ArticleLiterature Review

Health Benefits of Blue-Green Algae: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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  • Atreca Inc
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Abstract

Abstract Blue-green algae (BGA) are among the most primitive life forms on earth and have been consumed as food or medicine by humans for centuries. BGA contain various bioactive components, such as phycocyanin, carotenoids, γ-linolenic acid, fibers, and plant sterols, which can promote optimal health in humans. Studies have demonstrated that several BGA species or their active components have plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their modulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption and hepatic lipogenic gene expression. BGA can also reduce inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor κ B activity, consequently reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, BGA inhibit lipid peroxidation and have free radical scavenging activity, which can be beneficial for the protection against oxidative stress. The aforementioned effects of BGA can contribute to the prevention of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health-promoting functions of BGA against cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which are major health threats in the developed countries.

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... Humans have for centuries been consuming certain blue green algae species, such as Arthrospira platensis (AP), Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), Oscillatoria funiformis (OF), Limnospira maxima (LM), as well as Nostoc sphaeroides (NS). Human consumption of spirulina is traced back to the 14th century Aztec civilization (Ku et al., 2013;Gumbo and Nesamvuni, 2017). Blue-green algae (BGA) are nutritious natural products rich in important amino acids and bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, fiber, phosphorous, calcium, and iron. ...
... Blue-green algae (BGA) are nutritious natural products rich in important amino acids and bioactive compounds such as B vitamins, fiber, phosphorous, calcium, and iron. Researches have shown that BGA contain antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergic, antioxidant, and antidiabetic supplements (Ku et al., 2013). ...
... Harmful additives have been identified in some of the dietary supplement products that people consume with people who support these products claiming that they improve memory and digestion and enhance mental clarity and other benefits. Allergies, depression and other numerous medical conditions have been cured or treated by blue-green algae as Ku et al. (2013) reported that these algae are nutritious. However, no research has been done to verify these claims on blue-green algae supplements, although one study has indicated possibilities of a role that a blue-green algae compound might play in Alzheimer's disease (Sahelian, 2016). ...
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Cyanobacteria have been part of the human diet for thousands of years. Environmental conditions such as high pH, light, temperature, and nutrients favour cyanobacterial growth which results in algal bloom formations. Cyanobacteria blooms may be toxic or non-toxic. Thus, the consumption of edible cyanobacteria such as spirulina may reduce the risks of cataracts and age-related muscular degeneration. Sulphate polysaccharides within some cyanobacteria have been shown to exhibit antitumor, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral activity against certain viruses and bacteria. There are many ways in which humans may be exposed to cyanobacteria and their cyanotoxins, with the most common route being eating and drinking of contaminated food and water, respectively. The current paper reviews cyanotoxin effects produced by cyanobacteria particularly in water and food, and its potential implications for human health. We further examine the quality of water used during food processing and developing a theoretical framework on cyanobacteria contamination of food. Concentrations of microcystin have been reported in crops and grain in Brazil, New Zealand and China. Microcystin concentrations of 8.31, 0.78 and 22 μg/kg were detected in lettuce, rape (Brassicas) and rice, respectively. Therefore, cyanotoxin transfers can occur through application of cyanobacteria contaminated water during food production.
... In general, our interesting findings revealed that the treatment with the U. fasciata-MeOH extract has more or less similar positive implications, as the standard drug "propranolol hydrochloride," to regulate the elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, MPO, and CRP associated with hyperthyroidism. It is well known that TNF-α, MPO, and CRP are proposed as appropriate inflammatory biomarkers in order to recognize patients with a high risk for cardiovascular diseases (Ku et al. 2013;Sproston and Ashworth 2018). With respect to IL-10, it is an antiinflammatory cytokine capable of not only suppressing cellular immunity but also stimulating the humoral response. ...
... Recently, Anis et al. (2018) pointed out that the antiinflammatory activity of the U. fasciata-MeOH extract is mainly related to its bioactive secondary metabolites including phenols and flavonoids. Similarly, Ku et al. (2013) showed that phenolic extracts of blue-green algae (BGA) can reduce the inflammation by inhibiting function of the nuclear factor κB, and thereby reduce production of proinflammatory cytokines. ...
... Out of these bioactive compounds having triglycerides and cholesterolslowering activity, the phenolics p-coumaric, gallic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and syringic acids, and the flavonoids hesperidin, kaempferol, catechin, quercetin, and rutin (Pereira 2018;Kaurinovic and Vastag 2019). In accordance of this notion, Ku et al. (2013) and Pereira (2018), in their reviews on the state-of-the-art knowledge discussing the health-promoting roles of BGA and seaweeds against cardiovascular diseases, confirmed that biomedicinal antioxidant components, including polyphenolics, experience plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their key functions in regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Furthermore, Khanna et al. (2002) investigated the lipidlowering characteristics of the plant Phyllanthus niruri in hyperlipemic rats and found its extract comprises an array of polyphenols which are responsible for this potential lipiddiminishing effect through increasing the activity of plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, as well as inhibition of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. ...
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Cardiovascular diseases are key complications primarily associated with hyperthyroidism disorders. The present study sought to ameliorate hyperthyroidism-mediated cardiovascular inflammations and related oxidative stress paradigms in experimental rats using the broadly distributed green seaweed Ulva fasciata. Forty-eight adult male albino rats were recruited and randomly classified into six groups. Hyperthyroidism was stimulated using L-thyroxine sodium at a dose of 100 μg/kg i.p. for 3 weeks daily. Further, 200 mg/kg b.wt. concentration of the U. fasciata methanolic (U. fasciata-MeOH) extract was the recommended dose and administrated orally to the hyperthyroid rats. The standard commercial drug "propranolol hydrochloride" was also tested at a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. to compare the findings obtained from the seaweed extract. A combined treatment with the U. fasciata-MeOH extract and propranolol hydrochloride was also assessed. Our results implied that the treatment of hyperthyroid rats with the U. fasciata-MeOH extract significantly reduced serum levels of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MPO, and CRP), triglycerides and total cholesterol, as well as the cardiac biomarkers CK-MB, LDH, and troponin to thresholds close to those of the standard drug. In addition, levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were significantly upregulated. Hyperthyroid rats only treated with propranolol hydrochloride, or with a combination of the drug and the seaweed extract, conferred the same observations. Histopathological architecture boosted our interesting findings where the myocardium tissues in hyperthyroid rats, administrated the U. fasciata-MeOH extract or/and propranolol hydrochloride, exhibited more or less a normal structure as the control, reflecting the potential cardiovascular recovery exerted by this seaweed extract. In vitro DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP antioxidant assays of the U. fasciata-MeOH extract showed an outstanding ROS-scavenging potential. HPLC analysis of the U. fasciata-MeOH extract unraveled an inestimable valuable array of phenolics (mainly p-coumaric, gallic, ferulic, chlorogenic, and syringic acids) and flavonoids (hesperidin, kaempferol, catechin, quercetin, and rutin). Conclusively, the seaweed U. fasciata is a profitable source of antioxidant polyphenolics characterized by having a pharmaceutical potential against hyperthyroidism-linked cardiovascular inflammations and oxidative stress patterns due to their substantial free radical quenching properties, and also via regulating the signalling pathways of the proinflammatory, lipid profile, and cardiac biomarkers.
... Using HepG2 human cells, Ku et al. [70] have demonstrated that Spirulina is able to restore lipid metabolism balance by suppressing the expression of LDL receptor and downregulating the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR). Furthermore, Spirulina inhibits lipid peroxidation and exhibits triglyceride-lowering properties due to the modulation of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and gut cholesterol absorption [70]. ...
... Using HepG2 human cells, Ku et al. [70] have demonstrated that Spirulina is able to restore lipid metabolism balance by suppressing the expression of LDL receptor and downregulating the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR). Furthermore, Spirulina inhibits lipid peroxidation and exhibits triglyceride-lowering properties due to the modulation of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and gut cholesterol absorption [70]. ...
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Spirulina is a phytosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium with microscopic dimensions, which naturally grows in the highly-salted alkaline lakes of Africa, Mexico, America, and Asia. Several bioactive peptides extracted from Spirulina were demonstrated to possess antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiallergic and antihypertensive properties. It has been reported that the consumption of Spirulina could prevent or manage metabolic syndrome components. In women, metabolic disorders are more prevalent during menopause. Postmenopausal women present higher waist circumference, increased blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-cholesterol values, leading to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to manage the components of the metabolic syndrome during the postmenopausal period. As recent reports indicated the efficiency of Spirulina supplementation in the management of the metabolic syndrome components, our study aims to review all the clinical trials conducted on this topic. Our main objective is to have a better understanding of whether and how this cyanobacterium could manage the abnormalities included in the metabolic syndrome and if it could be used as a therapeutic approach in postmenopausal women with this condition. We selected relevant articles from PubMed, Google Scholar and CrossRef databases, and a total number of 20 studies met our criteria. All included clinical trials indicated that Spirulina has positive effects in managing metabolic syndrome components. Spirulina is a valuable cyanobacterium that can be used as a food supplement for the management of metabolic syndrome, and it is able to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. The optimal dose and period of administration remain a debated subject, and future investigations are required. Considering the beneficial effects reported against each component of the metabolic syndrome, Spirulina could also be effective in the postmenopausal period, when this syndrome is the most prevalent, but there is a strong need for human clinical trials in order to sustain this observation.
... Thus, it has been proposed as a functional food (Abd El-Baky et al., 2015). It is well documented that compounds extracted from Spirulina have several properties related as anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, modulation of intestinal cholesterol, prevention of cardiovascular disease and other properties like colorants in both food and cosmetic industry (Gantar and Svircev, 2008;Kulshreshtha et al., 2008;Ku et al., 2013). Several studies in non-human models (such as rats, mice or cellular tissues) have revealed data about the beneficial properties of A. maxima consumption. ...
... The A. maxima extract, mainly containing phytopigments such as phycocyanin and chlorophyll a, has demonstrated to reduce obesity through suppression of adipogenesis (Seo et al., 2018), prevented cell death decreasing oxidative stress , showed powerful neuroprotective effect preventing the radicalmediated cell death , and it has ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 in mice (Koh et al., 2017). In humans, several benefits have been confirmed too, especially in obese, high blood pressure and diabetic patients (Ku et al., 2013). The effect of A. maxima consumption (4.5 gd -1 during 6 weeks) was evaluated in subjects between 18 -65 years old by Torres-Durán et al., (2007); the study demonstrated a hypolipemic effect with significant reduction in the levels of triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and cholesterol associated to high density lipoprotein; additionally systolic and diastolic blood pressure were reduced. ...
