed dimensional model, researching with non-clinical samples or the using alternative measures for the assessment of pathological personality features became an alternative way to improve understanding of personality psychopathology (e.g., De Fruyt et al. 2013;Akyunus and Gençöz 2020). The present study investigates the personality psychopathology with a cognitive-level measure (e.g., schemas, beliefs) in a community sample. ...
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Interpersonal difficulties and emotion regulation are the core characteristics of the borderline personality disorders (BPD). However, how emotion regulation strategies contribute to the association between interpersonal problems and have not been highlighted cognitive theory. The aim of the current study is to examine the mediator role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies between interpersonal problems and borderline personality beliefs. The study consisted of 648 (381 women and 267 male) people from Turkey. In addition to Socio Demographic Form, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales (IIP-32) and Borderline Personality Belief Subscale (BPBS) were used to collect data from participants. Results showed that negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies, particularly catastrophizing, blaming-others, and self-blame, mediated interpersonal problems and borderline personality beliefs. Since the current study used thought-based assessment, the findings provide enlightening information to understand the underlying cognitive processes of the borderline personality pattern, and promising clinical implications to improve intervention programs within cognitive therapy approaches.
... As expected, the five domains of the Arabic PID-5 displayed meaningful associations with the five domains of the Arabic NEO-FFI [23,47,48]. Nonetheless the positive relationship between Psychoticism and Openness to experience was rather small [14,49], which might be related to the conceptual nature of these domains and how they are assessed. ...
Article
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Background Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) proposes a model for conceptualizing personality disorders in which they are characterized by impairments in personality functioning and maladaptive personality traits. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a self-report measure that assesses the presence and severity of these maladaptive personality traits. Objective The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) to measure maladaptive personality traits in the Emirati population of the United Arab Emirates. Methods The Arabic version of the PID-5 was administered to a community sample of 1,090 United Arab Emirates nationals (89.5% female and 10.5% male, mean age = 22.44 years old). The descriptive measures, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity with NEO – Five Factor Inventory, as well as PID-5’s factor structure, were all addressed. Results The PID-5facets and domains mean scores were higher in the Emirati sample compared to the original US sample. Internal consistency of the PID-5 scales was acceptable to high and test-retest coefficients ranged from 0.84 (facets) to 0.87 (domains). As expected, the five domains of the Arabic version of the PID-5 correlated significantly with all Five-Factor Model domains of personality. Additionally, the Arabic version of the PID-5 confirmed a five-factor structure that resembles the PID-5 domains. Conclusion The findings of this study provided initial support for the use of the Arabic version of the PID-5 to assess maladaptive personality traits in the Emirati population of the United Arab Emirates.
... Studies examining the joint-factor structure of openness with schizotypy and psychoticism have yielded mixed results. Several studies have found that FFM openness and psychoticism load together onto the same factor (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013;Griffin & Samuel, 2014;Helle et al., 2017). However, several studies have found that neither positive schizotypy (Ashton, Lee, de Vries, Hendrickse, & Born, 2012;Gutiérrez, Vall, Peri, Gárriz, & Garrido, 2014) nor psychoticism (Suzuki, Samuel, Pahlen, & Krueger, 2015;Watson, Clark, & Chmielewski, 2008) load together with openness. ...
Article
Positive schizotypy includes magical beliefs and unusual perceptual experiences and is highly correlated with the cognitive-perceptual symptoms of schizotypal personality disorder. Increased openness to experience is associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia, and it has been commonly thought that positive schizotypy might also be related to increased openness. However, much previous research has failed to identify a sizable association between positive schizotypy and openness. The current research examined whether associations between positive schizotypy and openness might be higher (a) when using measures that more effectively assess the maladaptively high end of openness and (b) for distinct aspects of openness. Participants (n = 672) completed two measures of openness, the Big Five Aspects Scale (BFAS) and Experiential Permeability Index (EPI). We found that associations between positive schizotypy and BFAS-Open were small. However, in item response theory analyses, there was evidence that one facet of the EPI Oddity subscale highly associated with BFAS-Open was more sensitive to the maladaptively high end of openness than BFAS-Open. Further, positive schizotypy was more strongly associated with this EPI facet than with BFAS-Open. In addition, positive schizotypy was especially associated with a second facet of the EPI Oddity subscale. Hence, our study provides further evidence that associations between positive schizotypy and openness increase when assessing the maladaptively high end of openness and that positive schizotypy is most highly associated with particular facets of openness. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... More specifically, we hypothesized convergence between CAT-PD-SF scales and their theoretically similar PID-5 and FFMRF counterparts (e.g., CAT-PD-SF negative affectivity scales and PID-5 Negative Affectivity/FFMRF Neuroticism; CAT-PD-SF antagonism scales and PID-5-BF Antagonism/ FFMRF Agreeableness). Importantly, although previous research has implied Psychoticism and Openness are maladaptive and adaptive variants of the same domain, (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013;Thomas et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2012), other studies have found them to be entirely unrelated (Watters et al., in press). Therefore, although a positive relationship was expected between CAT-PD-SF scales reflecting psychoticism and PID-5-BF Psychoticism, we did not expect a strong relationship to emerge with FFMRF Openness. ...
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This paper explores parallels between experiences of confinement due to pandemic-related restrictions and confinement as a result of legal incarceration. We compare experiences of social isolation, lack of choice, and reduced access to resources while also acknowledging the existence of significant differences between the two situations. We describe the ways in which experiences of confinement as part of COVID-19 regulations can provide the general public with insight into difficulties associated with incarceration and the negative effect it can have on psychological health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... 6 The PID-5 was originally proposed in English and has been the subject of many studies involving cross-cultural adaptation to different languages (Italian, German, Dutch, Spanish, and Arabic) and the examination of its psychometric properties, which have proven fairly adequate to date. [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Therefore, considering that the PID-5 has been widely investigated in the international literature, standing out as a reference in the assessment of nonadaptive personality traits, the present study aimed to describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the PID-5 to the Brazilian context and to assess its content validity. ...
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Objective: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) to the Brazilian context. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation involved the steps of independent translation of the instrument, synthesis version, and back-translation. Analysis of content validity was conducted by a multidisciplinary expert committee and consisted of quantitative assessment of agreement indicators. The test was then applied to a target population. Results: All the steps required for a cross-cultural adaptation were followed and satisfactory agreement values (≥ 4.75) were reached for most of the structures assessed. Most of the changes suggested by the experts were followed; these changes consisted primarily of adjustments to verb tense and agreement and the inclusion of letters and words to allow gender inflection. In the pre-test, no suggestions were made and the instrument was considered comprehensible. Conclusion: The Brazilian version of the PID-5 was found to be adequate to the Brazilian context from semantic, idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual perspectives. The Brazilian version assessed here can be freely used, was approved by the publishers who hold the copyright on the instrument, and is considered the official version of the instrument. New studies are underway to determine the validity and reliability of the PID-5.
... There are also now quite a few studies documenting the alignment of the DSM-5 trait model with the FFM (e.g., [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]). One point of dispute though has been the alignment of psychoticism with openness. ...
Article
The fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013) includes an Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD). The AMPD includes two components: the Criterion A level of personality functioning (i.e., impairments or deficits in the sense of self and interpersonal relatedness) and the Criterion B five-domain maladaptive trait model. The purpose of the current paper is to discuss the AMPD from the perspective of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality structure. The conclusion of this review is that both the Criterion A self-other deficits and the Criterion B traits can be understood as maladaptive variants of the FFM.
... The same NEO-PI-R/PID-5 variable set has since been administered in several other studies: De Fruyt et al. (2013), Griffin and Samuel (2014), and Wright and Simms (2014). In each case, when seven factors are extracted and rotated to the solution of the Ashton et al. article above (see Ashton & Lee, in press), there is an obviously close correspondence between the two sets of factors: congruence coefficients are very high for the six factors of the HEXACO space (.88 or higher for Openness and .90 or higher for all other factors) and fairly high for the 'psychotic' factor (.84 or higher), which in some cases has considerable loadings for all PID-5 scales and seems to represent in part a dimension of PID-5 response styles. ...
