Article

The Molecular Chaperone GRP78/BiP in the Development of Chemoresistance: Mechanism and Possible Treatment

Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.
Frontiers in Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 02/2013; 4:10. DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2013.00010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Treatment of several types of cancer such as lung, breast, prostate, and pancreas has shown notable progresses in the past decades. However, after an initial response, tumors eventually became resistant to chemotherapy. This phenomenon, known as chemoresistance, accounts for the death of most cancer patients. Several studies in patients refractory to therapy have revealed the upregulation of the molecular chaperone GRP78/Binding Protein, BiP (BiP) both at the RNA and protein expression level. Furthermore GRP78/BiP relocates to the cell membrane in malignant but not in benign cells. In this communication we review studies on the role and the mechanism of action of GRP78/BiP during development of chemoresistance in cancer cells. In addition we discuss the possible role of GRP78 as a biomarker and as a target in cancer therapy.

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Available from: Danilo Maddalo, Jan 22, 2014
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    • "These results also suggest that the loss of CREB3L1 may contribute to doxorubicin treatment resistance.[56]. Additionally, increased GRP78 expression has been associated with chemoresistance in breast cancer[15]. PERK and XBP1 are both important factors in tolerance of hypoxia; loss of expression of either factor inhibits tumor growth and increased apoptosis following hypoxia[57,58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: CREB3L1 (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1), a member of the unfolded protein response, has recently been identified as a metastasis suppressor in both breast and bladder cancer. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and immunoblotting were used to determine the impact of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation inhibitors on CREB3L1 expression in breast cancer cell lines. Breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples were analyzed similarly, and CREB3L1 gene methylation was determined using sodium bisulfite conversion and DNA sequencing. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine nuclear versus cytoplasmic CREB3L1 protein. Large breast cancer database analyses were carried out to examine relationships between CREB3L1 gene methylation and mRNA expression in addition to CREB3L1 mRNA expression and prognosis. This study demonstrates that the low CREB3L1 expression previously seen in highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines is caused in part by epigenetic silencing. Treatment of several highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines that had low CREB3L1 expression with DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors induced expression of CREB3L1, both mRNA and protein. In human breast tumors, CREB3L1 mRNA expression was upregulated in low and medium-grade tumors, most frequently of the luminal and HER2 amplified subtypes. In contrast, CREB3L1 expression was repressed in high-grade tumors, and its loss was most frequently associated with triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Importantly, bioinformatics analyses of tumor databases support these findings, with methylation of the CREB3L1 gene associated with TNBCs, and strongly negatively correlated with CREB3L1 mRNA expression. Decreased CREB3L1 mRNA expression was associated with increased tumor grade and reduced progression-free survival. An immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that low-grade breast tumors frequently had nuclear CREB3L1 protein, in contrast to the high-grade breast tumors in which CREB3L1 was cytoplasmic, suggesting that differential localization may also regulate CREB3L1 effectiveness in metastasis suppression. Our data further strengthens the role for CREB3L1 as a metastasis suppressor in breast cancer and demonstrates that epigenetic silencing is a major regulator of the loss of CREB3L1 expression. We also highlight that CREB3L1 expression is frequently altered in many cancer types suggesting that it could have a broader role in cancer progression and metastasis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Breast Cancer Research
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    • "ER stress signaling is mediated by three proximal sensors, PERK, the IRE1 (inositol-requiring protein 1) / XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) system and ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6). GRP78 plays a key role in regulating the ER stress response; under resting conditions the majority of GRP78 is associated with PERK and IRE1 and keeps these proteins in an inactive state (Gorbatyuk et al, 2013; Roller and Maddalo, 2013; Rao et al, 2012). GRP78, as a chaperone, also plays an important role in the protein folding processes that occur in the ER including during cancer, liver disease and virus replication. "
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    ABSTRACT: The chaperone GRP78 / Dna K is conserved throughout evolution down to prokaryotes. The GRP78 inhibitor OSU-03012 (AR-12) interacted with sildenafil (Viagra) or tadalafil (Cialis) to rapidly reduce GRP78 levels in eukaryotes and as a single agent reduce Dna K levels in prokaryotes. Similar data with the drug combination were obtained for: HSP70, HSP90, GRP94, GRP58, HSP27, HSP40 and HSP60. OSU-03012/sildenafil treatment killed brain cancer stem cells and decreased the expression of: NPC1 and TIM1; LAMP1; and NTCP1, receptors for Ebola / Marburg / Hepatitis A, Lassa fever, and Hepatitis B viruses, respectively. Pre-treatment with OSU-03012/sildenafil reduced expression of the coxsakie and adenovirus receptor in parallel with it also reducing the ability of a serotype 5 adenovirus or coxsakie virus B4 to infect and to reproduce. Similar data were obtained using Chikungunya, Mumps, Measles, Rubella, RSV, CMV and Influenza viruses. OSU-03012 as a single agent at clinically relevant concentrations killed laboratory generated antibiotic resistant E. coli and clinical isolate multi-drug resistant N. gonorrhoeae and MRSE which was in bacteria associated with reduced Dna K and Rec A expression. The PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil or tadalafil enhanced OSU-03012 killing in N. gonorrhoeae and MRSE and low marginally toxic doses of OSU-03012 could restore bacterial sensitivity in N. gonorrhoeae to multiple antibiotics. Thus Dna K and bacterial phosphodiesterases are novel antibiotic targets, and inhibition of GRP78 is of therapeutic utility for cancer and also for bacterial and viral infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Cellular Physiology
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    • "These finding together with the work described in this communication identify Bag5 as a gene whose expression is regulated by chemotherapeutic drugs and an anti-apoptotic gene. In addition we showed that Bag5 interacts with the molecular chaperone GRP78/BiP, often found overexpressed in chemoresistant tumors (reviewed in [46]). Downregulating Bag5 levels and/or interfering with Bag5-GRP78/BiP interaction could therefore represent a novel therapeutic approach to overcame chemoresistance and to treat late stage tumors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Bag (Bcl-2 associated athanogene) family of proteins consists of 6 members sharing a common, single-copied Bag domain through which they interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp70. Bag5 represents an exception in the Bag family since it consists of 5 Bag domains covering the whole protein. Bag proteins like Bag1 and Bag3 have been implicated in tumor growth and survival but it is not known whether Bag5 also exhibits this function. Methods Bag5 mRNA and protein expression levels were investigated in prostate cancer patient samples using real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. In addition immunohistological studies were carried out to determine the expression of Bag5 in tissue arrays. Analysis of Bag5 gene expression was carried out using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison test. The mean values of the Bag5 stained cells in the tissue array was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Functional studies of the role of Bag5 in prostate cancer cell lines was performed using overexpression and RNA interference analyses. Results Our results show that Bag5 is overexpressed in malignant prostate tissue compared to benign samples. In addition we could show that Bag5 levels are increased following endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress induction, and Bag5 relocates from the cytoplasm to the ER during this process. We also demonstrate that Bag5 interacts with the ER-resident chaperone GRP78/BiP and enhances its ATPase activity. Bag5 overexpression in 22Rv.1 prostate cancer cells inhibited ER-stress induced apoptosis in the unfolded protein response by suppressing PERK-eIF2-ATF4 activity while enhancing the IRE1-Xbp1 axis of this pathway. Cells expressing high levels of Bag5 showed reduced sensitivity to apoptosis induced by different agents while Bag5 downregulation resulted in increased stress-induced cell death. Conclusions We have therefore shown that Bag5 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and plays a role in ER-stress induced apoptosis. Furthermore we have identified GRP78/BiP as a novel interaction partner of Bag5.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Cancer
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