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The cyanobacterium Arthospira maxima (Spirulina) was consumed in Mexico since pre-hispanic times; nonetheless its consumption disappeared after the Spanish conquest. Nowadays, there is the need to look more in depth at the potential that this valuable cyanobacterium offers to several countries with proper climatic conditions for its cultivation. The present review provides an extensive overview of the nutritional and pharmaceutical characteristic of A. maxima and discusses some strategies to develop processes oriented to its production in dual purpose systems treating waste and producing biomass for aquaculture / animal feed and more complex strategies oriented to the production of valuable products such as the blue pigment phycocyanin at the industrial level. Resumen La cianobacteria Arthrospira maxima (Spirulina) se consumía en México desde la época prehispánica; sin embargo, su consumo desapareció después de la conquista española. Hoy en día, es necesario profundizar en el potencial que esta valiosa cianobacteria ofrece a varios países con condiciones climáticas adecuadas para su cultivo. En la presente revisión se ofrece un amplio panorama de las características nutricionales y farmacéuticas de A. maxima y se examinan algunas estrategias para desarrollar procesos orientados a su producción en sistemas de doble finalidad, tratando los desechos y produciendo biomasa para la acuacultura / alimentación animal, y estrategias más complejas orientadas a la producción de productos valiosos como el pigmento azul ficocianina a nivel industrial.
... The nutritional value of Spirulina is high. Spirulina contains a great amount of protein (60-70% of its dry weight), a lot of anti-oxidants such as β-carotene, phycocyanin, and elements such as K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, vitamins (tocopherols), essential amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic acid, phenolic compounds amino acids, gamma-Linolenic acid, and minerals [13][14][15]. Thanks to being rich in nutrients, and having therapeutic effects and non-toxicity, Spirulina has been known as one of the most important dietary supplements and useful in the prevention of some diseases in the 21 st century [16,17]. Consuming Spirulina supplements are suggested for the prevention and control of hypocholesterolemia [18], hyperglycerolemia [19], galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity [20] obesity, inflammation [21], cancer [22], cardiovascular diseases [23], insulin resistance, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver, malnutrition, anemia, allergic rhinitis, toxicity of substances [14,16,19], and also for its analgesic effect [24]. ...
... Thanks to being rich in nutrients, and having therapeutic effects and non-toxicity, Spirulina has been known as one of the most important dietary supplements and useful in the prevention of some diseases in the 21 st century [16,17]. Consuming Spirulina supplements are suggested for the prevention and control of hypocholesterolemia [18], hyperglycerolemia [19], galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity [20] obesity, inflammation [21], cancer [22], cardiovascular diseases [23], insulin resistance, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver, malnutrition, anemia, allergic rhinitis, toxicity of substances [14,16,19], and also for its analgesic effect [24]. Due to its antioxidant properties, Spirulina Platensis has drawn a lot of attention for removing hydroxyl radicals and preventing lipid peroxidation by lowering liver lipid profiles and lipoperoxide products [25]. ...
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Objective: The protective effect of Spirulina platensis on the fetal liver of mice with acute fatty liver of pregnancy was investigated. Methods: Small female mice were divided into four groups: A control group with a standard diet, a high-fat diet to induce liver steatosis, a high-fat diet plus Spirulina, and a high-fat diet plus Simvastatin given through gavage to protect the liver against steatosis. After 2 months, the female mice became pregnant by polygamy method at the same time they were treated by different diets. On day 17, the fetuses were removed by C-section, and histological studies were carried out on their livers. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in liver steatosis in the group treated by Spirulina compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The fatty liver of pregnancy could lead to liver failure and death in both mother and fetus, and medications like Simvastatin that is used for the treatment of fatty liver are harmful to the fetus. However, Spirulina shows a positive effect on the treatment of both fetus and mother. Conclusions: The results of this study show that Spirulina is an effective medical supplement in the treatment of fatty liver of pregnancy.
... Furthermore, a randomized study in Korean T2DM patients who consumed 8 g/day of Spirulina reported a reduction in plasma MDA levels, a biomarker of oxidative stress, besides numerous improvements in the lipid profile [261]. In relation to this alga, its antioxidant effects have been associated with its C-phycocyanin content, because it is a powerful ROS scavenger, notably reducing lipid peroxidation [262,263]. Moreover, it also has other antioxidants that can act synergistically and help activate the antioxidant machinery [262]. ...
... In relation to this alga, its antioxidant effects have been associated with its C-phycocyanin content, because it is a powerful ROS scavenger, notably reducing lipid peroxidation [262,263]. Moreover, it also has other antioxidants that can act synergistically and help activate the antioxidant machinery [262]. ...
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Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major systemic disease which involves impaired pancreatic function and currently affects half a billion people worldwide. Diet is considered the cornerstone to reduce incidence and prevalence of this disease. Algae contains fiber, polyphenols, ω-3 PUFAs, and bioactive molecules with potential antidiabetic activity. This review delves into the applications of algae and their components in T2DM, as well as to ascertain the mechanism involved (e.g., glucose absorption, lipids metabolism, antioxidant properties, etc.). PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were used. Papers in which whole alga, algal extracts, or their isolated compounds were studied in in vitro conditions, T2DM experimental models, and humans were selected and discussed. This review also focuses on meat matrices or protein concentrate-based products in which different types of alga were included, aimed to modulate carbohydrate digestion and absorption, blood glucose, gastrointestinal neurohormones secretion, glycosylation products, and insulin resistance. As microbiota dysbiosis in T2DM and metabolic alterations in different organs are related, the review also delves on the effects of several bioactive algal compounds on the colon/microbiota-liver-pancreas-brain axis. As the responses to therapeutic diets vary dramatically among individuals due to genetic components, it seems a priority to identify major gene polymorphisms affecting potential positive effects of algal compounds on T2DM treatment.
... S. platensis, also known as Arthrospira platensis, is a bluegreen alga with a helical shape and length of 0.2 to 0.5 mm. S. platensis has a high protein content (65 to 70% of its dry weight), contains all the essential amino acids, and represents a rich source of vitamin B 12 , minerals, essential fatty acids, and 15% complex carbohydrates [6,7], plus photosynthetic pigments that display a variety of pharmacological properties [6,8,9]. ...
... Two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's posttest, * p < 0:001 (SG vs. SG+L-NAME, SG vs. SG50+L-NAME, SG vs. SG150+L-NAME, SG vs. SG500+L-NAME), # p < 0:01 (SG+L-NAME vs. SG150+L-NAME, SG+L-NAME vs. SG500+L-NAME), † p < 0:01 (SG50+L-NAME vs. SG150+L-NAME, SG50+L-NAME vs. SG500 +L-NAME), § p < 0:01 (SG150+L-NAME vs. SG500+L-NAME). 8 Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity supplementation with the 500 mg/kg dose showed the greatest reduction in MDA production compared to the other groups (Table 2). ...
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The possible mechanism is involved in the effects of Spirulina platensis on vascular reactivity. Animals were divided into sedentary group (SG) and sedentary groups supplemented with S. platensis at doses of 50 (SG50), 150 (SG150), and 500 mg/kg (SG500). To evaluate reactivity, cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for phenylephrine and acetylcholine. To evaluate the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, aorta tissue was preincubated with L-NAME and a new curve was then obtained for phenylephrine. Biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate nitrite levels, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant activity. To contractile reactivity, only SG500 ( pD2=5.6±0.04 vs. 6.1±0.06 , 6.2±0.02 , and 6.2±0.04 ) showed reduction in phenylephrine contractile potency. L-NAME caused a higher contractile response to phenylephrine in SG150 and SG500. To relaxation, curves for SG150 ( pD2=7.0±0.08 vs. 6.4±0.06 ) and SG500 ( pD2=7.3±0.02 vs. 6.4±0.06 ) were shifted to the left, more so in SG500. Nitrite was increased in SG150 and SG500. Lipid peroxidation was reduced, and oxidation inhibition was increased in all supplemented groups, indicating enhanced antioxidant activity. Chronic supplementation with S. platensis (150/500 mg/kg) caused a decrease in contractile response and increase in relaxation and nitrite levels, indicating greater NO production, due to decreased oxidative stress and increased antioxidant activity.
... S. platensis has been highlighted due to its nutritional and medicinal potential, mainly as a consequence of its proven biological activities as a hypolipidemic in patients with hyperlipidemic nephrotic syndrome [12] or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [13], and in rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet [14]; it has an anti-inflammatory effect in rats [15,16]; inhibits appetite and reduces body mass in obese patients [17,18]; acts as an antioxidant in humans and rats [19][20][21], and causes vasorelaxation in rat aorta [22]. Thus, food supplementation with S. platensis emerges as a potential source for the treatment of organic dysfunctions, including those affecting the smooth muscle. ...
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to achieve and/or maintain a penile erection sufficient for sexual satisfaction. Currently, many patients do not respond to the pharmacotherapy. The effects of a supplementation with Spirulina platensis, were evaluated in a model of ED induced by hypercaloric diet consumption. Wistar rats were divided into groups fed with standard diet (SD) or hypercaloric diet (HD) and supplemented with this alga at doses of 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg. Experimental adiposity parameters and erectile function were analyzed. In SD groups, Spirulina platensis reduced food intake, final body mass and adiposity index, and increased the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of adipose tissue. However, no change was observed in erectile function. In the HD group, without Spirulina supplementation, a decrease in food intake was observed, in addition to an increase of final body mass, weight gain, adipose reserves, and adiposity index. Additionally, reduction in the number and increase in the latency of penile erection and adipose malondialdehyde levels, as well as a reduction in TCA was noted. Furthermore, cavernous contractility was increased, and the relaxing response was decreased. Interestingly, these deleterious effects were prevented by the algae at doses of 25, 50 and/or 100 mg/kg. Therefore, the supplementation with S. platensis prevents damages associated to a hypercaloric diet consumption and emerges as an adjuvant the prevention of ED.
... These water-soluble pigments show promising antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties [30][31][32]. Recent studies also show that Spirulina lipids are major factors responsible for health beneficial effects [33][34][35][36]. Coué et al. reported that the liquid Spirulina extract effectively attenuates hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in C57Bl/6J mice fed a western-style diet [37]. ...
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High-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFHSD)-induced obesity leads to oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory status. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of total lipids extracted from Spirulina. Hence, in the present study, Spirulina lipids were extracted with chloroform/methanol (SLC) or ethanol (SLE) and then their effects on oxidative stress and inflammation in the mice fed a HFHSD were investigated. The results show that the major lipid classes and fatty acid profiles of SLC and SLE were almost similar, but the gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and carotenoid contents in SLE was a little higher than that in SLC. Dietary 4% SLC or SLE for 12 weeks effectively decreased the hepatic lipid hydroperoxide levels as well as increased the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes in the mice fed a HFHSD. In addition, supplementation with SLC and SLE also markedly decreased the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed a HFHSD, and the effects of SLC and SLE were comparable. These findings confirm for the first time that dietary Spirulina lipids could alleviate HFHSD-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
... Phycoerythrin has been reported to have antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant and dermatoprotective activities (Verma et al., 2018), whereas antibacterial, immune system modulating, anti-cancer (prostate, breast and cervix), melanogenesis inhibiting and hematological roles have been reported for PC (Soni et al., 2015). Additionally, the consumption of edible algae containing PC has health promoting activities including prevention of inflammation, degradation of plasma lipid concentration through reduction in cholesterol absorption and inhibition of oxidative stress via blocking lipid peroxidation (Ku et al., 2013). In hamsters that were fed a diet supplemented with PC, fatty lesion development and cardiac production of superoxide anion were considerably reduced (Riss et al., 2007). ...