Article
The six‐dimensional HEXACO model of personality structure and its associated inventory have increasingly been used in personality research. But in spite of the evidence supporting this structure and demonstrating its advantages over five‐dimensional models, some researchers continue to use and promote the latter. Although there has been little overt, organized argument against the adoption of the HEXACO model, we do hear sporadic offerings of reasons for retaining the five‐dimensional systems, usually in informal conversations, in manuscript reviews, on social media platforms, and occasionally in published works. In this target article, we list all of the objections to the HEXACO model that we have heard of, and we then explain why each objection fails. © 2020 European Association of Personality Psychology
... More specifically, we hypothesized convergence between CAT-PD-SF scales and their theoretically similar PID-5 and FFMRF counterparts (e.g., CAT-PD-SF negative affectivity scales and PID-5 Negative Affectivity/FFMRF Neuroticism; CAT-PD-SF antagonism scales and PID-5-BF Antagonism/ FFMRF Agreeableness). Importantly, although previous research has implied Psychoticism and Openness are maladaptive and adaptive variants of the same domain, (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013;Thomas et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2012), other studies have found them to be entirely unrelated (Watters et al., in press). Therefore, although a positive relationship was expected between CAT-PD-SF scales reflecting psychoticism and PID-5-BF Psychoticism, we did not expect a strong relationship to emerge with FFMRF Openness. ...
Article
The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Comprehensive Assessment of Traits Relevant to Personality Disorder – Static Form (CAT-PD-SF; Simms et al., 2011), a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Specifically, we used exploratory factor analysis to determine the best higher order structure for the CAT-PD-SF traits. Results suggested a five-factor structure, albeit with marginal model fit. Second, we used correlation analyses to compare the CAT-PD-SF to two additional dimensional measures of personality, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF) and the Five Factor Model Rating Form (FFMRF). The results demonstrated that the CAT-PD-SF scale scores were associated with domain and facet scores from these two models in a conceptually expected manner. Finally, we explored the association between the CAT-PD-SF scores and functional impairment and found moderate associations between CAT-PD-SF trait and functional impairment scores (as measured by the MDPF). Overall, findings add support to the structure of the CAT-PD model, and the use of the CAT-PD-SF in measuring dimensional personality psychopathology and impairment.
... First, predictability points to the facet of submissiveness as the one with the lowest variance shared with the other nodes. This result, together with the low factor loadings found in previous studies of this facet on any of the domains (Crego, Oltmanns & Widiger, 2018;De Fruyt et al., 2013;Griffin & Samuel, 2014;Thomas et al., 2013) could indicate that this facet does not have a clear domain assignment, neither a substantial connectivity with the rest of the network. As other authors have suggested, the potential removal or revision of submissiveness from the PID-5 model (Watters et al., 2019) could be considered. ...
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The Alternative Model for Personality Disorders defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fifth edition ( DSM-5) has recently attracted considerable interest in empirical research, with different hypotheses being proposed to explain the discordant results shown in previous research. Empirical network analysis has begun to be applied for complementing the study of psychopathological phenomena according to a new perspective. This article applies this analysis to personality facets measured in a sample of 626 patients with mental disorders and a 1,034 normative sample, using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results reveal five substructures partially equivalent to domains defined in the DSM-5. Discordant facets (suspiciousness, hostility, rigid perfectionism, attention seeking, and restricted affectivity) play the role of connectors between substructures. Invariance between clinical and community networks was found except for the connection between unusual beliefs and perceptual dysregulation (stronger in the clinical sample). Considering the strength centrality index, anxiousness, emotional lability, and depressivity can be highlighted for their relative importance within both clinical and normative networks.
... Especially on the domain level, it generates similar predictions to the FFM (cf. De Fruyt et al., 2013). The HEXACO model is particularly relevant to the DT, as especially HH is a robust predictor of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy (Lee & Ashton, 2014). ...
... In light of significant correlations between the two facets in the present study (r = 0.47, p < .001), a composite measure of paranoia proneness was computed by aggregating the z-standardized scores for hostility and suspiciousness (for a similar approach, see Cicero & Kerns, 2011;Combs, Penn, Wicher, & Waldheter, 2007;Tiegreen & Combs, 2017). Importantly, domain but also facet scores of the PID-5 exhibit adequate variability and validity in non-clinical community and student samples with scores in the lower ranges of the scales (e.g., Bastiaens, Smits, De Hert, Vanvalleghem, & Claes, 2016;de Fruyt et al., 2013;Papousek et al., 2018). ...
Presentation
Reappraisal inventiveness constitutes a promising ability concept in cognitive reappraisal research, measuring what individuals are maximally capable of when reappraising aversive situations. Previous research demonstrated that this capacity depended on recruitment of more left-lateralized activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex during reappraisal efforts (EEG alpha asymmetry), and that this specific brain activation pattern influenced individuals’ chronic stress perception in daily life. Interested in further practical outcomes of reappraisal inventiveness, we tested whether a reduced brain-based capacity for cognitive reappraisal of anger-eliciting situations may also facilitate the proneness to paranoid thoughts. This was based on the premise that failed reappraisal of harmful peer behavior may support more hostile and suspicious attributions that, over time, may accentuate paranoia-prone personality features. Prefrontal EEG alpha asymmetry changes were recorded while n=57 participants generated alternative appraisals of anger-eliciting events, and were linked to their cognitive reappraisal capacity and self-reported paranoia proneness (aggregated personality facets of hostility and suspiciousness; Personality Inventory for DSM-5). Mediation analyses were used to establish the directions of potential relationships. Confirming our hypothesis, results showed that less left-lateralized activation at ventrolateral prefrontal sites during reappraisal efforts predicted a higher degree of paranoia proneness and that this relationship was mediated through poorer cognitive reappraisal capacity. Our findings corroborate that inter-individual differences in the capacity to reappraise critical situations can have a tangible impact on individual characteristics that suggest proneness to paranoia and thus, may shed light on the link between maladaptive emotion regulation and maladaptive behavior.
... The final sample comprised 308 adults (67% female; 81% White; 9% Black; 6% Multiracial; 4% Asian; 10% Hispanic; Mean age ϭ 35.77 years; SD ϭ 10.96). Eighty-five percent of the sample 1 The factor structure of the PID-5 was not similarly investigated as multiple factor analytic studies of this scale have already appeared in the literature (e.g., Bastiaens et al., 2016;Bo, Bach, Mortensen, & Simonsen, 2016;De Clercq et al., 2014;De Fruyt et al., 2013;Fossati et al., 2013;Krueger et al., 2012;Maples et al., 2015;Markon, Quilty, Bagby, & Krueger, 2013;Wright et al., 2012). ...
