Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, & Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 02/2013; 309(6):578-86. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.311
Source: PubMed


The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors.
To estimate risk of H. pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment.
Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H. pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011.
Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy.
Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up.
Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P = .03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31-6.13; P = .01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.35 per child; P = .03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%-83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%-83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%-81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P = .61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%-81.5%). In a single-treatment course analysis that ignored the effects of re-treatment, the percentage of UBT-negative results at 1 year was 72.4% (95% CI, 69.9%-74.8%) and was significantly associated with study site (P < .001), adherence to initial therapy (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.42; P < .001), male sex (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.25-2.13; P < .001), and age (AOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.27 per decade; P = .02). One-year effectiveness among all 1463 enrolled participants, considering all missing UBT results as positive, was 72.7% (95% CI, 70.3%-74.9%).
One year after treatment for H. pylori infection, recurrence occurred in 11.5% of participants who had negative posttreatment UBT results. Recurrence determinants (ie, nonadherence and demographics) may be as important as specific antibiotic regimen in determining the long-term success of H. pylori eradication interventions. Study findings are relevant to the feasibility of programs for the primary prevention of gastric cancer in high-incidence regions of Latin America. Identifier: NCT01061437.

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