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Microalgae produce a variety of bioactive components that provide benefits to human and animal health. Cryptophytes are one of the major groups of microalgae, with more than 20 genera comprised of 200 species. Recently, cryptophytes have attracted scientific attention because of their characteristics and biotechnological potential. For example, they are rich in a number of chemical compounds, such as fatty acids, carotenoids, phycobiliproteins and polysaccharides, which are mainly used for food, medicine, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This paper provides a review of studies that assess protective algal compounds and introduce cryptophytes as a remarkable source of bioactive components that may be usable in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences.
... We have shown that supplementation with Spirulysat ® , which contains a high amount of C-PC, significantly decreases the 24-h urinary isoprostanes concentration, suggesting a better redox balance. Isoprostanes are considered to be specific markers of oxidative lipid damage in the body, and an overproduction of isoprostanes is linked to oxidative stress [8,34]. The decrease in isoprostanes in the present study is consistent with our previous study in mice, which reported a decrease in oxidative stress [22]. ...
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Lipid peroxidation is associated with the development of some pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases. Reduction in oxidative stress by antioxidants, such as Arthrospira (formelySpirulina), helps improving this redox imbalance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the Arthrospira liquid extract “Spirulysat®” on oxidative markers—in particular, oxidized LDL (oxLDL)/total LDL cholesterol—and isoprostanes and to investigate its impact on lipid and glucose metabolism in the metabolic syndrome subject. A controlled, randomised, double-blind design was conducted in 40 subjects aged 18 to 65 years with metabolic syndrome after a daily intake of Spirulysat® or placebo for twelve weeks. Blood and urinary samples were collected at three visits (V1, V2, V3) in the two groups for parameters determination. Although the Spirulysat® group showed a decrease at all visits of the oxLDL/total cholesterol ratio, there was no significant difference compared to the placebo (p = 0.36). The urinary isoprostanes concentration in the Spirulysat® group was reduced (p = 0.014) at V3. Plasma triglycerides decreased at V3 (p = 0.003) and HDL-cholesterol increased (p = 0.031) at all visits with Spirulysat®. In conclusion, Spirulysat® did not change the oxidized LDL (oxLDL)/LDL ratio but decreased the urinary isoprostanes, plasma triglycerides and increased HDL cholesterol, suggesting a beneficial effect on metabolic syndrome.
... They are renewable, sustainable, and inexpensive sources of bioactive molecules and food with surprising pharmacological and biological qualities. In particular, blue-green algae were demonstrated to have remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence of many bioactive substances [9][10][11][12]. Among the blue-green algae extracts, AphaMax ® contains high concentrated amount of AFA-phycocyanins and AFA-phytochrome, which are the components with the greatest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and cardiovascular properties. ...
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Background: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a unicellular cyanobacterium considered to be a "superfood" for its complete nutritional profile and beneficial properties. We investigated possible beneficial effects of an AFA extract, commercialized as AphaMax®, containing concentrated amount of phycocyanins and phytochrome, in 2,4 dinitrobenzensulfonic acid(DNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Methods: Effects of preventive oral treatment of AphaMax® (20, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) in colitic rats were assessed and then macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed to evaluate the inflammation degree. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and NF-κB, pro-inflammatory citockines, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible NOS (iNOS) levels of expression were determined, as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and nitrite levels. Results: AphaMax® treatment attenuated the severity of colitis ameliorating clinical signs. AphaMax® reduced the histological colonic damage and decreased MPO activity, NF-κB activation, as well as iNOS and COX-2 expression. AphaMax® treatment improved the altered immune response associated with colonic inflammation reducing IL-1β, IL-6 expression. Lastly, AphaMax® reduced oxidative stress, decreasing ROS and nitrite levels. Conclusions: Preventive treatment with AphaMax® attenuates the severity of the inflammation in DNBS colitis rats involving decrease of the NF-kB activation, reduction of iNOS and COX-2 expression, and inhibition of oxidative stress. Due its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant proprieties AphaMax® could be a good candidate as a complementary drug in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment.
... It represented 11.38% (Fig 13) of the sequences in the sample from 86 4th Ave compared with only 1.35% to 3.5% (Fig 13) of the other samples. C yanobacteria has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however under certain conditions cyanobacteria can produce cyanotoxins that are harmful to humans [15]. Cyanobacteria can also damage honey bee populations by increasing the mortality rate and reducing their ability to learn odors [16]. ...
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Bees are incredibly important to the Earth's ecosystem and provide humans with a variety of fruits and vegetables; however, due to Colony Collapse Disorder, hives are dying at an alarming rate. Colony Collapse Disorder is caused by a number of factors such as pesticides and bacteria that kill the bees. With the increase of urban beekeeping created in an effort to replenish the bee population, little is known about the microbes the bees are interacting with in New York City. This research looked at what microbes the bees came in contact with to use as a resource in identifying the differences between the neighborhoods. Two methods were used to extract the DNA, one looking at gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and the other looking at only gram-positive. The samples were taken from around New York City, Westchester County and Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania sample was collected from a container of honey bought from Trader Joe's. The reason both urban and rural samples were used was to see if there is an obvious difference in the microbes found between them.
... Cyanobacteria, commonly known as blue-green alga, are prokaryotic, photosynthetic, autotrophic organisms closely related to bacteria. ey have gained many attentions from researchers for its possible pharmacological properties and therapeutic effects on various medical conditions [199,[215][216][217][218]. Spirulina platensis, a cyanobacterium belonging to the Oscillatoriaceae family, is a planktonic multicellular filamentous, alkaliphilic cyanobacterium. ...
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In recent years, natural products, which originate from plants, animals, and fungi, together with their bioactive compounds have been intensively explored and studied for their therapeutic potentials for various diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes, hypertension, reproductive, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are characterized by the progressive dysfunction and loss of neuronal structure and function that resulted in the neuronal cell death. Since the multifactorial pathological mechanisms are associated with neurodegeneration, targeting multiple mechanisms of actions and neuroprotection approach, which involves preventing cell death and restoring the function to damaged neurons, could be promising strategies for the prevention and therapeutic of neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products have emerged as potential neuroprotective agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. This review focused on the therapeutic potential of natural products and their bioactive compounds to exert a neuroprotective effect on the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases.
... The use of microalgae BACs may reduce the risk of CVD by decreasing LDL/VLDL, T.G. and increasing HDL cholesterol. Therefore, algal BACs can be used for preventing and mitigating the damage caused by such types of disorders (de Lorgeril et al. 1999;Ku et al. 2013). ...
Chapter
Microalgal biomasses (MAB) is the most abundant source of various natural value-added biomolecules and bioactive compounds (BACs), therefore, considered as the best promising feedstock for the food and pharmaceutical industries. Microalgae-based BACs such as carotenoids, peptide molecules, phycocyanins, polyphenols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have significant application as functional ingredients in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Due to the awareness of the consumers about the nutraceuticals in combating the occurrence of lifestyle and chronic diseases, the demands for the algal-based nutraceuticals have recently increased by several folds. Microalgae pigments, such as phycobiliproteins, chlorophylls, and carotenoids, have enormous possibilities for commercialization due to its therapeutic activities, which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and anti-atherogenic activities. As per the estimates, the nutraceuticals market would cross about $278.96 billion by the end of 2021. Similarly, microalgae-based polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, etc. are also an important commercial product, and its global market is around USD 9.0 billion/Year. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of bioactive compounds of microalgae and its pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties. Various strategies used for the profitable production of microalgae biomass and extraction of bioactive compounds from algal biomass are discussed in detail. The commercial potential of algae BACs, associated safety, and regulatory issues are also discussed.
... Studies have shown that the hypocholesterolemic effects of spirulina concentrates24 may include inhibiting jejunal cholesterol absorption and ileal bile acid reabsorption, as well as increasing fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion [64,65]. In addition, C-phycocyanin, the main component of spirulina, can reduce lipid concentration through eliminating free radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, inhibiting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase expression, increasing lipoprotein lipase and liver triglyceride lipase, glycated serum protein peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities [66][67][68]. Moreover, the algae supplement can significantly reduce TC levels in East Asian populations, which suggests that algae intervention may be more effective for East Asians. ...
Article
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Aims: The effect of algae and its extract supplementation on glycolipid metabolism has not been finalized. Therefore, the purpose of the meta-analyses was to assess the effects of its supplementation on glycolipid metabolism concentration. Methods: We have systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Embase to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the impact of algae and its extracts supplementation on glycolipid metabolism. Effect size analysis was performed using weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI between the methods of the experiment group and the control group. Subgroup analyses were performed to explore the possible influences of study characteristics. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: A total of 27 RCTs (31 trials) with 1221 participants were finally selected for the meta-analysis. The algae and its extract intervention significantly decreased glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, WMD = -0.18%; 95% CI: -0.27 to -0.10; p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, WMD = -0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.38 to -0.06; p = 0.008), and triglycerides (TC, WMD = -0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.37 to -0.25; p < 0.001) levels and increased insulin (WMD = 6.05 pmol/mL; 95% CI: 4.01 to 8.09; p < 0.001) levels. It did not significantly change the blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), 2-h post-meal blood glucose (2hPBG) and other lipid profiles. Subgroup analyses based on the duration of intervention and subjects demonstrated that the intervention of algae and its extracts for 10 weeks or fewer and more than 40 subjects decreased TC levels (p < 0.05). Moreover, the intervention reduced TC and 2hPBG concentrations for East Asians (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings provided evidence that algae and its extract interventions were beneficial for the regulation of human glycolipid metabolism. More precise RCTs on subjects are recommended to further clarify the effect of algae, seaweed polysaccharide, seaweed polypeptide, algae polyphenol and its products intervention on glycolipid metabolism.
... Recently, SP is one of the most considerable prophylactic dietary elements because of its nutrient profile, beneficial health effects and safety profile (Serban et al., 2016). It is considered as a main dietary compound, mainly in North Africans and Mexicans due to high micro and macronutrients, e.g., antioxidant molecules, β-carotene, phycocyanin, microelements, vitamins, amino acids and fatty acids (Ku et al., 2013). ...
... Evidence showed that phycocyanin and β-carotene are the two main active components of spirulina that possess strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties 47 . Phycocyanin exerts its antiinflammatory effects by suppression of pro-inflammatory biomarkers and prostaglandin E2 formation, prevention of cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2) expression, and attenuation of NF-κB pathway through ...