Article
An alternative diagnostic model of personality disorders (AMPD) was introduced in DSM-5 that diagnoses PDs based on the presence of personality impairment (Criterion A) and pathological personality traits (Criterion B). Research examining Criterion A has been limited to date, due to the lack of a specific measure to assess it; this changed, however, with the recent publication of a self-report assessment of personality dysfunction as defined by Criterion A (Levels of Personality Functioning Scale-Self-report; LPFS-SR; Morey, 2017). The aim of the current study was to test several key propositions regarding the role of Criterion A in the AMPD including the underlying factor structure of the LPFS-SR, the discriminant validity of the hypothesized factors, whether Criterion A distinguishes personality psychopathology from Axis I symptoms, the overlap between Criterion A and B, and the incremental predictive utility of Criterion A and B in the statistical prediction of traditional PD symptom counts. Neither a single factor model nor an a priori four-factor model of dysfunction fit the data well. The LPFS-SR dimensions were highly interrelated and manifested little evidence of discriminant validity. In addition, the impairment dimensions manifested robust correlations with measures of both Axis I and II constructs, challenging the notion that personality dysfunction is unique to PDs. Finally, multivariate regression analyses suggested that the traits account for substantially more unique variance in DSM-5 Section II PDs than does personality impairment. These results provide important information as to the functioning of the two main components of the DSM-5 AMPD and raise questions about whether the model may need revision moving forward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Most of this research has utilized the formal measurement model of the AMPD traits, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012). Initial studies examining the structural validity of the PID-5 has indicated that its traits consistently conform to the predicted fivefactor structure that resembled maladaptive variants of normalrange personality traits, thus linking maladaptive traits to basic personality science (e.g., Bach, Lee, Mortensen, & Simonsen, 2015;Bastiaens et al., 2016;De Clercq et al., 2014;De Fruyt et al., 2013;Fossati, Krueger, Markon, Borroni, & Maffei, 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013;Thomas et al., 2013;Van den Broeck et al., 2014;Wright & Simms, 2014;Wright et al., 2012;Zimmermann, Altenstein, et al., 2014). Research has further suggested the criterion validity of these traits as indicated by predictive associations with conventional PD diagnoses (Bach, Anderson, & Simonsen, 2017;Few et al., 2013;Fossati et al., 2013;Hopwood et al., 2013;James et al., 2015;Morey, Benson, & Skodol, 2016;Yalch, Schroder, Dawood, & Donnellan, 2017;Yam & Simms, 2014;Zimmermann, Altenstein, et al., 2014) extradiagnostic PD constructs such as psychopathy and pathological narcissism (Anderson, Sellbom, Wygant, Salekin, & Krueger, 2014;Miller et al., 2013Miller et al., , 2014Strickland, Drislane, Lucy, Krueger, & Patrick, 2013;Wright et al., 2013;Wygant et al., 2016), and other problems associated with PD such as aggressive behavior, substance use, and self-harm (Creswell, Bachrach, Wright, Pinto, & Ansell, 2016;Few et al., 2013;Yalch & Hopwood, 2016). ...
... Criterion A regards the self and interpersonal functioning, whereas Criterion B regards the presence of one or more of five pathological personality traits: negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. A self-report assessment tool, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al. 2012), was created to assess these pathological personality traits, which-in essence-capture the dysfunctional variants of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) dimensions (De Fruyt et al. 2013;Gore and Widiger 2013;Thomas et al. 2013;Wright et al. 2012). ...
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Although gambling disorder (GD) criteria do not explicitly address craving, it has received increased attention because it has been found to be a significant predictor of gambling severity. Furthermore, recent findings have suggested that both alcohol consumption and maladaptive personality traits may be risk factors among adult GD. To date, no study has evaluated the relative contribution of these factors in adolescent gambling behavior. Consequently, the present study investigated the relationship between gambling severity, craving, maladaptive personality traits, and alcohol use among adolescents. The sample comprised 550 Italian high-school students (50.2% males), aged 14–19 years (mean age = 16.24 years; SD = 1.56). Participants were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents, Gambling Craving Scale (GACS), Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Format (PID-5-BF), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results indicated that relative to both non-gamblers and non-problem gamblers, at-risk gamblers and problem gamblers scored higher on GACS, PID-5-BF and AUDIT. Regression analysis showed that Antagonism and Disinhibition PID-5-BF dimensions, Anticipation and Desire GACS subscales, and AUDIT total score were the best predictors of adolescent gambling involvement. These findings provide the first empirical evidence of associations between problematic gambling, craving, alcohol consumption, and maladaptive personality traits in adolescence.
... All study variables were positively skewed (i.e., the value 0 is outside the +/-2 � standard error interval of the skewness value). All scores resembled those of other studies using population samples [32,34,35,[41][42][43]. Univariate outlier inspection of study variables revealed no bimodality or consistent univariate outliers (following the 3 � interquartile range criterion), suggesting that the patients in the present sample did not form a data-cluster. ...
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Hostility and other related terms like anger and aggression are often used interchangeably to describe antagonistic affect, cognition, and behavior. Psychometric studies suggest that hostility consists of multiple separate factors, but consensus is currently lacking. In the present study we examined the hierarchical structure of hostility. The hierarchical structure of hostility was examined in N = 376 people (i.e., a mixed community and highly hostile sample), using both specific and broad hostility self-report measures. A series of Principal Components Analyses revealed the structure of hostility at five levels of specificity. At intermediate levels, hostility can consistently be expressed in affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. At the most specific level, hostility can be expressed in terms of Angry Affect; Hostile Intent; and Verbal, Relational, and Physical Aggression. The pattern of associations showed significant convergence, and some divergence with broad and more specific hostility measures. The present findings stress the need for novel instruments that capture each hostility facet separately to reduce conceptual confounding.
... That is, the PID-5 BF assesses maladaptive personality functioning equivalently among sexual minority and heterosexual patients. The PID-5 demonstrates good psychometric properties (for a review, see Al-Dajani et al., 2016) including appropriate internal consistency (Bagby, 2013;De Fruyt et al., 2013), construct and criterion validity (Few et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013;Hopwood et al., 2013;Quilty et al., 2013;Sellbom et al., 2013), and score stability across short (Chmielewski et al., 2017;Suzuki et al., 2017) and lengthy (Rodriguez-Seijas et al., 2019b;Wright et al., 2015) time intervals. However, no studies have tested the assumption of factorial invariance across sexual orientation. ...
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High prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnosis is observed among sexual minority samples. It is unclear if sexual minority individuals are systematically diagnosed with BPD at higher rates than heterosexual individuals, and if potential diagnostic disparity can be explained by differences in maladaptive personality domains. Utilizing data from partial hospital patients (N = 1,099) the current study explored (a) differences in the frequency of diagnosis of BPD based on sexual orientation, (b) whether disparities explained differences in psychopathology across groups, and (c) the congruence between traditional methods of BPD diagnosis (i.e., clinical assessment) versus diagnosis based on elevations in self-reported maladaptive personality domains consistent with the alternative model for personality disorders. Sexual minority individuals were more likely to be diagnosed with BPD than heterosexual individuals (odds ratio [OR] = 2.43, p < .001), even after controlling for differences in clinical correlates of BPD diagnosis (age, gender, comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, maladaptive personality domains; OR = 1.59, p < .05). Diagnostic disparity was highest for bisexual compared with heterosexual patients. These results suggest that clinicians may be predisposed to provide a BPD diagnosis to sexual minority patients that is independent of presenting psychopathology and bear important implications for future research aimed at discerning whether such predisposition is due to measure or clinician bias.
... The PID-5 is a self-report questionnaire of 220 items rated on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (not at all true) to 3 (very true) and assesses 25 maladaptive personality traits that cluster into five higher-order domains, being Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism. The validity of the PID-5 has been originally demonstrated by Krueger et al. (2012) and has been corroborated by numerous studies (Bastiaens et al., 2016;De Fruyt et al., 2013;Fossati et al., 2013;Wright et al., 2012;Zimmerman et al., 2014). Cronbach's alpha coefficients in this sample were 0.77, 0.80, 0.83, 0.82, and 0.85, respectively. ...
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In Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – fifth edition (DSM-5), an Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) is proposed, including a criterion for personality functioning impairment (Criterion A) to assess severity of personality pathology. The present study examined the structure, reliability, and convergent validity of the Dutch version of a five-item screening scale for Criterion A—the Five-Item Screening Scale for Personality Disorders (FISSPD; Skodol et al., in Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2, 4-22, 2011)—in a community sample of 1,477 adolescents and 546 adults. To assess convergent validity, identity and personality (pathology) questionnaires were completed by adolescents and adults. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single factor structure for the FISSPD, which proved to be (partially) invariant across age and gender. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for the FISSPD. In both the adolescent and adult sample, significant correlations were found between the FISSPD and consolidated identity (negative) and disturbed identity/lack of identity (positive). In the adult sample, the FISSPD showed significant correlations with several personality disorders (and especially with the borderline personality disorder), maladaptive personality traits (Criterion B of the AMPD), and general personality impairment. In the adolescent sample, the FISSPD was positively correlated with borderline personality disorder characteristics. Furthermore, significant correlations were found with the Big-Five personality traits in the adolescent sample: the FISSPD correlated significantly positive with neuroticism, and negative with extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. In sum, the present study supports the reliability and validity of the FISSPD to screen for (severity of) personality pathology.