Article
Studies investigating the effects of spirulina on inflammation and oxidative stress status are controversial. Therefore, the current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the impacts of spirulina supplementation on oxidative stress indicators and inflammatory markers. PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Embase databases and Google Scholar were searched up to 1 October 2020. Random-effect analysis was applied to perform meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses and multivariate meta-regression were performed to find heterogeneity sources. Quality assessment was conducted using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. A total of 11 studies that enrolled 465 subjects were included in our meta-analysis. Pooled results demonstrated a significant increase in IL-2 concentrations (SMD= 2.69 pg/ml; 95% CI: 0.26, 5.11; P=0.03), however this result changed to insignificant (SMD= 0.54 pg/ml; 95% CI: -1.29, 2.27; P> 0.05) when sensitivity analysis performed. A marginal decreasing effect were also found on IL-6 (SMD= -0.72 mg/dl; 95% CI: -1.50, 0.07; P=0.073) and TBARS levels (SMD= -0.65; 95% CI: -1.37, 0.08; P=0.08). In addition, results of subgroup analysis revealed a significant reduction in IL-6 and TBARS concentrations when the baseline BMI of participants was lower than 25 kg/m2 . Moreover, spirulina had no significant effect on TNF-α (SMD= -0.07 mg/dl; 95% CI: -0.33, 0.18; P=0.56) and MDA concentrations (SMD= -0.42; 95% CI: -0.98, 0.14; P=0.14). Spirulina consumption contributed to a significant increase in IL-2 concentrations changing to insignificant after sensitivity analysis and marginal decreasing effects on IL-6 and TBARS levels. No considerable impacts were observed on TNF-α and MDA concentrations.
... Since commonly used colorants, such as Brilliant Blue FCF (E133) and Patent Blue V (E131) have been recently discussed as originators of allergic reactions [2,3], the interest in natural and sustainable alternatives is growing. Beyond the safe application of naturally derived phycocyanin as a food colorant, the pigment has been shown to have beneficial effects on health [4]. Phycocyanin acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and an antioxidant [5,6], and is therefore considered a potential drug for cancer treatment [7]. ...
Article
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Phycocyanin is a blue colored pigment, synthesized by several species of cyanobacteria and red algae. Besides the application as a food-colorant, the pigmented protein is of high interest as a pharmaceutically and nutritionally valuable compound. Since cyanobacteria-derived phycocyanin is thermolabile, red algae that are adapted to high temperatures are an interesting source for phycocyanin extraction. Still, the extraction of high quality phycocyanin from red algae is challenging due to the strong and rigid cell wall. Since standard techniques show low yields, alternative methods are needed. Recently, spark discharges have been shown to gently disintegrate microalgae and thereby enable the efficient extraction of susceptible proteins. In this study, the applicability of spark discharges for phycocyanin extraction from the red alga Cyanidium caldarium was investigated. The efficiency of 30 min spark discharges was compared with standard treatment protocols, such as three times repeated freeze-thaw cycles, sonication, and pulsed electric fields. Input energy for all physical methods were kept constant at 11,880 J to ensure comparability. The obtained extracts were evaluated by photometric and fluorescent spectroscopy. Highest extraction yields were achieved with sonication (53 mg/g dry weight (dw)) and disintegration by spark discharges (4 mg/g dw) while neither freeze-thawing nor pulsed electric field disintegration proved effective. The protein analysis via LC-MS of the former two extracts revealed a comparable composition of phycobiliproteins. Despite the lower total concentration of phycocyanin after application of spark discharges, the purity in the raw extract was higher in comparison to the extract attained by sonication.
... Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Cyanobacteria are present in minor proportions [24]. Adequate amounts of Cyanobacteria are considered bene cial for the host to diminish in ammation through NF-κB inhibition, and, consequently, reduce proin ammatory cytokines, protecting the host against oxidative stress [25]. However, increased Cyanobacteria have been associated with obesity [26] and recent study published by Shao et al. showed that after weight loss the abundance of these bacteria decreases [27]. ...
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Background: Obesity is one of the main health problems in the world today and dysbiosis seem to be one of the factors involved. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of synbiotic supplementation in obesity and microbiota in ob/ob mice. 20 animals were divided into four groups: Obese Treated (OT) and Control (OC), Lean Treated (LT) and Control (LC). All animals received standard diet for 8 weeks. Treated groups received a synbiotic in water while nontreated groups received water. After 8 weeks, all animals were sacrificed and gut tissue mRNA isolation and stool samples by microbiota analysis were collected. Beta-catenin, occludin, cadherin and zonulin were analyzed in gut tissue by RT-qPCR. Microbiome DNA was extracted from stool samples and sequenced using the Ion PGM Torrent platform. Results: The synbiotic supplementation reduced body weight gain in OT group comparing with OC (p=0.0398), increase of Enterobacteriaceae (p=0.005) and decrease of Cyanobacteria (p=0.047), Clostridiaceae (p=0.026), Turicibacterales (p=0.005) and Coprococcus (p=0.047). In the other hand, a significant reduction of Sutterella bacteria (p=0.009) and Turicibacter (p=0.005) was observed in LT group compared to LC. Alpha and beta diversities were differ between all treated groups. Beta-catenin gene expression was significantly decreased in the gut tissue of OT group (p≤0.0001) when compared to other groups. No changes were observed in occludin, cadherin and zonulin gene expression in the gut tissue. Conclusion: The synbiotics supplementation prevents excessive weight gain, modulates the gut microbiota, and reduces beta-catenin expression in ob/ob mice.
... In animal and human studies, feeding algae has been shown to promote immunity and protect against oxidative stress and inflammation, which has been linked to a variety of health conditions including cardiovascular diseases [113], colitis [114], atherosclerosis [115], arthritis [116], and allergic rhinitis [117]. In addition to its free radical scavenging action C-phycocyanin, a 35 kDa water-soluble orange carotenoid protein with anti-inflammatory properties, inhibits the production of leucotriene, an inflammatory metabolite of arachidonic acid [118]. ...
Article
Microalgae and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are used as food by humans. They have gained a lot of attention in recent years because of their potential applications in biotechnology. Microalgae and cyanobacteria are good sources of many valuable compounds, including important biologically active compounds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. Under optimal growth condition and stress factors, algal biomass produce varieties of potential bioactive compounds. In the current review, bioactive compounds production and their remarkable applications such as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications along with processes involved in identification and characterization of the novel bioactive compounds are discussed. Comprehensive knowledge about the exploration, extraction, screening, and trading of bioactive products from microalgae and cyanobacteria and their pharmaceutical and other applications will open up new avenues for drug discovery and bioprospecting.
... In addition, the therapeutic effect of Spirulina was shown that it can alleviate the toxicity of drugs. Therefore, it was selected as an interventional supplement in dietary intake for patients with inflammatory diseases, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and liver disease (Ku et al., 2013;Neyrinck et al., 2017). PUFAs are mostly focused on biological systems and coronary artery disease applications. ...
... In fact, in fish fed AP diet, mucosal fold height was not significantly different compared to the negative control (CV), besides showing a high degree of basal inflammatory influx with consequent severe submucosa thickening. However, AP possesses active components like phycocyanin and β-carotene with strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (Ku et al., 2013), which effect was possibly highlighted by molecular analyses in the present study. Despite an evident gut inflammatory status, fish fed diet AP showed a downregulation of the pro-inflammatory markers that may be due to the presence of β-carotene which is known to exert its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting il1b and tnfa gene expression and by attenuating the pro-inflammatory cascade through the NF-kB pathway (Bai et al., 2005). ...
Article
Ensuring efficient growth performance and fish welfare, while improving aquafeed sustainability is a major challenge of the aquaculture sector. To reduce the dependence from unsustainable marine-derived raw materials and to counteract the negative side-effects of vegetable protein sources, functional feeds represent an interesting solution. The present study explored the nutraceutical effects of low dietary inclusions of conventional feed additives (nucleotides and sodium butyrate) and novel potential feed supplements such as Louisiana red claw crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) meal (RCM) and dried microbial biomass from Tetraselmis suecica (TS) and Artrhospira platensis (AP) during a 104-day-feeding trial performed on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Four test diets were formulated starting from a basal diet rich in vegetal protein sources (CV) including 0.25% of conventional feed additives (CVplus) or replacing 10% of dietary crude protein supplied by plant protein-rich ingredients of the basal diet CV with the test ingredients (RCM, TS and AP). Through a multidisciplinary approach, fish responses to the different dietary formulations were evaluated in terms of growth performance, gut welfare and immune response. Results obtained showed that all the test diets exerted an ameliorative effect on fish responses compared to CV one. CVplus and AP diets did not impair growth but resulted only in a marginal amelioration of gut health status that remained highly affected. Differently, TS and RCM diets led to a slight worsening of zootechnical parameters compared to the CV diet but were able to improve the overall welfare and preserve the structural integrity of distal intestine.
... In animal and human studies, feeding algae has been shown to promote immunity and protect against oxidative stress and inflammation, which has been linked to a variety of health conditions including cardiovascular diseases [113], colitis [114], atherosclerosis [115], arthritis [116], and allergic rhinitis [117]. In addition to its free radical scavenging action C-phycocyanin, a 35 kDa water-soluble orange carotenoid protein with anti-inflammatory properties, inhibits the production of leucotriene, an inflammatory metabolite of arachidonic acid [118]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Microalgae and cyanobacteria (blue‐green algae) are used as food by humans. They have gained a lot of attention in recent years because of their potential applications in biotechnology. Microalgae and cyanobacteria are good sources of many valuable compounds, including important biologically active compounds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. Under optimal growth condition and stress factors, algal biomass produce varieties of potential bioactive compounds. In the current review, bioactive compounds production and their remarkable applications such as pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications along with processes involved in identification and characterization of the novel bioactive compounds are discussed. Comprehensive knowledge about the exploration, extraction, screening, and trading of bioactive products from microalgae and cyanobacteria and their pharmaceutical and other applications will open up new avenues for drug discovery and bioprospecting.
... Algal pigments have been sought after by food, feed and pharmaceutical industries due to their natural color and bioactive properties. Many biological functions and health benefits have been reported, such Watanabe et al., (2000) as antioxidant activity (Feller et al., 2018), effects on the immune system (Cerezuela, Guardiola, Meseguer, & Esteban, 2012), and prevention of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (Ku, Yang, Park, & Lee, 2013). The bioaccessibility of chlorophyll pigments from Tetradesmus obliquus (formerly Scenedesmus obliquus) (Chlorophyta) and subsequent uptake by Caco-2 human intestinal cells were analyzed by Fernandes et al. (2021) (Table 4). ...
Article
Background Algae are aquatic organisms rich in several biocompounds, and major ones are proteins and amino acids, carbohydrates and polysaccharides, lipids and fatty acids, pigments like chlorophyll, carotenoid, and phycocyanin, vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols that exhibit multiple beneficial effects on human health. These compounds are present in high concentrations in raw algal biomass, but some of them may not be available to exert their biological function in the human body, due to the inherent composition of algae cell wall. Scope and approach This review provides an overview of existing information of ongoing studies on the digestibility and bioavailability of algae derived compounds, while giving a glimpse of the studies that examine in vivo digestibility and bioaccessibility of microalgal biomass as feed supplementation for animals. Special attention is also given to the influence of cell wall disruption techniques on the bioaccessibility of algal bioactive compounds, showcasing carefully the in vitro bioaccessible nutrients of foods enriched with algal biomass. Key findings and conclusions Digestibility and bioaccessibility of major compounds varied greatly between algal species. Polysaccharides and fibers are undigestible by humans, binding carbohydrates assimilation. Combined disruption methods like bead milling or high pressure homogenization with enzymatic pretreatment, using cellulases prior to algal compound extraction, may help to increase the extractability and bioavailability of lipid and fatty acids, pigments and minerals, as well as enhancing even further protein and amino acid absorptions. Studies on in vivo dietary supplementation of algae in animals (sheep, chicken, mice, and fishes) showed good acceptability and digestibility of proteins and lipids. Traditional foods such as cookies, snack, bread, and yogurt enriched with maximum 5% of algal biomass allowed to carry on natural bioactive compounds of algae, extending the bioaccessibility and enlightening the positive impact of consuming algae-based food for human health promotion.
... The deleterious impact of lead on cardiac function was previously confirmed in a few investigations (Reza et al., 2008). Also, the improvement effect of SP against cardiac function impairment was previously quoted in few studies (Ku et al., 2013). ...
... Numerous physiologically active biomolecules derived from algae have been investigated for their role in disease prevention and health and for their potential use as dietary supplements [11,12]. For instance, Sabelli et al. [13] demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of phenylethylamine (PEA), an endogenous neuromodulator that is present in AFA algae and which, when deficient, can lead to certain forms of depression and affective disturbances [13,14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Microalgae are generally considered an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, and bioactive molecules that make them suitable to be introduced in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food industries. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), an edible microalga, contains numerous biomolecules potentially able to prevent some pathologies including age-related disorders. With the aim to include an AFA extract (Klamin®) as a functional ingredient in baked products, we investigated if its bioactive molecules are destroyed or inactivated after standard cooking temperature. The AFA extract was exposed to heat stress (AFA-HS), and no significant decrease in pigment, polyphenol, and carotenoid content was detected by spectroscopic analysis. Thermal stability of AFA-HS extract was demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and no change in the morphology of the granules of the powder was noticed by SEM microscopic observation. By Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, and ABTS assays, no change in the antioxidant activity and polyphenol contents was found after high-temperature exposition. When added in cell culture, solubilized AFA-HS lost neither its scavenging ability against ROS generation nor its protective role against Abeta, the main peptide involved in Alzheimer’s disease. Prebiotic and antioxidant activities of AFA extract that are not lost after thermal stress were verified on E. coli bacteria. Finally, AFA-HS cookies, containing the extract as one of their ingredients, showed increased polyphenols. Here, we evaluate the possibility to use the AFA extract to produce functional food and prevent metabolic and age-related diseases.
... Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Cyanobacteria are present in minor proportions [24]. Adequate amounts of Cyanobacteria are considered bene cial for the host to diminish in ammation through NF-κB inhibition, and, consequently, reduce proin ammatory cytokines, protecting the host against oxidative stress [25]. However, increased Cyanobacteria have been associated with obesity [26] and recent study published by Shao et al. showed that after weight loss the abundance of these bacteria decreases [27]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of synbiotic supplementation in obesity and microbiota in ob/ob mice. 20 animals were divided into four groups: Obese Treated (OT), Control (OC), Lean Treated (LT) and Control (LC). All animals received standard diet for 8 weeks. Treated groups received a synbiotic in water while nontreated groups received water. After 8 weeks, all animals were sacrificed and gut tissue mRNA isolation and stool samples by microbiota analysis were collected. Beta-catenin, occludin, cadherin and zonulin were analyzed in gut tissue by RT-qPCR. Results: The synbiotic supplementation reduced body weight gain in OT comparing with OC (p=0.0398), increase of Enterobacteriaceae (p=0.005) and decrease of Cyanobacteria (p=0.047), Clostridiaceae (p=0.026), Turicibacterales (p=0.005) and Coprococcus (p=0.047). A significant reduction of Sutterella bacteria (p=0.009) and Turicibacter (p=0.005) was observed in LT compared to LC. Alpha and beta diversities were differ between all treated groups. Beta-catenin gene expression was significantly decreased in the gut tissue of OT (p≤0.0001) when compared to other groups. No changes were observed in occludin, cadherin and zonulin gene expression in the gut tissue. Conclusion: The synbiotics supplementation prevents excessive weight gain, modulates the gut microbiota, and reduces beta-catenin expression in ob/ob mice.
... It is rich in proteins, carbohydrates, fibers, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamins, and minerals [12][13][14] and constitutes an important source of bioactive compounds, such as chlorophyll, lutein, phycocyanin, β-carotene, fucoxanthins, phycobilins, and allophycocyanin [5,15,16]. These bioactive compounds are responsible for various anti-inflammatory, antioxidant [17][18][19], antihypertensive [20,21], immunomodulative and anticancer [22,23], antiobesity [24,25], antidiabetic [26], antimicrobial [27], and reproprotective [28] properties. S. platensis, when used as a food supplement for humans and animals [29], is beneficial for management of diabetes, arthritis, allergies, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and even organic disorders such as erectile dysfunction (ED) [19,[30][31][32][33]. ...
Article
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Spirulina platensis, an important source of bioactive compounds, is a multicellular, filamentous cyanobacterium rich in high-quality proteins, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Due to its nutrient composition, the alga is considered a complete food and is recognized for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and reproprotective effects. All of which are important for prevention and treatment of organic and metabolic disorders such as obesity and erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Spirulina platensis food supplementation and the mechanisms of action involved in reversing the damage caused by a hypercaloric diet on the erectile function of rats. The animals were divided into a standard diet group (SD, n=5); a hypercaloric diet group (HCD, n=5); a hypercaloric diet group supplemented with S. platensis at doses of 25 (HCD+SP25, n=5), 50 (HCD+SP50, n=5), and 100 mg/kg (HCD+SP100, n=5); and a hypercaloric diet group subsequently fed a standard diet (HCD+SD, n=5). In the rats fed a hypercaloric diet, dietary supplementation with S. platensis effectively increased the number of erections while decreasing latency to initiate penile erection. Additionally, S. platensis increases NO bioavailability, reduces inflammation by reducing the release of contractile prostanoids, enhances the relaxation effect promoted by acetylcholine (ACh), restores contractile reactivity damage and cavernous relaxation, reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increases cavernous total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Food supplementation with S. platensis thus restores erectile function in obese rats, reduces production of contractile prostanoids, reduces oxidative stress, and increases NO bioavailability. Food supplementation with S. platensis thus emerges as a promising new therapeutic alternative for the treatment of erectile dysfunction as induced by obesity.
... Spirulina consumption (10 -40 g) has no any adverse effect on kidney, liver, reproductive and physiological functioning (Hutadilok-Towatana et al., 2010). The panel of Dietary Supplements Onformation Expert Committee (DSO-EC) of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention has assigned "grade A" for spirulina regarding safe for human consumption (Ku et al., 2013). On a human study, the ingestion of spirulina (10g/day for 6 months) was found to impart no harmful health effects (Yamani et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Health safety of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) for food application was evaluated through hematology and histopathology of liver, spleen and kidney in Sprague Dawley rats fed on three isoproteic diets maintained to 10% protein for forty five days. Three groups of rats were maintained as control diet casein (R-C); diet containing crude spirulina (R-S) and diet containing purified spirulina protein (R-SPI). Hematological profile of the rats group fed on spirulina diets showed no significant increase in white blood cells (WBCs), while there was decreasing trend in the levels of neutrophils (60.46 ± 2.60%) and lymphocytes (33.53 ± 1.06%) in rats that were fed on spirulina diet (R-S) than the other tested experimental diet group. Histopathological examination revealed normal architecture of the liver with no abnormality in kidneys and spleen exhibiting safety of spirulina in both forms to mitigate protein energy malnutrition widely prevalent in developing countries.
... The major fatty acids of SL are gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3n-6), linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (Esquivel-Hernández et al., 2016;Hudson & Karis, 1974;Nichols & Wood, 1968). Among these fatty acids, GLA is known to be functional lipophilic compounds of SL together with carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols, as there are not many food sources that contain a significant amount of GLA (Esquivel-Hernández et al., 2016Gutiérrez-Salmeán et al., 2015;Ku, Yang, Park, & Lee, 2013). GLA is the precursor of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes which are mediators in inflammation, immune processes and participate in the prevention of several chronic inflammatory diseases and cancers (Das, 2004;Gutiérrez-Salmeán et al., 2015;Sergeant, Rahbar, & Chilton, 2016). ...
Article
Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that impairs health. In this study, the effects of Spirulina lipids (SL) and fish oil (FO) on obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice were evaluated and compared. After 12 weeks of feeding, 4% gamma-linolenic acid-enriched SL supplementation effectively reduced the gain of body weight, total white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and hepatic lipid levels in obese mice. Although dietary 4% FO also tended to suppress the increases of body weight and WAT weight in mice, no statistical difference was observed. The suppression of hepatic lipid accumulation by SL should be through regulating sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), SREBP-2-mediated triacylglycerol and cholesterol synthesis pathway as well as via enhancement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α)-mediated β-oxidation. These findings firstly confirmed that SL could alleviate diet-induced obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation.
... In addition, the lipid fraction of spirulina can also reduce the expression of LDL-C receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and fatty acid synthase [73]. Another mechanism is related to the inhibition of lipogenic genes, regulating the transcription of sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 (SREBP-2) and SREBP-1 [74]. Therefore, spirulina supplementation favors the management of lipid disorders. ...
Article
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Spirulina is a cyanobacterium rich in proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive compounds, such as C-phycocyanin, which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and possible lipid and glucose metabolism effects. This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of spirulina on lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and anti-inflammatory markers (CRD42018097156). After systematically searching for randomized controlled trials evaluating spirulina supplementation in adults with obesity, diabetes, or dyslipidemia on Scopus, Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases and assessing the risk of bias (Rob 2.0), a random-effects meta-analysis (Mean Difference, CI 95%) was conducted on seven selected articles (n = 338). We found that spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the triglycerides (TG) (mean difference (MD): −15.34 mg/dL; 95% CI: −29.76 to −0.91) and total cholesterol (TC) levels (MD: −11.83 mg/dL; 95% CI: −20.56 to −3.10). However, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD: −7.80 mg/dL; 95% CI: −16.94 to 1.33), fasting blood glucose (FBS) (MD: −3.38 mg/dL; 95% CI: −9.88 to 3.12), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (MD: −0.27%; 95% CI: −0.94 to 0.39) levels were not significantly reduced. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) (MD: 0.73 mg/dL; 95% CI: −2.49 to 3.94) was also increased but not significantly. Spirulina supplementation resulted in a decrease in TG and TC levels; it improved the lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, overweight, or obesity, showing its significant role as an adjuvant treatment.