... M = 0.83, SD = 0.52). Scores also show adequate variability and validity in non-clinical community and student samples with scores in the lower ranges of the scales(Bastiaens, Smits, De Hert, Vanwalleghem, & Claes, 2016;De Fruyt et al., 2013;Papousek et al., 2018). ...
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Research is currently witnessing more investigations into malevolent creativity—creativity that is used to intentionally harm others. Inspired by previous methods to measure malevolent creativity, in the present study, we introduce a real‐world behavioral task designed to capture individuals’ capacity for using creativity for the purpose of attaining malevolent goals in response to everyday, provocative situations. In a sample of 105 students, we found malevolent creativity positively correlated with fluency in conventional creative ideation, as well as with self‐reported typical malevolent creativity behavior in daily life. Moreover, performance on the malevolent creativity task showed positive correlations with the maladaptive personality trait of antagonism (PID‐5) as well as individuals’ state anger at the beginning of the experiment. Further, our multiple regression analysis revealed that conventional creative ideation, antagonistic personality, and state anger all explained unique, non‐overlapping variance in the capacity for implementing malevolent creativity. As a whole, these findings suggest that different cognitive and affective factors, along with specific personality traits may each contribute to the expression of malevolent creativity in distinct ways. Future investigations striving to further decode the destructive potential of individuals toward others may benefit from this validated behavioral measurement approach to malevolent creativity.
... However, the discussion continues and new methods may be able to provide further insight. While Moshagen et al. (2018) proposed a dark core of personality, De Fruyt et al. (2013) used factor analysis to uncover relations between FFM facets and facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. Their results displayed a number of substantial cross-loadings that seemed uninterpretable then. ...
Article
The present study aims to shed light onto the nomological network of the Dark Triad (DT) and the Five Factor Model (FFM) by investigating their facet levels using network analysis. Firstly, the networks of the DT and the FFM facets were analyzed separately and secondly, their combined network was considered in order to observe changes. 491 participants filled out several established measures to assess the constructs at facet level. Each model was analyzed regarding node strength, closeness and betweenness. Central-stability coefficients and bootstrapped difference tests were performed on these centrality indices. Our main findings indicate that interpersonal manipulation (psychopathy) is central in the DT network, while erratic lifestyle and callous affect (both psychopathy) are the most important DT facets in a combined network with FFM facets. The FFM network seems to change only slightly when the DT facets are added and DT facets cluster according to their domains.
... Finally, psychoticism although distinctive, overlaps with open mindedness. The latter Big Five domain, tends to accentuate positive content such as intellectual curiosity and aesthetic sensitivity, whereby psychoticism assesses a far more negative content, such as problems with fantasies encroaching on daily life (De Fruyt et al., 2013). As the DSHS measures dark personalities from an alternative viewpoint and specifically assesses the darker side of human nature, the PID-5 will provide an alternative perspective, alongside the Big Five, on the normal and maladaptive facets and their relationships with the DSHS factors. ...
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There has been an absence of consideration regarding measurement invariance across males and females in the widely available Dark Tetrad (DT) scales which measure psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism and everyday sadism. This has resulted in criticisms of the measures, suggesting that the assessed constructs are not wholly relatable between the groups. This article documents the construction and validation of the Dark Side of Humanity Scale (DSHS), which measures dark personalities from an alternative viewpoint, determined by the constructs as they emerged from the male and female data, whilst aligning with theory and attaining invariance between sex. Across four samples (n = 2409), using a diverse range of statistical methods, including exploratory graph analysis, item response theory and confirmatory factor analysis, a divergence from the widely available DT measures emerged, whereby primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were unified. This corroborated past research which had discussed the two constructs as being parallel. It further supported the DSHS with a shift away from the traditional DT conceptualisation. The resulting scale encompasses four factors which are sex invariant across samples and time. The first factor represents the successful psychopath, factor two addresses the grandiose form of entitlement, factor three taps into everyday sadism whilst the fourth factor pertains to narcissistic entitlement rage. Construct and external validity of the DSHS across two samples (n = 1338), as well as test-retest reliability (n = 413), was achieved. The DSHS provides an alternative approach to investigating the dark side of human nature, whilst also being sex invariant, thus making it highly suitable for use with mixed sex samples.
... In summary, cultural differences in how one understands and interprets Items 10 and 19 may affect the factor loading of these two items. The unique structure of the DSM-5 personality trait model in Chinese respondents, compared to respondents from most other examined countries, may be related to cultural differences in general personality models [43,63]. Although the five-factor model has been widely used globally, it may not be fully applicable in a variety of cultural contexts due to its Western-central derivation. ...
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Background: The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5-BF) is a 25-item measuring tool evaluating maladaptive personality traits for the diagnosis of personality disorders(PDs). As a promising scale, its impressive psychometric properties have been verified in some countries, however, there have been no studies about the utility of the PID-5-BF in Chinese settings. The current study aimed to explore the maladaptive personality factor model which was culturally adapted to China and to examine psychometric properties of the PID-5-BF among Chinese undergraduate students and clinical patients. Methods: Seven thousand one hundred fifty-five undergraduate students and 451 clinical patients completed the Chinese version of the PID-5-BF. Two hundered twenty-eight students were chosen randomly for test-retest reliability at a 4-week interval. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to discover the most suitable factor structure in China, measurement invariance(MI), internal consistency, and external validity were also calculated. Results: The theoretical five-factor model was acceptable, but the exploratory six-factor model was more applicable in both samples (Undergraduate sample: CFI = 0.905, TLI = 0.888, RMSEA = 0.044, SRMR = 0.039; Clinical sample: CFI = 0.904, TLI = 0.886, RMSEA = 0.047, SRMR = 0.060). In the Chinese six-factor model, the Negative Affect domain was divided into two factors and the new factor was named "Interpersonal Relationships", which was in line with the Big-Six Personality model in Chinese. Measurement invariance across non-clinical and clinical sample was established (configural, weak, strong MI, and partial strict MI). Aside from acceptable internal consistency (Undergraduate sample: alpha = 0.84, MIC = 0.21; Clinical sample: alpha = 0.86, MIC = 0.19) and test-retest reliability(0.73), the correlation between the 25-item PID-5-BF and the 220-item PID-5 was significant(p < 0.01). The six PDs measured by Personality diagnostic questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) were associated with and predicted by expected domains of PID-5-BF. Conclusions: Both the theoretical five-factor model and the exploratory six-factor model of the PID-5-BF were acceptable to the Chinese population. The five-factor model could allow for comparison and integration with other work on the original theoretical model. However, the Chinese six-factor structure may be more culturally informed in East Asian settings. In sum, the PID-5-BF is a convenient and useful screening tool for personality disorders.
... Links between the fifth of the Big Five, labeled openness to experience or intellect, and the fifth factor of personality disorder symptoms, psychoticism, are more complicated, with two of the three IRT studies just cited not finding evidence that measures of these traits assess the same latent dimension. Nonetheless, various studies have found that measures of openness/intellect group together with measures of psychoticism (or positive schizotypy) in factor analysis (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Gore & Widiger, 2013;Thomas et al., 2013), and large molecular genetic studies have shown genetic correlations and overlapping genetic variants for openness/intellect and risk of schizophrenia (Lo et al., 2017;Smeland et al., 2017). It appears that some facets of the broader openness/intellect dimension (those related to aesthetic interest and fantasy proneness) confer risk of psychosis, whereas others (those related to intellectual engagement) do not, or are even protective (Allen et al., 2020;Chmielewski et al., 2014;DeYoung et al., 2012;DeYoung, Carey, Krueger, & Ross, 2016). ...
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Traditionally, personality has been conceptualized in terms of dimensions of human experience – habitual ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. By contrast, psychopathology has traditionally been conceptualized in terms of categories of disorder – disordered thinking, feeling, and behaving. The empirical literature, however, routinely shows that psychopathology does not coalesce into readily distinguishable categories. Indeed, psychopathology tends to delineate dimensions that are relatively similar to dimensions of personality. In this special issue of Personality Neuroscience , authors took up the challenge of reconceptualizing personality and psychopathology in terms of connected and interrelated dimensions, and they considered the utility of pursuing neuroscientific inquiry from this more integrative perspective. In this editorial article, we provide the relevant background to the interface between personality, psychopathology, and neuroscience; summarize contributions to the special issue; and point toward directions for continued research and refinement. All told, it is evident that quantitatively derived, integrative models of personality–psychopathology represent a particularly promising conduit for advancing our understanding of the neurobiological foundation of human experience, both functional and dysfunctional.