... Feeding of algae has been verified to promote immunity and to protect against oxidative and inflammation stress (see Table 8.4), implicated in several health conditions such as cardiovascular diseases (Ku et al., 2013), colitis (Coskun et al., 2011), atherosclerosis (Mao et al., 2005), arthritis (Rasool et al., 2006) and allergic rhinitis (Selmi et al., 2011) in animal and human studies. Besides its free radical scavenging effect, C-Phycocyanin, a 35 kDa water-soluble orange carotenoid proteins, also have anti-inflammatory activities, inhibiting the formation of leucotriene, an inflammatory metabolite of arachidonic acid (Romay et al., 2003). ...
... [18] Commonly known as Spirulina fusiformis (Blue-green algae) used as organic extracts markedly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines including granulocytes macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 macrophage stimulated by LPS. [19] It is very difficult to manage the LPS induced sepsis inflammation associated with diabetes complications with current drug therapy in the present scenario. [20] Natural sources or Ayurveda System of Medicine maybe use as therapeutic options in treating various diseases which may improve the quality of life. ...
... Some studies showed that blue-green algae inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption and decreases the hepatic lipids and leads to attenuation of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Blue-green algae can also decrease oxidative stress due to their free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid per-oxidation (25) . ...
Article
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Background: CANDEREL ® is non-nutritive artificial sweetener, which is mainly composed of aspartame and acesulfame potassium. Materials and Methods: thirty male albino rats weighing from 100 to 120 gm. The period of the experiment was 30 days. The animals were divided into three groups; group 1: control, group 2: rats received CANDEREL ® (1 tablet/25kg b.w./day) and group 3: rats received CANDEREL ® (1 tablet/25kg b.w./day) + SCE (9 mg/kg b.w./day). The following parameters were measured: serum glucose, ASAT, ALAT, serum creatinine, serum urea, protein and lipid profiles and hormonal levels (insulin, testosterone, serum T3 and serum T4). Results: there were many disturbances that occurred in the previous parameters, and SCE ameliorated most of these hazardous effects. Conclusion: artificial sweeteners are not safe in use; their disadvantages are more than their advantages. So, we recommended replacing non-nutritive sweeteners with nutritive ones to be away from any hazardous effects that may result from the use of artificial sweeteners. Also, SCE made a great job in fighting the impairments that occur during the experiment.
... Показаниями к применению хлореллы являются: ежедневное увеличение ресурсов организма; укрепление общего иммунитета; выведение токсинов и тяжелых металлов; компенсация последствий стресса; улучшение памяти; продление молодости организма [20]. ...
Article
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Introduction. Semi-finished products require various additives that increase shelf life, improve sensory properties, or decrease raw material costs. Unfortunately, most additives improve neither nutrition nor biological value of the finished product. The present research featured precooked thin pancakes fortified with a chlorella concentrate. This microalgal supplement with scientific-based healthy properties is a unique project of Russian developers. The chlorella concentrate possesses a balanced amino acid composition, vitamins, major nutrient elements, and dietary minerals. Therefore, it can improve the nutrient and biological value of the pancakes. Study objects and methods. The research featured laboratory and industrial samples of precooked pancakes. 3%, 6%, and 10% of the milk were replaced with chlorella concentrate. The quantitative ratio of the components was determined empirically to obtain pancakes of the optimal quality. The batter-making and baking technologies were traditional. The mixing of milk and chlorella concentrate caused no protein aggregation. Results and discussion. The obtained batter was similar with the control sample in viscosity. The sensory properties did not deteriorate. As the proportion of the concentrate increased, the color of the batter changed from pale green to bright green. The sample with 10% of chlorella concentrate had a distinct algae smell. After the milk was replaced with the chlorella concentrate in the amount of 3%, 6%, and 10%, the amino acid composition demonstrated the following changes. The amount of lysine increased by 4.36%, 8.54%, and 14.72%, respectively. The amount of tryptophan increased by 5.46%, 10.75%, and 18.37, respectively. The amount of methionine + cystine increased by 4.04%, 7.94%, and 13.61%, respectively. The introduction of chlorella concentrate raised the content of certain minerals and vitamins, e.g. iron, vitamins of β-carotene, and vitamin C. Conclusions. Chlorella concentrate improved the production technology of flour-based foods. Therefore, it helps to expand the range of this group of precooked products while improving their biological and nutrition value.
Article
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Food supplements with microalgae are becoming increasingly abundant and can be easily found anywhere. The most popular products are based on cyanophytes, such as Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira platensis and Limnospira maxima, or on chlorophytes, such as Chlorella or Haematoccus. Although they are all advertised as being very beneficial for health, these products might be harmful because they may contain cyanotoxins and other contaminants, and no information on production methods or strain origins is usually provided. While legislation on the presence of microcystins in waters for different uses is clear, toxicological analyses are not compulsory for food supplements, nor for analyzing anatoxins. Given the potential risk of eating contaminated food, cyanotoxins, heavy metals and the presence of other contaminant organisms were analyzed in 10 microalgae food supplements. Microcystin-LR and anatoxin-a were detected in three analyzed products, and in both cyanophyte- and chlorophyte-based products. The light microscope study revealed the presence of different potentially harmful microbial contaminants. The ICP (OES) analyses detected high concentrations of some heavy metals, especially Pb. The results emphasize the need to promote the better control of food products containing microalgae, and to develop standard methodologies to analyze cyanotoxins and potential toxic compounds to protect consumer health.
Chapter
Both biologically and economically, microalgae are vital for the proper functioning of the biosphere. Globally the scientific community is trying to tap the massive microalgae resource, which is able to grow in all ecological niches. Huge biodiversity and variable composition of microalgae can enhance the production of variable compounds and increase their availability commercially. Microalgae are the viable feedstock for the production of bioactive compounds that can revolutionize the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Natural compounds like carotenoids, phytosterols, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and phenolic and volatile compounds from microalgal biomass can be specially incorporated to produce functional foods and pharmaceutical products. Bioactive compounds from microalgae are of immense importance for the development of industrially important products. Metabolites from microalgae improve health and stimulate defense system in humans and have spurred intense research on microalgal biomass about their use in pharmaceutical and food industry. In this chapter, we will focus on bioactive compounds produced by several microalgal species and their role in improving the health of human being, which is degrading with increasing living standards and population explosion.
Article
Chronic kidney disease develops popular and medical health problems, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective mechanism of Spirulina platensis against γ-irradiation (R) and/or thioacetamide (TAA)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats intoxicated with R or TAA showed alterations in kidney function markers (urea, creatinine, albumin, and total protein contents), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase), and several inflammatory markers (including, the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, some interleukins, and nuclear factor-kappa B). Rats also acquired apoptosis, evinced by high caspase-3 efficacy. This nephrotoxicity mediated by upregulation of the messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expression of the autophagy markers: Beclin-1, microtubule-associated protein LC3, p62 binding protein, immunoglobulin G receptor Fcγ receptor (FcγR), micro-RNA-1 (miR-1), protein expression of phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin, along with downregulation of miR-146a mRNA gene expression and alteration of calcium and iron levels. The combined treatment R/TAA enhanced the observed oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy that mediated by higher upregulation of miR-1 and downregulation of miR-146a mRNA gene expression. Spirulina platensis administration exhibited a nephroprotective impact on R, TAA, and R/TAA toxicities via regulating miR-1 and miR-146a mRNA gene expression that monitored adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling.
Article
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Taxol is an anti-tumor therapy used to treat breast, ovarian and lung cancer, but at the same time it causes oxidative stress and damages the liver and kidneys. In this study, blue-green algae extract Klisinema persicumLoader on Graphene Oxide nanoparticlesChemicallyincorporatedwithAcrylamide-Acrylic Acidpolymer Go/PAM-co-PAAwas used to reduce the damage caused by taxol in female rats. Taxol used at a dose of2 mg / kg of body weight Subperitoneal injectiononce a week, and after the first dose of Taxol the aqueous extract of Klisinema persicum that carry by polymers of Acrylamide-Acrylic Acid with Graphene Oxidewas used at orally daily dose 100 mg/kg of body weight. The experiment groups were divided as follows: group C Control group was dosed with Normal salin only, T1 dosed Taxol only, group T2 dosed algae extract only, group T3 dosed Acrylamide-Acrylic Acid with Graphene Oxide and Taxol, group T4 dosed algae extract and Taxol, group T5 dosed algae extract Nano-portable and Taxol. The results are showing the animals which treated with taxol showed a significant increase (P>0.05) in Liver Tests ALT, AST, ALP and a significant increase (P>0.05) in kidney function tests urea, creatinine and uric acid,as well as reduced antioxidants GSH and CAT and high Lipid peroxide MDA. Conversely, animals treated with nano-loaded algae extract Showed a significant decrease (P>0.05)in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine and uric acid, and a significant increase (P>0.05)in antioxidants Compared with animals treated with taxol only. Conclusions: Klisinema persicumextract can be used to reduce the damage caused by taxol drug to the liver and kidneys and reduce oxidative stress.
Article
Spirulina, the blue green algae is considered to exhibit multifaceted benefits on both human health and animal production. A six weeks study was conducted on white broilers (N = 360) categorized in to five treatment groups each comprising nine replicates of 8 chicks. The experiment was carried out during the hot humid summer season (Mid-April to May) under deep litter rearing system with uniform managemental conditions. Birds were administered orally with spirulina through drinking water (DW) in the morning (06:00–12:00 PM) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L concentration. Spirulina supplementation neither improved nor compromised production performance of broilers reared during hot climatic condition. One way ANOVA results indicated a significant (P < 0.05) effect on haemoglobin and total RBC. Serum lipid content and transaminases were reduced, while serum protein concentration was higher (P < 0.01) in the groups administered with 15 and 20 g/L of Spirulina. The extent of imparting shank pigmentation was improved in all the supplemented groups. Cell mediated and humoral immunity against Phytoheamagglutunin-P and Newcastle disease vaccination respectively was maximum (P < 0.05) at 20 g/L. These findings provide direct evidences of dose-related modulation of production, physiological and immunological attributes by spirulina engendering the further investigation of spirulina as a potential source of drinking water supplement for stress alleviation in broilers.In conclusion, DW supplementation of Spirulina at 15 and 20 g/L is optimum for improving the health and welfare attributes of broilers reared during hot summer without compromising production.