... Although the obtained values of internal consistency are significantly lower in comparison with the original version of PID-5 for both versions of PID-5BF+M, they were still largely satisfactory, both at the level of trait domains and the majority of individual trait facets. This indicates good reliability of the measure despite the substantial reduction in the number of items compared to the previously performed studies [e.g., (5,39,40)]. On the domain level, the only exception is Detachment, which showed the lowest reliability in both samples. ...
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Background: Empirical soundness and international robustness of the PID5BF+M, a shortened version of the PID-5 developed for simultaneous evaluation of maladaptive personality traits in the DSM-5 AMPD and ICD-11 models for personality disorders, was recently confirmed in 16 samples from different countries. Because the modified PID5BF+ scale (36 items) was extracted from the complete 220-item PID-5, an independent evaluation of psychometric properties of a stand-alone PID5BF+M is still missing. Objectives: The present study evaluated the validity and reliability of the 36-item PID5BF+M in comparison with the extracted version from the original PID-5. It also assessed associations between the Borderline Pattern qualifier and trait domain qualifiers. Methods: Two non-clinical samples meeting the inclusion criteria were employed in the study. Sample 1 ( n = 614) completed the 220-item PID-5; Sample 2 ( n = 1,040) completed the independent 36-item PID5BF+M. Participants were from all 14 regions of the Czech Republic. The Borderline Pattern qualifier was evaluated using a shortened IPDEQ screener. Results: The proposed latent structure of the independent PID5BF+M was confirmed, with an exception of the Disinhibition domain. The results confirmed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the measure, as well as some support for the measurement invariance of the independent PID5BF+M in comparison with the extracted version from the original PID-5. Significant associations between the Negative affectivity, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism qualifiers and the IPDEQ items for the emotionally unstable personality disorder of both impulsive and borderline types confirmed good predictive validity of the PID5BF+M in pursuing borderline psychopathology within the ICD-11 model. Conclusions: The independent PID5BF+M was found to be a valid and reliable tool for evaluation of the ICD-11 trait model. However, the Disinhibition domain deserves further investigation in clinical samples as well as in international community samples.
... However, both high and low Conscientiousness is associated with decreased functioning. Low Conscientiousness is characterized by disinhibition, irresponsibility, negligence, and rashness [31,32]; and inflexible high Conscientiousness can result in perfectionism, fastidiousness, punctiliousness, workaholism and other facets of compulsivity [33][34][35]. ...
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Background ADHD is a highly consequential disorder that is estimated to affect 2.5% of the adult population. Emerging models of psychopathology posit that disorders like ADHD can be usefully situated within general models of individual differences in personality, such as those recently implemented in the DSM and ICD for the diagnosis of personality disorder. Previous research and systematic reviews have linked adult ADHD to the personality traits Conscientious Inhibition and Negative Emotionality. However, there have been some inconsistencies in the literature and research embedding ADHD-personality connections in the DSM-5 and ICD-11 personality disorder models has been limited. The goal of this paper was to systematically review associations between adult ADHD and personality traits, organized within a maladaptive five factor framework. Method A comprehensive literature search yielded 13 papers whose effects were meta-analyzed. Results Results supported associations between ADHD and low Conscientious Inhibition and high Negative Emotionality. However, interesting patterns of variability were observed, potentially related to issues such as instrumentation and facet variation. Conclusion Results support the clinical application of personality assessment for suggesting risk for ADHD symptoms, and point to important directions for further research.
... The DSM-5 PD workgroup introduced an empirically based model of pathological personality traits for PD assessment in Criterion B in the AMPD (36,37). According to this model, personality dimensions are organized in five higher order domains (negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism) that represent maladaptive variants of the Five Factor Model of normative personality (31,(38)(39)(40). Each domain comprises a set of subordinate trait facets (e.g., the domain antagonism is split up into the facets manipulativeness, deceitfulness, grandiosity, attention seeking, callousness, and hostility) (31). ...
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Refugees are often exposed to a variety of stressors and traumatic events, posing a significant risk for the development of mental disorders. Young refugees may be particularly at risk because adverse life events affect identity formation, a developmental task that is typically expected in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Trauma and cultural changes may alter identity development, potentially leading to identity diffusion, a core concept of personality disorders. However, previous research on personality pathology among refugees is scarce. In this study, we examine identity development and maladaptive personality traits in young refugees and migrants. Refugees from 22 countries of origin were recruited in a German reception center (n = 120) and a group of adults with a migration background in first-or second generation was obtained via web-based recruitment (n = 281). Identity development was measured using the Assessment of Identity Development in Adolescence-Short Form. Maladaptive personality traits were assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form. Group differences between refugees and migrants regarding identity development and trait expression were investigated using t-tests. The relationship between the two measures and their corresponding subscales was examined by means of correlation analyses. Refugees reported significantly higher levels of identity diffusion, negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, and disinhibition compared to migrants. No significant differences were found for psychoticism. Correlation analyses revealed low to moderate positive associations between identity diffusion and maladaptive trait expression. Possible implications for early phase of resettlement, preventive psychiatric care and further research questions are discussed.
... Support for this notion can be found in the PID-5 literature. For example, PID-5 Suspiciousness correlated at roughly the same magnitude with Neuroticism and Agreeableness factor scores in both Watson et al. (2013); 0.42 and −0.48, respectively) and Watson and Clark (2020); 0.51 and −0.53, respectively); loaded comparably on N, E, and low A when factored with either the NEO- PI-3 (0.35, 0.30, and 0.30, respectively;De Fruyt et al., 2013) or the Five-Factor Model Rating Form (Mullins-Sweatt et al., 2006;0.30, 0.25, and 0.30, respectively;Thomas et al., 2013); and equally with the Negative Emotionality and Psychoticism scales of the PSY-5 (Harkness et al., 1995) (0.40 and0.41, ...
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The ICD-11 personality disorder model is the first fully dimensional assessment of personality pathology. It consists of a personality disorder (PD) dysfunction-severity dimension, which encompasses both self- and interpersonal dysfunction, and six optional qualifiers for five prominent personality traits—Negative Affectivity (NA), Detachment (DET), Dissociality (DSL), Disinhibition (DSN), and Anankastia (ANK)—plus a borderline pattern that is defined by the criteria of DSM-IV borderline PD. This article reports on the development of a new self-report measure to assess self- and interpersonal dysfunction and the five trait qualifiers. It is the first comprehensive measure of the ICD-11 PD model in that (a) it is the only one to include both PD dysfunction-severity as well as trait scales and because (b) it is based on the Clinical Description and Diagnostic Guidelines, which are more detailed than the “statistical” model description that is currently on the ICD-11 website. The authors wrote 992 items and then reduced the pool to 300 items by eliminating redundancy and selecting the consensus best few items for each subconstruct. Data were collected using an online sample of 383 Prolific workers. Using exploratory factor analysis, seven domain scales were developed, each of which contained two to four scales assessing components of the domain. These preliminary scales’ psychometrics were excellent, as were the domains’ and their components’ convergent and discriminant validity, with a few generally minor exceptions. Structural analyses at the component level revealed a three-factor structure consisting of two moderately correlated Internalizing factors, one centered on Self Dysfunction with two NA components and a DSN component (Distractibility) and the other on Interpersonal Dysfunction with DET and ANK components; as well as an Externalizing factor with DSL and a DSN component (Reckless Impulsivity) that was uncorrelated with the other two factors. Two aspects of the results in particular are striking: (1) ANK was not the opposite end of a DSN dimension, but rather contributed to an Internalizing Interpersonal Dysfunction dimension and (2) DSN had both an Internalizing and an Externalizing component. Implications of the findings and study limitations are discussed.
... one of the most commonly described personality traits in psychology is connected with the typology of traits recognized as the five-factor personality model, which consists of Neuroticism, Extraversion, openness to experience, Conscientiousness and Agreeability (Alessandri & Vecchione, 2012;Barbaranelli, 2002;Becker, 1999;Griffin & Samuel, 2014;Schnabel, Asendorpf, & ostendorf, 2002;Sękowski, Klinkosz, et al., 2008;Strelau, 2002; K. M. Thomas et al., 2013). Modern research shows that there are relationships between the Big five and personality disorders (De fruyt et al., 2013;Donnellan & Robins, 2010;Gramzow et al., 2004;. Personality traits are examined not only by the questionnaire method, but also by the lexical method (Gorbaniuk, Budzińska, owczarek, Bożek, & Juros, 2013;Saucier, 2008;Saucier & Goldberg, 2001). ...
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The aim of the research described in the book was to check whether there are re�lationships between the parental mistakes that women who are bringing up pre�school children experienced in their families of origin (on the part of their mother and their father) and any parental mistakes that they themselves make. It investi�gated how the experience of parental mistakes in families of origin and parental mistakes made by mothers are related to traits of the mothers, such as: personality, value system, satisfying needs, locus of control, mother’s parental goals and child’s temperamental features. The study also examined whether mothers’ experiencing of parental difficul�ties (parental stress) is related to their inability to achieve their parental goals and whether these difficulties determine their parental mistakes. It explored whether women who experienced more child-rearing mistakes in childhood more strongly experience difficulties in raising their own children, as a result of which they make more child-rearing mistakes. Ultimately, one of the most important research goals was to check whether one can predict the level of parental mistakes made by mothers, given information about parental goals, parental difficulties experienced and ways of dealing with these difficulties (stress). The study was conducted on a sample of 402 mothers with children aged three to six years, i.e., preschoolers. There was an equal representation of mothers of girls and boys in the sample. In the study sample, the largest group of mothers was be�tween 28 and 39 years old. The vast majority of mothers in the sample had a uni�versity degree. In order to calculate the results and answer the questions posed in the work, the method of structural equation modelling was used, which aimed to check the correctness of the structural model, presenting the relationship between mothers making parental mistakes, the inability of mothers to achieve their parental goals, experiencing of parental difficulties and their stress response, namely, applying pressure, withdrawing from the upbringing situation, seeking help or taking cog�nitive distance. In order to answer the questions about the relationship between parental mis�takes experienced by mothers in childhood, their parental mistakes, their person�ality traits, needs, system of values, locus of control and parental goals and the temperamental characteristics of their children, cluster analysis was used, which calculate data mining algorithms. The text mining method was used to transform qualitative data — such as words describing mothers’ parental goals — into nu�merical data. It was therefore used to prepare the database for analysis. The results of this analysis confirmed the correctness of the structural model, which assumed that the inability of mothers to achieve parental goals is related to their experiencing parental difficulties (stress) as well as their use of non-adap�tive stress responses, such as applying pressure or withdrawing from the upbringing situation. As a consequence of using non-adaptive reactions to stress, the mother makes parental mistakes. The study revealed that among the mothers who experi�enced more parental mistakes in childhood, the structure discussed above is strong�ly interrelated. Among the mothers who experienced fewer parental mistakes, the correlations between variables are weaker and some do not occur at all (the struc�ture breaks down). Given information about whether mothers can achieve their parental goals, whether mothers experience parental difficulties and the nature of their stress response, it is possible to predict the parental mistakes of aggression and strictness as well as mothers’ self-accentuation and indulging the child. For other parental mistakes, the prediction is moderate or weak. The results also revealed that mothers who experienced fewer parental mistakes in childhood also made fewer parental mistakes themselves, had more developed “Plus” personality traits — particularly integrated personality traits — had needs which were better met, had less of an external locus of control and demonstrated certain values more strongly — especially values associated with kindness, reliability and caring for others; these mothers also developed in their children the features of an integrated personality and tried to prevent their children from developing disharmonized personality traits. It was shown that the children of these mothers were characterized by an easier temperamental type. The mothers who experienced more parental mistakes in childhood also com�mitted more parental mistakes, had similar “Plus” and “Minus” personality traits at a similar level — especially such values as power over resources and power over people, but mostly had lower values — had lower needs and their children had a much more difficult temperamental type than mothers who experienced fewer parental mistakes. Summing up, the research results allow us to conclude that certain parental mistakes or a tendency to manifest parental mistakes is inherited. This may bedue to the fact that the mother, whether consciously or not, imitates the behavior of her parents, and by modeling she learns how to be a parent. What’s more, the findings regarding the stress response with parental mistakes revealed that the group of mothers who experienced more parental mistakes is more prone to ex�periencing parental difficulties and stress. These mothers are less able to deal with the difficulties they encounter in the upbringing process of their children and, as a consequence, they make more parental mistakes
... In this study, openness was found to strengthen the link between negative affect and life satisfaction. This may be because openness is associated with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies (such as rumination, Barańczuk, 2019), risk-taking, unusual beliefs and experiences, eccentricity, and perceptual dysregulation, which are aspects of a disordered personality (De Fruyt et al., 2013;Ofrat et al., 2018). Openness may also contribute to adaptive emotion regulation, at least in some individuals (Barańczuk, 2019). ...
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The present study aimed to examine whether the Big Five personality traits, self-compassion, and religiosity moderate the relationship between negative affect and life satisfaction. A large longitudinal data set collected annually over 6 years was used. The results of Bayesian multilevel analysis showed that only neuroticism and openness moderated the relationship between negative affect and life satisfaction. At higher levels of neuroticism and openness, the negative relationship between negative affect and life satisfaction was stronger. These two personality traits are associated with the use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, which may explain why they exacerbate the effects of negative hedonic experiences.
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This study evaluated the internal consistency and factor structure of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2013a), and its relationship to aggression in 438 incarcerated Australian male offenders. Results provide support for the internal consistency and five-factor and bi-factor structure of the PID-5-BF. The PID-5-BF total score, as well as the domains of Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Negative Affect (low), demonstrated significant relationships with aggression. These results provide preliminary support for the psychometric properties of the PID-5-BF within prison settings, and suggest that a PID-5-BF assessment may be useful within forensic settings to screen for broad maladaptive personality characteristics that are indicative of a greater propensity for aggressive behavior.
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The latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) bridges a significant gap in psychiatric nosology by providing trait-based characterizations of psychopathy along with antisocial personality disorder within the Section III alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD). However, the representation of psychopathy in the AMPD has met with some criticisms (Crego & Widiger, 2014; Few, Lynam, Maples, MacKillop, & Miller, 2015). The current study was undertaken to establish an improved means for characterizing psychopathy in DSM-5 Section III terms, by creating scale measures of triarchic psychopathy dimensions using items from the best-established assessment instrument for the AMPD, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Using data from a sample of community adults (N = 210), we employed a construct rating and psychometric refinement approach to develop item-based PID-5 Triarchic scales for measuring psychopathy dimensions of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The validity of the PID-5 Triarchic scales was then evaluated in relation to criteria including other scale measures of the triarchic constructs and psychopathy, self-reported antisocial behavior and substance use, empathy, internalizing and other clinical problems, and personality within the development sample and a separate independent sample of adults (N = 240) recruited to have elevated psychopathic traits. Results of this work provide a foundation for improved characterization of psychopathy in terms of the AMPD trait system and provide a mechanism for future research oriented toward clarifying the developmental interface between childhood conduct disorder and psychopathy, as well as identifying neurobiological correlates of dimensions of psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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In the last 10 years, 2 instruments (the Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition [PID-5] and the Personality Inventory for International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision [PiCD]) have been developed to measure the dimensional approach to personality disorders (PDs). Several studies have analyzed the relationships between both instruments and the five-factor model, although the PiCD has received less attention than the PID-5, given its more recent publication. For instance, the PiCD has never been related to the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The aims of the present article were to explore the convergent validity of the NEO-PI-R, a short version of the PID-5 (PID-5-SF), and the PiCD, to compare these dimensional approaches as for their ability to predict categorical PDs measured through the screening questionnaire of the International Personality Disorder Examination and to explore the nature of 2 controversial pathological domains: Psychoticism (from the PID-5-SF) and Anankastia (from the PiCD). A total of 1,565 people from the Spanish general population completed the NEO-PI-R, PID-5-SF, and PiCD. A total of 758 also filled out the International Personality Disorder Examination. Results show a high convergent validity of the five-factor model, the PID-5-SF, and the PiCD. Especially relevant from a clinical perspective is the great convergence between the 2 measures of dimensional PDs. In light of the results, the personality correlates of Psychoticism are reconsidered, and the location of Anankastia as the opposite pole of Disinhibition instead of as a separate domain, suggested by previous authors, is supported. The advantages of a dimensional approach to PDs and the practical implications for their assessment are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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In order to assess the relationships between DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) maladaptive personality traits and self-reports of aggression, 508 Italian adult participants who met at least one DSM-IV Axis II/DSM-5 Section II personality disorder (PD) diagnosis were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Analysis results showed that multiple regression results, PID-5 Hostility, Callousness, and Risk Taking trait scale scores explained a large amount of variance in AQ Physical Aggression (PA) scores. Moreover, PID-5 Hostility, Callousness, and Risk Taking explained more than 20% of the variance in the AQ Physical Aggression scale scores that was left unexplained by selected continuously scored DSM-IV Axis II/ DSM-5 Section II PDs, whereas SCID-II Paranoid, Narcissistic, Borderline, and Antisocial PDs added only 4% of variance to the amount of variance in AQ Physical Aggression scores that was already explained by the PID-5 trait scale scores.