Article
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Background: hyperlipidemia is a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by an elevation of lipids in the blood stream. It accounts for the high danger of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis which is known as a silent killer. Objectives: The aim of work was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) as a natural hypolipidemic product on the cardiac muscle of adult male albino rats, in comparison with Slimquick as a synthetic hypolipidemic drug and their ability to treat hyperlipidemia or to prevent it. Material and methods: fifty six male albino rats (Rattus albinus) were used and categorized into eight groups (7rats/group) .The 1 st group (C) rats were used as a control, the 2 nd group (H) rats were treated with high fat diet (HFD) (2% cholesterol) to induce hyperlipidemia for 4 weeks only then scarified, the 3 rd group (A) rats were orally administrated with AFA only for 4 weeks(94.5 mg/kg body weight /day), the 4 th group (H+A1) rats were treated with HFD enriched with 2% cholesterol for 2 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia and the other 2 weeks were fed on the same HFD plus AFA extract administration, the 5 th group (H+A2) rats were treated with HFD diet enriched with 2% cholesterol for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia and then they were fed on normal basal diet (BD) plus AFA extract administration for another 2 weeks, the 6 th group (S) rats were orally administrated with Slimquick only for 4 weeks (5 mg orlistat/rat/day), the 7 th group (H+S1) rats were treated with HFD diet enriched with 2% cholesterol for 2 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia and the other 2 weeks rats were fed on the same HFD plus Slimquick extract administration, the 8 th group (H+S2) rats were treated with HFD diet enriched with 2% cholesterol for 4 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia and then they were fed on normal basal diet (BD) plus Slimquick extract administration for another 2 weeks. Results: the biochemical parameters showed a highly significant increase in the mean value of LDH and CK in the cardiac muscle fibers of the high fat diet group. Many histopathological and histochemical changes were detected in the cardiac muscles of the high fat diet group. Meanwhile, treatment with AFA or Slimquick ameliorated the biochemical parameters, histological and histochemical results; but using AFA extract arrived to decrease the strong changes which were observed in the cardiac muscle fibers of the high fat diet group more than that observed with Slimquick. Conclusion: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract as a natural product and Slimquick as a synthetic drug ameliorated the biochemical, histopathological and histochemical changes in the cardiac muscle of the hyperlipidemic rats. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract proved to be a better hypolipidemic agent than Slimquick.
Book
PREFACE Cyanobacteria are among the most successful and ancient forms of life ever known. These photosynthetic autotrophs have been studied for decades as model organisms in various aspects, from photosynthesis to biotechnological applications and, more recently, for their pharmacological potential in umpteen fields. In fact, cyanobacteria are now recognized as top metabolic producers of a huge number of bioactive compounds with medical interest and that can revolutionize drug discovery and development. Allied to their metabolic capabilities, cyanobacteria benefit from a cost-effective energy-capturing ability, and high cultivation yields with minimum nutritional requirements, being extremely attractive in terms of industrial-scale production processes. This book was designed to bring together fields in which cyanobacteria derived compounds most stood out, with a special focus on those related to therapeutics, cosmetics, and nutrition, emphasizing unique molecules not found in higher organisms. Of the most promising compounds isolated so far, those acting as anti-inflammatories, anti-carcinogens, antimicrobials, and UV protectors fill a prominent place within drug discovery programs. The metabolic richness of cyanobacteria has also been upholding their key role in the field of cosmetics and nutraceuticals, with the last occupying a prominent place in a rapidly expanding market. Apart from the pharmacological and biotechnological approach, this book does not set aside the well-known cyanobacterial toxins, warning to their substantial economic and social impacts, and drawing attention to the urgency of fully addressing algal blooms and their systematic monitoring. Additionally, and given its extreme importance, this book provides a distinctive approach to cyanobacteria systematics, by exploring general aspects and biodiversity of these organisms to discuss trends in cyanobacterial taxonomy. Overall, The Pharmacological Potential of Cyanobacteria is intended to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of cyanobacteria, serving as a guide in the discovery, research, and application of these unique microorganisms. Graciliana Lopes, Marisa Silva and Vitor Vasconcelos
Book
Cyanobacteria are among the most successful and ancient forms of life ever known. These photosynthetic autotrophs have been studied for decades as model organisms in various aspects, from photosynthesis to biotechnological applications and, more recently, for their pharmacological potential in umpteen fields. In fact, cyanobacteria are now recognized as top metabolic producers of a huge number of bioactive compounds with medical interest and that can revolutionize drug discovery and development. Allied to their metabolic capabilities, cyanobacteria benefit from a cost-effective energy-capturing ability, and high cultivation yields with minimum nutritional requirements, being extremely attractive in terms of industrial-scale production processes. This book was designed to bring together fields in which cyanobacteria derived compounds most stood out, with a special focus on those related to therapeutics, cosmetics, and nutrition, emphasizing unique molecules not found in higher organisms. Of the most promising compounds isolated so far, those acting as anti-inflammatories, anti-carcinogens, antimicrobials, and UV protectors fill a prominent place within drug discovery programs. The metabolic richness of cyanobacteria has also been upholding their key role in the field of cosmetics and nutraceuticals, with the last occupying a prominent place in a rapidly expanding market. Apart from the pharmacological and biotechnological approach, this book does not set aside the well-known cyanobacterial toxins, warning to their substantial economic and social impacts, and drawing attention to the urgency of fully addressing algal blooms and their systematic monitoring. Additionally, and given its extreme importance, this book provides a distinctive approach to cyanobacteria systematics, by exploring general aspects and biodiversity of these organisms to discuss trends in cyanobacterial taxonomy. Overall, The Pharmacological Potential of Cyanobacteria is intended to be a useful resource for students, researchers, and professionals working in the field of cyanobacteria, serving as a guide in the discovery, research, and application of these unique microorganisms. Graciliana Lopes, Marisa Silva and Vitor Vasconcelos
Chapter
There are several reasons to assign a special role to cyanobacteria in the main challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. Their utilization and production are increasing, in a rapidly evolving situation, with maintenance and increasing of health in a central place. Although there are several indications that in the near future these microorganisms may play a key role, in accordance with lifestyle and dietary changes, their nutritional and pharmacological importance is still underestimated. Nevertheless, the scientific evidence in this area is now a reference in respect of the increased use and the growing economic interest of cyanobacteria. In this chapter, it will be explored why these organisms are necessary in several fields, from nutraceutical to pharmacological utilizations. In fact, despite the large number of species, the current market and interest are mainly focused on Spirulina, Alga Klamath, and Nostoc raw materials, although other species may be considered of potential interest. However, in contrast with the current commercial tendency and consumers attitude, there are several differences in constitution and properties of each species, which therefore are here carefully reported. It is also necessary to emphasize some exaggerations due to marketing, which gives cyanobacteria the impressive role of “superfood,” instead of specifying their real capabilities. Finally, a special attention must be dedicated to the quality control of the raw materials and the marketed products, since several factors can deeply influence their quality and therefore their adequate utilization. The first part of this chapter will be dedicated to the general aspects of cyanobacteria, whereas in the second part a monograph will concern each of the aforementioned species. Finally, general thoughts on the future utilization of cyanobacteria are presented to the consideration of everyone.
Chapter
The field of research that explores the use of microalgae in biomedicine and health is complex and diverse. Numerous research avenues currently explore the use of microalgae in biomedicine and heath such as: focusing on establishing and boosting nutritional profiles for food applications; identification, characterisation and utilisation of microalgal metabolites with biological activity as functional ingredients and/or drugs; utilisation of recombinant technology to genetically modify the algae for use as production systems for enzymes, antibodies, growth factors, drugs, and vaccines; or the use of microalgae as a source of “biomaterial” for use in applications such as drug carriers or cellular scaffolds for tissue engineering. To illustrate the diversity of microalgae and its potential for utilisation in a wide variety of biomedical and heath care applications, this chapter will present a concise overview of this broad applicability of microalgae in biomedicine and health, while highlighting research that is also occurring into the production and biorefinery of these compounds to facilitate a viable transition from laboratory to commercial production. Thus, this chapter aims to bridge the knowledge gap between both existing and potentially new algae applications, in particular, the use of microalgae as a source of “biomaterials” for biomedicine and health applications.
Research
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Exposure to ionizing radiation represents a genuine increasing threat to mankind and our environment. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a blue microalgal species which has antioxidant properties. Aim of the work: this study aimed possible radioprotective effect of Aphanizomenon aquae (AFA) on liver of irradiated adult male rats using biochemical parameters, histopathology and quantitative histochemistry. Matrerial and methods experiment was carried out on 48 adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Rats were randomly and equally categorized into four groups: 1) Group C: control rats left without treatment; 2) Group R: rats were exposed to gamma-radiation as a single dose; 3) Group AFA: treated orally with 94.5mg/kg body weight/ day AFA for 3 weeks and 4) Group AFA+R: rats were administrated AFA for a period of one week before and three weeks after irradiation. The experimental rats were sacrificed after 5 and 21 days post-irradiation. Results: exposed to gamma radiation showed many biochemical changes which included a significant increase in serum ALAT, ASAT ,ALP activities and MDA in the liver histopathological and histochemical changes were observed in the liver tissue, such as corrugated and ruptured endothelial lining of the central vein which contained hemolysed blood cells, numerous vacuolated hepatocytes with increased signs of karyolysis and pyknosis in hepatocytes, highly dilated and congested hepatic portal vein, numerous hemorrhagic areas and distorted bile ducts. Highly increased collagen fibers were also observed after gamma irradiation in the liver tissue. In addition, irradiated group induced a significant increase in amyloid while a significant decrease in PAS+ve materials protein and total DNA content Supplementation with AFA showed a trend toward lowering incidence of hepatic histopathological and histochemical changes induced by γ-radiation. Exposure to ionizing radiation represents a genuine increasing threat to mankind and our environment. (AFA) is a blue-green antioxidant properties.The to elucidate the Aphanizomenon flos-on liver of irradiated adult male rats using biochemical parameters, histopathology and quantitative Matrerial and methods: the current experiment was carried out on 48 adult male albino rats). Rats were randomly and equally four groups: 1) Group C: control rats left without treatment; 2) Group R: rats were exposed to 4Gy of ; 3) Group AFA: rats were treated orally with 94.5mg/kg body weight/ day AFA for 3 4) Group AFA+R: rats were administrated AFA for a period of one week before and three weeks after ntal rats were sacrificed after 5 : exposed to gamma radiation showed many biochemical changes which in serum ALAT, ASAT and MDA in the liver tissues. Many al and histochemical changes were observed in the liver tissue, such as corrugated and ruptured endothelial lining of the central vein which contained hemolysed blood cells, numerous vacuolated hepatocytes with increased signs of karyolysis and pyknosis in nuclei of hepatocytes, highly dilated and congested hepatic portal vein, numerous hemorrhagic areas and distorted bile ducts. Highly increased collagen fibers were also observed after gamma irradiation in the liver tissue. In addition, irradiated duced a significant increase in amyloid β-protein, while a significant decrease in PAS+ve materials, total and total DNA content was detected. Supplementation with AFA showed a trend toward lowering incidence of hepatic histopathological and radiation. Conclusion: according to the results obtained in the current study using Aphanizomenon flos showed a strong radioprotective role.