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Though theory suggests that individual differences in neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions) would be associated with altered functioning of the amygdala (which has been linked with emotionality and emotion dysregulation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), results of functional neuroimaging studies have been contradictory and inconclusive. We aimed to clarify the relationship between neuroticism and three hypothesized neural markers derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging during negative emotion face processing: amygdala activation, amygdala habituation, and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity, each of which plays an important role in the experience and regulation of emotions. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between trait neuroticism and the hypothesized neural markers in a large sample of over 500 young adults. Although neuroticism was not significantly associated with magnitude of amygdala activation or amygdala habituation, it was associated with amygdala–ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity, which has been implicated in emotion regulation. Results suggest that trait neuroticism may represent a failure in top-down control and regulation of emotional reactions, rather than overactive emotion generation processes, per se. These findings suggest that neuroticism, which has been associated with increased rates of transdiagnostic psychopathology, may represent a failure in the inhibitory neurocircuitry associated with emotion regulation.
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Psychosis proneness has been linked to heightened Openness to Experience and to cognitive deficits. Openness and psychotic disorders are associated with the default and frontoparietal networks, and the latter network is also robustly associated with intelligence. We tested the hypothesis that functional connectivity of the default and frontoparietal networks is a neural correlate of the openness-psychoticism dimension. Participants in the Human Connectome Project (N = 1003) completed measures of psychoticism, openness, and intelligence. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify intrinsic connectivity networks. Structural equation modeling revealed relations among personality, intelligence, and network coherence. Psychoticism, openness, and especially their shared variance, were related positively to default network coherence and negatively to frontoparietal coherence. These associations remained after controlling for intelligence. Intelligence was positively related to frontoparietal coherence. Research suggests psychoticism and openness are linked in part through their association with connectivity in networks involving experiential simulation and cognitive control. We propose a model of psychosis risk that highlights roles of the default and frontoparietal networks. Findings echo research on functional connectivity in psychosis patients, suggesting shared mechanisms across the personality-psychopathology continuum.
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We examined the joint factor structure of the 30 facets of the NEO Personality Inventory – Revised (NEO-PI-R; or the NEO-PI-3) with either (a) the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) or (b) the 15 facets of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) plus several dissociation scales, using self-reports from participant samples of previous research. The NEO-PI-R[3]/PID-5 variable set produced seven factors that represented the HEXACO factor space plus a “psychoticism” dimension. The NEO-PI-R/SNAP/dissociation variable set produced a similar set of seven factors. The results indicate that even some questionnaire variable sets not constructed to measure the HEXACO factors can recover those personality dimensions. Researchers interested in integrating the domains of normal and abnormal personality are advised to adopt a model consisting of six HEXACO-like dimensions plus a dimension of psychotic tendency.
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Some personality disorders (PDs) are accompanied by heightened threat sensitivity to benign events, whereas others are associated with minimal reactivity to danger or punishment. Such aberrant patterns of defensive responding may be due to abnormal threat learning processes, analogous to those observed in other fear- and fearlessness-based disorders. We investigated threat learning deficits with a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure in an undergraduate sample (n = 117) overselected for negative affectivity. Contrary to predictions, maladaptive personality traits, as assessed via the Personality Inventory for DSM-5, were largely unrelated to defensive responding (i.e., subjective and electrodermal reactions to danger and safety cues) during threat conditioning. We discuss the possible boundary conditions of threat learning abnormalities in PD and suggest research designs that could more effectively reveal such deficits, if they exist.
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It has been argued that passion can take both harmonious and obsessive forms (Vallerand et al., 2003). This paper examines this dualistic model of passion specifically for passion in relation to work and contributes to this literature in two ways. First, an extensive set of both general (Big Five) and maladaptive personality traits are related to harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP) for work. Second, HP and OP are linked to three relevant work-related outcomes, namely job satisfaction, burnout and job performance. In Study 1 (N = 213), a distinctive pattern of relationships with general and maladaptive traits was found for HP and OP for work, although the relative importance of maladaptive traits to understand work passion was not higher for OP, as compared to HP. Further, both HP and OP were positively related to job satisfaction even after controlling for Big Five traits. Only HP was related (negatively) to burnout. In Study 2 (N = 208), only HP remained significantly related to job satisfaction after controlling for OP. Moreover, HP was positively related to job performance as rated by supervisors (more specifically contextual and adaptive performance). Implications of these findings for the dualistic model of passion are discussed.
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Objective The DSM‐5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders distinguishes core personality dysfunction common to all personality pathology from maladaptive traits that are specific variants of disorder. Previous research shows convergence between maladaptive and normal range trait domains as well as substantial correlations between maladaptive traits and core dysfunctions, leading some to conclude that personality traits and dysfunction are redundant. This study sought to examine the potential utility of the concept of core dysfunctions as a means of clarifying the nature of the relationship between maladaptive and normal‐range traits. Method Three non‐clinical samples (n=178, 307, and 1,008) were evaluated for personality dysfunction, maladaptive traits, and normal‐range traits and normative traits using different measures. Results Results indicate that: (1) normal trait domains and core dysfunction contribute independently to understanding maladaptive traits; (2) the correlation of a normal trait domain with its putative maladaptive equivalent is consistently accounted for in part by core dysfunction; and (3) the multi‐trait multi‐method matrices of normal and maladaptive personality trait domains demonstrate appreciable discriminant validity problems that are clarified by a consideration of core dysfunction. Conclusion These results suggest that maladaptive traits reflect the distinguishable contributions of core personality dysfunction (problems) and normal range personality traits (person).
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Резюме: В статията се представят резултати от ретест процедура на Личностен въпросник за DSM–5 – кратка форма (PID–5–BF, Krueger et al., 2013) с две случайни извадки. В първото изследване извадката се състои се от 10 – 18 годишни ученици в Софийска математическа гимназия, докато във втората извадка са участвали български граждани на възраст от 9 до 59 години от столицата и страната. Целта на изследването е да се удостовери повторно точността и чувствителността на скрийнинга след като са внесени корекции във формулировките на три твърдения. Бяха удостоверени някои от публикуваните ключови показатели за надеждност и валидност на скалите от PID–5–BF. Самооценъчната методика демонстрира високи нива на консистентност, а с получените данни при проучвателен факторен анализ почти напълно се потвърждава структурата на показателите. Също така се посочват и нови находки, които допринасят за разширяване номологичната мрежа от възможни съпътстващи психологически мерки за личностни аспекти, което определя обхвата и достоверността на въпросника. Проверени са редица предположения за взаимосвързаност между показателите за дезадаптивни и адаптивни черти. Нивото на взаимовръзки между показателите очертава и уточнява значението им за по–цялостна оценка на поведенческата адаптация. Представен е модел за профилиране на два случая на участници в консултативна практика през периода между втората и третата вълна на разпространение на Sars-Cov-2. [Abstract: The current article presents the results of the re–test procedure applied to Personality Inventory for DSM–5 Brief Form (PID–5–BF, Krueger et al., 2013) with two random samples. The first sample consists undergraduate students of the Sofia High School of Mathematics at 10 to 18 years old, while the second sample is consisted of Bulgarian citizens aged at 9 to 59 years old. The aim of the study is to reconfirm the accuracy, bandwith and sensitivity of the inventory after wording adjustments of three statements that have been made to. Some of the already published key correlates of PID–5–BF indicators were attested. The self–assessment measures demonstrates high levels of consistency, and the latent structure of the indicators is almost completely confirmed by the data obtained in the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. New findings are also contribute to the nomological network extension process and the breadth and fidelity of measurements are confirmed. During the analysis was found that some of the expected adjustment and dysfunctional traits are moderately to strongly interrelated. A useful profiling model of two participants’ cases considering the psychological counseling of level of behavioral and emotional disfunctions experienced during the period of second and third Sars-Cov-2 spreading.]
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Background: ADHD is a highly consequential disorder that is estimated to affect 2.5% of the adult population. Emerging models of psychopathology posit that disorders like ADHD can be usefully situated within general models of individual differences in personality, such as those recently implemented in the DSM and ICD for the diagnosis of personality disorder. Previous research and systematic reviews have linked adult ADHD to the personality traits Conscientious Inhibition and Negative Emotionality. However, there have been some inconsistencies in the literature and research embedding ADHD-personality connections in the DSM-5 and ICD-11 personality disorder models has been limited. The goal of this paper was to systematically review associations between adult ADHD and personality traits, organized within a maladaptive five factor framework. Methods: A comprehensive literature search yielded 13 papers whose effects were meta-analyzed. Results: Results supported associations between ADHD and low Conscientious Inhibition and high Negative Emotionality. However, interesting patterns of variability were observed, potentially related to issues such as instrumentation and facet variation. Conclusion: Results support the clinical application of personality assessment for suggesting risk for ADHD symptoms, and point to important directions for further research.
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Objectives and methods In order to assess the internal consistency, fit indexes, test-retest reliability, and validity of the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and its associations with age, gender, and education, 471 non-clinical (69,6% female; mean age: 37,63) and 314 clinical participants (69,7% female, mean age: 37,41) were administered the Hungarian translation of the PID-5, as well as the SCL-90-R and the SCID-II Personality Questionnaire. Results We found that; (a) temporal consistency of the Hungarian PID-5 was confirmed by one-month test-retest reliability analysis, (b) validity of the PID-5 instrument is acceptable in the clinical and the non-clinical sample as well, based on significant correlations with SCID-II and SCL-90-R, (c) PID-5 facets’ and domains’ associations with gender, age, and level of education are in accordance with previous findings. Conclusion These findings support that the Hungarian PID-5 is a reliable and valid instrument for both clinical and non-clinical populations.
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Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas men were higher in Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas. Contrary to predictions from evolutionary theory, the magnitude of gender differences varied across cultures. Contrary to predictions from the social role model, gender differences were most pronounced in European and American cultures in which traditional sex roles are minimized. Possible explanations for this surprising finding are discussed, including the attribution of masculine and feminine behaviors to roles rather than traits in traditional cultures.
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The structure and psychometric characteristics of the NEO-PI-3, a more readable version of the NEO-PI-R, are examined and compared with NEO-PI-R characteristics using data from college student observer ratings of 5,109 adolescents aged 12 to 17 from 24 cultures. Replacement items in the PI-3 showed on average stronger item/total correlations and slightly improved facet reliabilities compared with the NEO-PI-R in both English-and non-English-speaking samples. NEO-PI-3 replacement items did not substantially affect scale means compared with the original scales. Analyses across and within cultures confirmed the intended factor structure of both versions when used to describe young adolescents. We discuss implications of these cross-cultural findings for the advancement of studies in adolescence and personality development across the lifespan.
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This 2nd edition reprints 15 chapters from the 1st edition with updated references and reframes their emphases in terms of the empirical and conceptual advances that have occurred in the last 5 or 6 years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors previously describe how each of the 10 personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) can be understood from the perspective of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality functioning. This translation is helpful to those who are familiar with the DSM-IV constructs and wish to understand how a person with one or more of these diagnoses would be described in terms of the FFM. This chapter describes how to use the FFM to diagnose a PD. First, the authors begin with a brief description of how PDs are diagnosed by DSM-IV, followed by a more detailed discussion of how they could be diagnosed with the FFM. The process for the diagnosis of PD includes four cumulative steps, not all of which are in fact necessary: (1) provide a description of the person's personality traits with respect to the 5 domains and 30 facets of the FFM; (2) identify the problems, difficulties, and impairments that are secondary to each trait; (3) determine whether the impairments are clinically significant; and (4) determine whether the constellation of FFM traits matches sufficiently the profile for a particular PD pattern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite the empirical robustness of the 5-factor model of personality, recent confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) data suggest they do not fit the hypothesized model. In a replication study of 229 adults, a series of CFAs showed that Revised NEO-PI scales are not simple-structured but do approximate the normative 5-factor structure. CFA goodness-of-fit indices, however, were not high. Comparability analyses showed that no more than 5 factors were replicable, which calls into question some assumptions underlying the use of CFA. An alternative method that uses targeted rotation was presented and illustrated with data from Chinese and Japanese versions of the Revised NEO-PI that clearly replicated the 5-factor structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 121(2) of Journal of Abnormal Psychology (see record 2012-12966-002). This article contained computational errors. Specifically, Table 1 and Table 2 had data errors in the “Negative Affectivity” and “Disinhibition” rows only. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM–IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM–IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the 6 proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits, and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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provide a five-factor translation of the personality disorders provided within and proposed for the American Psychiatric Association's DSM [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual] / indicate how each of the DSM-III-R (as well as fourth edition DSM [DSM-IV]) personality disorders can be translated as maladaptively extreme variants of the five basic factors of personality / after describing each of the 11 DSM-III-R personality disorder categories, we then consider three new diagnostic categories under review: negativistic (NEG), self-defeating (SDF), and depressive (DPS) personality disorders / end the chapter with a discussion of the sadistic disorder, which is a personality disorder category that, like the passive-aggressive disorder (PAG), is likely to be dropped from the DSM-III-R's set of 11 in the DSM-IV (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Provides an introduction to personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. The chapter provides a background on the five-factor model, a description of factors, methods of assessment, and introduces the contents of this edition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group have proposed diagnosing personality disorder based in part on 25 pathological traits. Initial research suggests that five factors explain the covariance among these traits and that these factors reflect the domains of the well-validated Five-Factor Model (FFM) of normative personality. This finding is important because it signifies the potential to apply normative trait research to personality disorder classification in the DSM-5. In this study, trait scale scores on the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and domain scores from the FFM Rating Form (FFMRF) were subjected to a conjoint exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to test the higher-order convergence of the DSM-5 pathological trait model and the FFM in a nonclinical sample (N = 808). Results indicate that the five higher-order factors of the conjoint EFA reflect the domains of the FFM. The authors briefly discuss implications of this correspondence between the normative FFM and the pathological PID-5.
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The relationship between the five-factor model (FFM) of personality and Axis I disorders was evaluated in a nonclinical sample of 468 young adults. In general, scores on the 5 personality dimensions of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (assessed via the NEO Five-Factor Inventory) distinguished subjects with and without a variety of Axis I diagnoses from the revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. In several instances, results indicate that scores on these dimensions were differentially sensitive to diagnosis. Furthermore, scores on these 5 personality dimensions accounted for unique variance in several Axis I diagnoses above and beyond that accounted for by a general measure of current psychopathological symptoms. These results support the utility of the FFM of personality in Axis I diagnostic assessment.
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