Article
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In the present study Spirulina platensis has been investigated as a possible modifier of mercury induced hepatic damages and alteration of lipid profile in albino rats. The results revealed that the rats treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl2) showed a significant increase in levels of blood hydroperoxide, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). Moreover, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of HgCl2 group elevated significantly. On the other hand, plasma protein, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and hepatic glutathione (GSH) of HgCl2 treated group showed a significant decrease compared to the control group. Mercury intoxication induces some pathological alterations in the liver as necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization. The rise in plasma hepatic enzymes, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, hydroperoxide, and histopathological changes were significantly attenuated by Spirulina. Moreover, the levels of plasma HDL-C and protein and hepatic glutathione in Spirulina+HgCl2 group showed a significant increase as compared with HgCl2 group. Spirulina significantly alleviated the hepatotoxicity induced by HgCl2 and modified the lipid profile through its antioxidant properties.
Article
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the presence of O 2 by mitochondria, phagocytic cells, perox-isomes, and cytochrome P450 enzymes under physiological conditions, may play a dual function in the human organism. On the one hand, they participate in cell signal transduction cascades, leading to the activation of some transcription fac-tors responsible for regulating of the expression of genes relevant for cell growth and differentiation. On the other hand, they cause oxidative damage of cellular DNA, protein and lipids, resulting in the initiation or development of numerous diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, or different neu-rodegenerative diseases. Both endogenous compounds (glutathione, ubiquinol, urate, bilirubin) and enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) are engaged in the detoxification of ROS. In addition, numerous dietary com-ponents such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and polyphenols are thought to be involved in the antioxidant defense system. The present review article is focused on the summary and the assessment of research on the impact of dietary antioxidants in the prevention of chronic diseases, particularly cancer and cardiovascular diseases.
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.
Article
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The Dietary Supplements Information Expert Committee (DSI-EC) of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) reviews the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for the purpose of determining whether they should be admitted as quality monographs into the United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF). The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has enforcement authority to pursue a misbranding action in those instances where a dietary supplement product indicates that it conforms to USP standards but fails to so conform. Recently DSI-EC undertook a safety evaluation of spirulina, a widely used dietary ingredient. DSI-EC reviewed information from human clinical trials, animal studies, and regulatory and pharmacopeial sources and analyzed 31 adverse event reports regarding spirulina to assess potential health concerns. At the conclusion of this review, DSI-EC assigned a Class A safety rating for Spirulina maxima and S. platensis, thereby permitting the admission of quality monographs for these dietary supplement ingredients in USP-NF. DSI-EC continually monitors reports concerning the safety of dietary supplements and dietary supplement ingredients for which USP dietary supplement monographs are developed. The DSI-EC may revisit the safety classification of spirulina as new information on this dietary ingredient becomes available.
Article
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Spirulina has proven to be effective in treating certain cancers, hyperlipidemia, immunodeficiency, and inflammatory processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Spirulina on memory dysfunction, oxidative stress damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. Three-month-old male senescence-accelerated prone-8 (SAMP8) mice were randomly assigned to either a control group or to one of two experimental groups (one receiving daily dietary supplementation with 50 mg/kg BW and one with 200 mg/kg BW of Spirulina platensis water extract). Senescence-accelerated-resistant (SAMR1) mice were used as the external control. Results showed that the Spirulina-treated groups had better passive and avoidance scores than the control group. The amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposition was significantly reduced at the hippocampus and whole brain in both Spirulina groups. The levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly reduced at the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex in both Spirulina groups, while catalase activity was significantly higher only in the 200 mg/kg BW Spirulina group than in the control group. Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher only in the cortex of the 200 mg/kg group than in that of the SAMP8 control group. However, superoxide dismutase activity in all parts of the brain did not significantly differ among all groups. In conclusion, Spirulina platensis may prevent the loss of memory possibly by lessening Aβ protein accumulation, reducing oxidative damage and mainly augmenting the catalase activity.
Article
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To evaluate the beneficial effects of spirulina on the treatment of experimental colitis. Spirulina, a planktonic blue green algae from oascillateriaceae family, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-viral, and antimicrobial effects, rendering it a natural drug of prophylactic and therapeutic properties. The effects of spirulina on colitis are not known. Wistar rats weighing 200-300 g were used. Experimental colitis was created during anesthesia using the trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid. The rats were randomly divided into the 3 groups. In the group 1 (sham; n = 8), saline was administered via oral gavage 7 days after 1 ml of rectal saline was administered. In the group 2 (experimental colitis + spirulina; n = 8), 2 g/kg spirulina was administered via oral gavage 7 days after the rectal 1 ml TNBS was administered. In group 3 (experimental colitis; n = 8), enema was administered via oral gavage 7 days after the rectal 1 ml TNBS was administered. Eight days after the instigation of TNBS colitis, the rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were taken. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations were conducted, and malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAS), and glutathione (GSH) levels were determined. Inflammation on mucosa and submucosa, hemorrhage, necrosis, cellular infiltration and crypt abscess formation, immunoreactivity and tissue MDA levels were decreased in the experimental colitis + spirulina group when compared to the experimental colitis group (p < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate the beneficial effects of spirulina on TNBS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (Tab. 6, Fig. 10, Ref. 40).
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.
Article
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Anemia and immunological dysfunction (i.e. immunosenescence) are commonly found in older subjects and nutritional approaches are sought to counteract these phenomena. Spirulina is a filamentous and multicellular bule-green alga capable of reducing inflammation and also manifesting antioxidant effects. We hypothesized that Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence in senior citizens with a history of anemia. We enrolled 40 volunteers of both sexes with an age of 50 years or older who had no history of major chronic diseases. Participants took a Spirulina supplementation for 12 weeks and were administered comprehensive dietary questionnaires to determine their nutritional regimen during the study. Complete cell count (CCC) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme activity, as a sign of immune function, were determined at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 of supplementation. Thirty study participants completed the entire study and the data obtained were analyzed. Over the 12-week study period, there was a steady increase in average values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin in subjects of both sexes. In addition, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration also increased in male participants. Older women appeared to benefit more rapidly from Spirulina supplements. Similarly, the majority of subjects manifested increased IDO activity and white blood cell count at 6 and 12 weeks of Spirulina supplementation. Spirulina may ameliorate anemia and immunosenescence in older subjects. We encourage large human studies to determine whether this safe supplement could prove beneficial in randomized clinical trials.
Article
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Spirulina is a commercial alga well known to contain various antioxidants, especially phycocyanin. Apart from being sold as a nutraceutical, Spirulina is incorporated as a functional ingredient in food products and beverages. Most of the previous reports on antioxidant activity of Spirulina were based on chemical rather than cell-based assays. The primary objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Spirulina based on its protective effect against cell death induced by free radicals. The antioxidant activity of the cold water extract from food-grade Spirulina platensis was assessed using both chemical and cell-based assays. In the cell-based assay, mouse fibroblast cells (3T3) cells were incubated for 1 h in medium containing aqueous extract of Spirulina or vitamin C (positive control) at 25, 125 and 250 μg/mL before the addition of 50 μM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The cells were incubated for another 24 h before being assessed for cell death due to apoptosis using the Cell Death Detection ELISA Kit. Spectrophotometric assays based on DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extract compared to vitamin C and vitamin E (positive controls). Spirulina extract did not cause cytotoxic effect on 3T3 cells within the range of concentrations tested (0 - 250 μg/mL). The extract reduced significantly (p < 0.05) apoptotic cell death due to DPPH and ABTS by 4 to 5-fold although the activity was less than vitamin C. Based on the DPPH assay, the radical scavenging activity of the extract was higher than phycocyanin and was at least 50% of vitamin C and vitamin E. Based on the ABTS assay, the antioxidant activity of the extract at 50 μmug/mL was as good as vitamin C and vitamin E. The results showed that aqueous extract of Spirulina has a protective effect against apoptotic cell death due to free radicals. The potential application of incorporating Spirulina into food products and beverages to enhance their antioxidant capacity is worth exploring.
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In this study, an effort was made to cure the pigment deficiency syndrome (PDS) exhibited by pond-reared Fenneropenaeus indicus (H.Milne Edwards) broodstock, using the blue-green algae Spirulina as a carotenoid source in diet. The PDS symptoms included bleaching of ovary and reduced early larval performance. Biochemical analysis indicated reduced quantity of total carotenoids in egg and nauplii from the females with PDS. When PDS females were fed 30 g kg−1Spirulina-supplemented diet immediately after the appearance of symptoms, the egg and nauplii carotenoid values improved gradually and attained the pre-PDS values after a minimum of 4 week period. Spirulina supplementation also improved significantly (P < 0.05) the spawn quality (hatch per spawn, nauplii per spawn, nauplii viability) and larval quality indices (P < 0.05). The egg and nauplii protein values exhibited a trend similar to carotenoids, confirming the influence of latter on protein stability previously reported by researchers. The study confirms the bioavailability of carotenoids from Spirulina to shrimp broodstock and recommends its regular inclusion in diet to preclude carotenoid deficiency-related problems in shrimp hatcheries.
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Nutritional approaches are sought to overcome the limits of pioglitazone in metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a filamentous unicellular alga, reduces serum lipids and blood pressure while exerting antioxidant effects. To determine whether Spirulina may impact macrophages infiltrating the visceral fat in obesity characterizing our metabolic syndrome mouse model induced by the subcutaneous injection treatment of monosodium glutamate. Mice were randomized to receive standard food added with 5% Spirulina, 0.02% pioglitazone, or neither. We tested multiple biochemistry and histology (both liver and visceral fat) readouts at 24 weeks of age. Data demonstrate that both the Spirulina and the pioglitazone groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver non-esterified fatty acid compared to untreated mice. Spirulina and pioglitazone were associated with significantly lower leptin and higher levels, respectively, compared to the control group. At liver histology, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and lipid peroxide were significantly lower in mice treated with Spirulina. Spirulina reduces dyslipidaemia in our metabolic syndrome model while ameliorating visceral adipose tissue macrophages. Human studies are needed to determine whether this safe supplement could prove beneficial in patients with metabolic syndrome.
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Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV absorbing pigments, and structurally distinct MAAs have been identified in taxonomically diverse organisms. Two novel MAAs were purified from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, and their chemical structures were characterized. An MAA with an absorption maximum at 335 nm was identified as a pentose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 478 Da. Another identified MAA had double absorption maxima at 312 and 340 nm and a molecular mass of 1,050 Da. Its unique structure consisted of two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen and two pentose and hexose sugars. These MAAs had radical scavenging activity in vitro; the 1050-Da MAA contributed approximately 27% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract of N. commune. These results suggest that these glycosylated MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune.