Article

Effects of Non-ground Slag and Bottom Ash as Fine Aggregate on Concrete Permeability Properties

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Abstract

In this study, the effect of non-ground coal bottom ash (NGCBA) and non-ground granulated blast furnace slag (NGGBFS) on permeability properties regarding durability of concrete is investigated. The mentioned by-products have been used as fine aggregate substitute in the production of concrete. Some permeability–durability tests have been conducted on the specimens produced using these by-product fine aggregates. Tests to be done were chosen as rapid chloride permeability, freezing–thawing and drying–wetting tests. Furthermore, microstructures of these concrete types have been observed. Thus, the effects of chemical, physical and mechanical properties of NGGBFS and NGCBA fine aggregates on the permeability of concrete can be obtained in a much better perspective and discussed easily. The optimum replacement ratio of these by-products as fine aggregate is also attempted to be determined for producing low permeable concrete. Consequently, NGBFS and NGCBA generally increase permeability by increasing porosity due to their physical properties but it can be said that these by-products as fine aggregate can also reduce permeability of concrete due to their chemical and mechanical properties in terms of permeability–durability tests. Therefore, usage of these by product types improves durability properties related to the permeability of concrete.

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... The utilisation of waste items in concrete makes it inexpensive and reutilize of wastes is supposed as the best ecological option for taking care of the issue of waste disposal (Bahoria et al., 2013). Different types of industrial waste materials such as waste foundry sand (Prabhu et al., 2014;Khatib et al., 2013;Basar and Aksoy, 2012;Singh, 2012;Salokhe and Desai, 2009;Singh and Siddique, 2012a,b;Etxeberria et al., 2010;Siddique et al., 2009Siddique et al., , 2011Siddique et al., , 2015Aggarwal and Siddique, 2014), steel slag (Devi and Gnanavel, 2014;Qasrawi et al., 2009;Rajan, 2014;Khajuria and Siddique, 2014;Chang-long et al., 2008;Kothai and Malathy, 2014), copper slag (Al-Jabri et al., 2009a,b, 2011Alnuaimi, 2012;Rose and Suganya, 2015;Meenakshi and Ilangovan, 2011;Chavan and Kulkarni, 2013;Ambily et al., 2015;Velumani and Nirmalkumar, 2014;Poovizhi and Kathirvel, 2015;, imperial smelting furnace slag (Tripathi et al., 2013;Weeks et al., 2008;Atzeni et al., 1996;Morrison et al., 2003), blast furnace slag (Yuksel et al., 2006(Yuksel et al., , 2011Valcuende et al., 2015;Yuksel and Genc, 2007;Yuksel et al., 2011), coal bottom ash (Bai et al., 2005;Singh and Siddique, 2014;Kim et al., 2014;Andrade et al., 2009;Bilir, 2012;Kim and Lee, 2011;Shi-Cong and Chi-Sun, 2009), ferrochrome slag (Panda et al., 2013), class F type fly ash (Rajamane et al., 2007;Siddique, 2003), and Palm oil clinker (Rashad, 2016;Kanadasan et al., 2015;Wahab et al., 2015;Abdullahi et al., 2010;Ahmmad et al., 2014;Mohammed et al., 2011Mohammed et al., , 2013 have been used as partially or fully sand replacement material in concrete production and their properties with control concrete are compared. ...
... The grain size distribution of granulated blast furnace slag is with 62% material in between1.18 mm and 0.10 mm (Bilir, 2012). The particle size distribution of bottom ash is with 55% material in between 1.18 mm and 0.10 mm (Bilir, 2012). ...
... mm and 0.10 mm (Bilir, 2012). The particle size distribution of bottom ash is with 55% material in between 1.18 mm and 0.10 mm (Bilir, 2012). Many researchers have stated the particle size gradation of different industrial waste materials which has been mentioned in Table 1. ...
Article
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Utilization of industrial waste materials in concrete compensates the lack of natural resources, solving the disposal problem of waste and to find alternative technique to safeguard the nature. There are number of industrial wastes used as fully or partial replacement of coarse aggregate or fine aggregate. This review carries out a thorough assessment about industrial waste substances, which can be adequately utilized in concrete as fine aggregate substitution. This paper reviewed some of these industrial wastes like waste foundry sand, steel slag, copper slag, imperial smelting furnace slag (ISF slag), blast furnace slag, coal bottom ash, ferrochrome slag and palm oil clinker etc. Out of these materials, maximum number of experiments have been conducted by using waste foundry sand and copper slag as fine aggregate replacement, but still more examinations are required for other waste materials as replacement of sand in concrete. Different physical and mechanical properties of industrial waste as well as of industrial waste concrete, in which natural sand is substituted has been reviewed and comparison are made between them. Deflection and leaching study review are carried out additionally and compared. It can be observed that the concrete where sand is replaced by copper slag, imperial smelting furnace slag, class F fly ash exhibits improved strength and durability properties, but it’s slump increases as the rate of replacement increases in case of copper slag and the slump decreases in the case of class F fly ash. There is a less research work reported on ferrochrome slag and palm oil clinker used as sand substitution, so it is felt that further detailed investigations are required.
... According to Bilir et al. [150], the CBA effect on freeze-thaw resistance was investigated via freezing and thawing specimens in water, whereby tray specimens were frozen at − 20 • C for an extended period of 18 h. Next, the tray was put in a water tank at 20 • C. ...
... Therefore, concrete with CBA as an alternative to cement can be durable to freezing-thawing. Replacement ratios of 20-30% can be accepted as optimum replacement ratios [150]. The flexural strength has been increased by increasing the level of CBA up to 10 %, and other percentages higher than 10 % of CBA as a cement substitute led to decreased flexural strength. ...
... Fig.16. Loss in compressive strength in freezing-thawing resistance of CBA [150]. Fig. 17. ...
Article
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In the current era, the engineering and construction sector has successfully participated in the challenge of utilizing sustainable, ecological, and recycled materials in concrete industrialization. Waste materials are mostly dumped into open areas and landfills, which leads to health hazards and environmental pollution. The use of recycled waste materials such as coal bottom ash (CBA) in the production of concrete or mortar is an ecological alternative. Due to the economic and environmental benefits of CBA, this study aims to critically review the work done on recycled CBA. To date, a total of 166 studies were reviewed to provide a comprehensive literature review. The CBA's chemical and physical properties can vary depending on the sources influenced by the production process. Other properties such as thermal conductivity and dry shrinkage were also reviewed. In particular, the effect of CBA on the mechanism of coal combustion. The CBA as a cement replacement material in cement composites can enhance fresh and mechanical properties on concrete or mortar up to a specific ratio. The finding shows that grinding CBA from coal can be used in concrete or mortar as a substitute material in violent environments. Overall, this study suggests the concept of turning a variety of wastes into useful resources. The goal is primarily to reduce the industry's enormous dependence on cement production to ultimately achieve a sustainable, valuable green environment in the pursuit of prosperity nationwide.
... However, the grinding process consumes energy and the preferred applications would involve using it in a raw form as an aggregate. Studies have explored the use of GCCP as an aggregate in concrete together with other recycled aggregates, such as recycled concrete aggregates [29], granulated blast furnace slag [30,31] and oil palm shell [32]. ...
... These physical characteristics can be observed with the naked eye and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Fig. 3). However, some studies described GCCP particles with appearances that deviated from this trend, where they had rounded, regular or spherical shapes [30,31,[50][51][52][53][54]. Attempts were made to minimise the roughness and external porosity GCCP particles in some studies by covering them with cement and fly ash paste using a coldbonding process [55,56]. ...
... The most common chemical elements in GCCP are silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca), which coexist with some minor elements such as magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K). Their mass proportions (in oxide form) in the total incombustible material according to different studies are shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 9: Chemical composition of GCCP in various studies [8,13,[29][30][31]49,51,[56][57][58]60,63,14,[67][68][69][70][71]73,[75][76][77][78]16,[83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91][92]17,[93][94][95][96][97][98]18,19,21,23,25]. ...
Article
This review collates the results obtained in more than 100 scientific publications regarding the performance of concrete with granular coal combustion products (GCCP, commonly referred to as coal bottom ash in literature) as a partial substitute for conventional aggregate. The effects of this by-product on the workability, density and mechanical and durability related properties were analysed. Some conclusions and recommendations are provided to facilitate future research. These recommendations include conducting careful assessments of the specific gravity and water absorption properties of GCCP, replacing conventional aggregate by volume, and compensating the water absorption of GCCP. The use of GCCP as an internal curing water reservoir is proposed as the most promising advanced application.
... The reason can be said as porous structure and low compressive strength of GBFS fine aggregate compared to fine NRS. This was also reported in previous studies [26,27,[51][52][53][54]. On the other hand, compared to the previous results in which GBFS replaced natural sand by weight, GBFS replacing fine aggregate by volume seems to be causing lower compressive strength losses and a more relative dense structure. ...
... It is clearly seen that compressive strength losses vary between 15.9% and 25.7% depending on BA replacement. BA fine aggregate has similar effects to GBFS fine aggregate on the compressive strength of concrete [26,27,51,54]. According to the sieve analyses of both by-product aggregates in previous studies, the maximum aggregate size of BA fine aggregate is about 2 mm, which means that it is finer than GBFS fine aggregate [26,54]. ...
... BA fine aggregate has similar effects to GBFS fine aggregate on the compressive strength of concrete [26,27,51,54]. According to the sieve analyses of both by-product aggregates in previous studies, the maximum aggregate size of BA fine aggregate is about 2 mm, which means that it is finer than GBFS fine aggregate [26,54]. Therefore, it is capable to decrease the porosity of concrete. ...
Article
Abrasion resistance is one of the most important durability properties of concrete. Especially, highway, airport and industrial floor pavements should be resistant to abrasion. Recently, many research studies have been carried out on the utilization of industrial by-products in concrete. Granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) and bottom ash (BA) are two of these by-products. BA is not generally utilized in concrete and has a limited usage. It is mostly dumped, leading to additional costs and environmental problems. On the other hand, both GBFS and BA have potential for concrete production to provide sustainability. They can substitute fine aggregate thanks to their positive effects on concrete durability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the abrasion resistance of concretes produced with GBFS and BA substituting fine aggregate. Three different concrete series were produced by replacing fine aggregate with GBFS, BA and both of them by mixing them at equal ratios. The replacement ratios of by-products were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by volume. Compressive strength and Bohme abrasion tests were conducted on series. Results were compared to each other. It can be said that abrasion resistance can be improved by these by-products.
... The reason can be said as porous structure and low compressive strength of GBFS fine aggregate compared to fine NRS. This was also reported in previous studies [26,27,[51][52][53][54]. On the other hand, compared to the previous results in which GBFS replaced natural sand by weight, GBFS replacing fine aggregate by volume seems to be causing lower compressive strength losses and a more relative dense structure. ...
... It is clearly seen that compressive strength losses vary between 15.9% and 25.7% depending on BA replacement. BA fine aggregate has similar effects to GBFS fine aggregate on the compressive strength of concrete [26,27,51,54]. According to the sieve analyses of both by-product aggregates in previous studies, the maximum aggregate size of BA fine aggregate is about 2 mm, which means that it is finer than GBFS fine aggregate [26,54]. ...
... BA fine aggregate has similar effects to GBFS fine aggregate on the compressive strength of concrete [26,27,51,54]. According to the sieve analyses of both by-product aggregates in previous studies, the maximum aggregate size of BA fine aggregate is about 2 mm, which means that it is finer than GBFS fine aggregate [26,54]. Therefore, it is capable to decrease the porosity of concrete. ...
Article
Abrasion resistance is one of the most important durability properties of concrete. Especially, highway, airport and industrial floor pavements should be resistant to abrasion. Recently, many research studies have been carried out on the utilization of industrial by-products in concrete. Granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) and bottom ash (BA) are two of these by-products. BA is not generally utilized in concrete and has a limited usage. It is mostly dumped, leading to additional costs and environmental problems. On the other hand, both GBFS and BA have potential for concrete production to provide sustainability. They can substitute fine aggregate thanks to their positive effects on concrete durability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the abrasion resistance of concretes produced with GBFS and BA substituting fine aggregate. Three different concrete series were produced by replacing fine aggregate with GBFS, BA and both of them by mixing them at equal ratios. The replacement ratios of by-products were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by volume. Compressive strength and Bohme abrasion tests were conducted on series. Results were compared to each other. It can be said that abrasion resistance can be improved by these by-products.
... The effect of GBFS fine aggregate on mortar's frost resistance remains controversial and has usually been assessed using samples cured at room temperature (≈20 • C) [19,[23][24][25]. Thus, further investigation is needed to assess the potential use and hardened behavior of cementitious materials made with GBFS fine aggregate cured at low temperatures. ...
... Furthermore, NS in the three days mortar was surrounded by hairline cracks and voids (Fig. 6a), whereas a dense ITZ was observed around GBFS ( Fig. 6b and c). Similarly, Xue et al. [17] and Bilir [24] reported increased ITZ compactness with the addition of slag aggregate. EDS analysis (average of 20 points in an area of ≤20 μm from the aggregate's surface [55], see Fig. A2 and Fig. A3) showed that the mean Si/Ca atomic ratios in the ITZs of the three-day A0, A50, and A100 samples were 0.38, 0.41, 0.43, respectively. ...
... The A75 and A100 samples exhibited 11% and 14% lower UPVs, respectively, and 39% and 42% lower compressive strengths, respectively. These findings are in line with Bilir [24] and Ayano et al. [25], who found that the incorporation of GBFS fine aggregate enhanced the frost resistance of concrete members. Conversely, Yüksel and Bilir [19] reported that the frost resistance of concrete decreased with the addition of 10-40% GBFS fine aggregate. ...
Article
The conservation of natural resources, efficient use of industrial side-streams, and reduction of environmental impacts are the main targets of the construction sector worldwide. However, the low ambient temperatures and long harsh winter seasons in northern regions limit the use of industrial side-streams in construction activities under cold weather conditions due to their slow strength development rate. This study aimed to develop an eco-friendly construction material suitable for construction under cold weather conditions using blast furnace slag as a binder and fine aggregate admixed with a calcium silicate hydrate seed accelerator in mortar. Natural sand (NS) was volumetrically substituted with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) fine aggregate in mortar cured at fluctuating low/freezing temperatures (+5 to −5 °C), representing the late fall and early spring seasons in northern regions. The mortar's compressive strength increased with the incorporation of GBFS aggregate over the first three days of curing and decreased thereafter. A denser interfacial transition zone was captured around GBFS aggregates than NS in the three days old mortars. The deceleration influences of fluctuating low/freezing temperatures on the compressive strength development of mortars were diminished with time. Capillary water absorption increased with higher GBFS aggregate contents. Mortar with 25–50 vol. % GBFS aggregates exhibited greater frost resistance than control mortar with NS only. The incorporation of GBFS aggregate enhanced the mortar's resistance against a sulfuric acid attack. This study demonstrates the potential of GBFS aggregate for use in construction under cold weather conditions.
... The evaluation of chloride ion permeability of concrete containing CBA has been conducted by evaluating the whole chloride diffusion coefficient at 28 curing days ↱ [109]. Some studies have been carried out on the chloride ion permeability properties ↱of concrete containing CBA as fine aggregate replacement along with some types of cement additives [110,111]. ...
... However, the use of slag as partial replacement of Portland cement alongside CBA as replacement of the natural fine aggregate resulted in an enhancement in the chloride ion resistance compared with that of ↱the concrete mixture made without CBA and additives. The enhancement in the chloride ion resistance of the concrete containing slag can be linked to the pozzolanic reactions of the slag which resulted in more product formation and a corresponding reduction in ↱permeability↱ [109]. ...
Article
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The significant sustainability awareness in the construction industry coupled with the need for the industry to reduce its negative environmental impacts has resulted in the use of various ‎industrial wastes in construction ‎applications such as in the production of concrete. Various industrial wastes can be utilized as ‎partial or total replacements for some components in concrete. Such industrial waste that ‎can be utilized as fine aggregate in the production of concrete is coal bottom ash (CBA). Various studies have utilized CBA as fine aggregate in various types of concrete including high-strength concrete and there has been significant interest in the continuous use of CBA in concrete. To propel more application of CBA in various concrete types and to increase the understanding of the effect of the CBA on the properties of concrete, this comprehensive review was carried out. The properties explored are fresh, mechanical, durability and microstructural properties of concrete incorporating varying proportions of CBA. Findings from the existing studies indicate there exists a significant variation in the impact of CBA on the properties of various concretes. Nonetheless, numerous studies showed that CBA can be utilized as a sustainable alternative to the conventional natural fine aggregates to produce normal and high-strength concrete. Hence, this study recommends carrying out additional studies in this area to evaluate the effect of the physical and chemical properties of CBA on the resulting properties of concrete.
... Aggerwal et al. (2007), Kim et al. (2011) and Bilir (2012) reported the effect of coal bottom ash as replacement of fine aggregate in concrete. Aggarwal et al. (2007) Kim et al. (2011) investigated the mechanical properties of high strength concrete. ...
... It was also found that compressive strength was not affected by the replacement of fine aggregate with CBA. Bilir (2012) investigated the effect of non-ground coal bottom ash (NGCBA) and non-ground granulated blast furnace slag (NGGBFS) on durability properties of concrete. He concluded that replacement of fine aggregate up to 40% ...
Thesis
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Due to ever increasing quantities of waste materials and industrial by-products, solid waste management is the prime concern in the world. Scarcity of land-filling space and because of its ever increasing cost, recycling and utilization of industrial by-products and waste materials has become an attractive proposition to disposal. There are several types of industrial by-products and waste materials. The utilization of such materials in concrete not only makes it economical, but also helps in reducing disposal concerns. One such industrial by-product is Waste Foundry Sand (SFS). WFS is major byproduct of metal casting industry and successfully used as a land filling material for many years. But use of waste foundry sand (WFS) for land filling is becoming a problem due to rapid increase in disposal cost. In an effort to use the WFS in construction materials, research has being carried out for its possible utilization in making concrete as partial replacement of fine aggregate. In India, approximately 1.71 million tons of waste foundry sand and in Punjab region, approximately 0.17 million tons of waste foundry is produced yearly. This experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the strength and durability properties of M20 (30 MPa) and M30 (40 MPa) grades of concrete mixes, in which natural sand was partial replaced with waste foundry sand (WFS). Natural sand was replaced with five percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) of WFS by weight. A total of ten concrete mix proportions M-1, M-2, M-3, M-4 and M-5 for M20 grade of concrete and M-6, M-7, M-8, M-9 and M-10 for M30 grade of concrete with and without WFS were developed. Compression test, splitting tensile strength test and modulus of elasticity were carried out to evaluate the strength properties of concrete at the age of 7, 28, 91 and 365 days. In non destructive testing, rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity test were conducted at the age of 28, 91 and 365 days. In case of durability property, abrasion resistance, rapid Chloride Permeability and deicing salt scaling resistance was evaluated at the age of 28, 91 and 365 days. Statistical analysis and comparative study between strength and durability properties of both grade of concrete (M20 and M30) were carried out at the age of 28, 91 and 365 days. XRD study was done to identify the presence of various compounds in M20 grade of concrete with foundry sand in varying percentages replacement of fine aggregate. Test results showed that there is increase in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity for both grades of concrete mixes (M20 and M30) with inclusion of waste foundry sand (WFS) up to 15% replacement. Resistance of concrete against abrasion (wear), rapid chloride permeability and deicing salt scaling were also improved for both grades of concrete mixes. Quality of concrete in term of homogeneity and uniformity were also improved. Results showed that there was better enhancement in strength and durability properties at 15% replacement of fine aggregate with WFS.
... Thus, the synchronization between sustainability and durability of concrete has become a major concern today. Several studies have investigated the effect of industrial wastes such as blast furnace slag, copper slag, lead/zinc slag, bottom ash, crushed glass, etc. as aggregates in concrete (Thompson, 1917;Freeman, 1918;Cioffi et al., 2000;Morrison et al., 2003;Sorilini et al., 2004;Al-Jabri et al., 2009;Bilir, 2012;Tripathi, 2012;Tripathi et al., 2012Tripathi et al., , 2013Castro and Brito, 2013;Kanadasan and Razak, 2014;Singh and Siddique, 2015). The potential of blast furnace slag as aggregate in concrete was realized nearly a century ago (Thompson, 1917;Freeman, 1918). ...
... The results showed that the water demand reduced with increase in the copper slag content, which improved the compressive strength and durability performance of the mixes, simultaneously. Bilir (2012) used non-ground granulated blast furnace slag and bottom ash as fine aggregate in concrete and studied the permeability properties. The chloride ion permeability was observed to be lower than control in concrete with up to 40% slag aggregate and up to 30% bottom ash aggregate. ...
Article
ISF (Imperial Smelting Furnace) slag is generated during refining of lead and zinc. This slag contains heavy metals and requires safe disposal options for a healthy environment. In this study, ISF slag has been used as sand in concrete to address cleaner production and sustainability of natural materials. The suitability of the slag as sand has been established by comparing the performance of slag concrete with control concrete.Up to 70% volumetric proportion of sand was replaced with ISF slag and concrete mixes at different water to cement ratios were prepared. Durability was ascertained by comparing the transport properties, chloride induced corrosion of embedded steel, shrinkage, and microstructure of control and slag concrete. Slag concrete demonstrated increased resistance to carbonation, reduced initial shrinkage, and improvement in resistance to steel corrosion in comparison with control. Sorptivity and chloride diffusion of slag concrete was comparable with control for up to 70% replacement of sand. The microscopic studies highlighted that the morphology of slag particles govern the differences observed in various characteristics of slag concrete. The results ensured that it is possible to produce durable concrete using ISF slag as partial substitute of natural sand.
... Srinivasarao found that concrete made with 50% of river sand and 50% (GBFS) is nearer to Zero percent replacement in concrete [17]. Bilir, Turhan not only investigated the abrasion resistance and permeability properties of non-ground GBFS and bottom ash as fine aggregate on concrete, but also investigated the effect of non-ground GBFS as fine aggregate on shrinkage cracking of mortars [18][19][20][21][22].They found that GBFS and BA decreased the compressive strength of concrete, however, sufficient compressive strengths for GBFS fine aggregates can be obtained, and GBFS improve the abrasion resistance and durability of concrete thanks to their physical, chemical and mechanical properties. The use of GBFS as fine aggregate in mortar with are placement level of up to 50% is appropriate regarding all mechanical and elastic properties such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, free shrinkage, and restrained drying shrinkage cracking. ...
... and formulas (16), (17), and (20) can be rewritten as ...
Article
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This study investigates the feasibility of using granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) as fine aggregates for high-performance cement-based (HPCB) materials. The mixture ratio of HPCB materials using GBFS as fine aggregates is calculated based on the dense packing theory of aggregates and the minimum water requirement. A series of cement-based material mixes are prepared with three water binder ratios (0.16, 0.18, and 0.2) and three GBFS replacement ratios (0%, 50%, and 100%). Various properties of the cement-based materials, such as the compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, and elastic modulus, are studied. The research on the selected HPCB material compositions using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), hardened concrete pore structure determination (HCPD), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) enables a further understanding of the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructures. The test results show that it is feasible to produce HPCB materials using GBFS as fine aggregates. Despite its large crushing value index and irregular particle shape, GBFS has hydraulic properties that can make up for these disadvantages. GBFS and mixed fine aggregate cement-based materials with good properties can be prepared with a reasonable mix design. The strength of such cement-based materials is consistent with that of ordinary quartz sand (QS) fine aggregate cement-based materials. The compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strengths of GBFS and mixed fine aggregate cement-based materials may be higher than those of ordinary QS fine aggregate HPCB materials. The relationship between the compressive strength and porosity is in agreement with the formulas proposed by Powers, Ryshkevitch, Schiller, and Hasselman.
... A study has reported that the normal bulk density of industrial steel industrial slag is around the range between 1475 kg/m3 -2395 Kg/m3 [74]. It was observed that the density of bottom ash ranges between 620 kg/m3 [75][76]. The density of GGBFS has reported nearly 1052 kg/m3-1236 kg/m3 [76]. ...
... It was observed that the density of bottom ash ranges between 620 kg/m3 [75][76]. The density of GGBFS has reported nearly 1052 kg/m3-1236 kg/m3 [76]. The bulk density varies from 2.31 to 2.36 for the various combinations of Crumb Rubber [77]. ...
Chapter
In the current scenarios, the employment of various varieties of by-products in pozzolanic material has become a typical practice in concrete mixes. In this epoch of industry, innovation in technology for the utilization of fabric with higher potency and specifically reusing identical material with equal effectiveness and productivity is in high demand to avoid wasting natural resources. In this study, the feasibility of adding various industrial waste materials at discrete levels in con-struction material has been suggested. A significant assessment has been carried out to explore the physical characteristics and business po-tential of scrap tires, which can be used as an alternative to natural ag-gregates in concrete. Similarly, replacing rubber for natural aggregates can provide rubberized concrete and it can be used for non-structural applications. Welding slag can also be a substitute of fine aggregates in plain cement concrete which shows an impactable effect by increasing the strength of concrete. This paper summarizes and provides extensive conclusions from the outcomes of the previous studies in terms of the contemporary and mechanical properties of concrete. It has been con-cluded that the outcome is favorable for solving socio-environmental problems with the effective use of these waste in concrete mixes in dif-ferent forms.
... The 10% of bottom ash replacing sand in the production of geoploymer mortar gave comparable strength to the geopolymer mortar without bottom ash (Hardjito dan Why 2011). Whilst 30% and 50% replacement ratio of nonground granulated blast furnace slag and non-ground coal bottom ash as fine aggregate single or mutually leads to sufficient durability properties (Bilir, 2012). Even though the strength development is less for bottom ash concrete, it can be compared to low grade of normal concrete. ...
Article
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Nowadays, practicing ‘industrial ecology’ for sustainable industrial development is a common practice in the engineering field. This practice promotes recycling by-product waste of one industry by substituting/replacing them for the virgin raw material of another industry, thereby reducing the environmental impact of both. One of those by-product wastes is bottom ash, which produced from coal-fired power plant that faces an increasing production up to hundred and thousand tones over the continents. Previously, a significant amount of research has been conducted in order to explore the potential use of bottom ash in the production of concrete and mortar. Most of the research focused on its potential use as fine aggregate replacing natural sand, and exploring its beneficial properties in enhancing the properties of concrete and mortar. This present paper reviews the literature related to the properties of fresh and hardened concrete incorporating bottom ash as a partial or total replacement to fine aggregate. Comprehensive review on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of bottom ash are presented. The effects of bottom ash on setting time, bleeding and segregation, workability, strength and durability of fresh and hardened concrete are also presented. An effective utilization of bottom ash in the construction industry may help in promoting ‘green’ culture and sustainable development.
... Metals 2016, 6, 300 2 of 15 is predominantly used for the following applications: road base and sub-base layers under rigid and flexible pavements, structural fill, backfill, aggregate for concrete, asphalt and masonry, abrasives, etc. [31][32][33][34][35]. Bottom ash is also often used as a sorbent for pollutants in synthetic water. ...
Article
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The removal of Cd²⁺, Zn²⁺ and Ni²⁺ by coal bottom ash has been investigated. In single metal system, metal uptake was studied in batch adsorption experiments as a function of pH (2–3), contact time (5–180 min), initial metal concentration (50–400 mg/L), adsorbent concentration (5–40 g/L), particle size, and ionic strength (0–1 M NaCl). Removal percentages of metals ions increased with increasing pH and dosage. Removal efficiency at lower concentrations was greater than at higher values. The maximum amount of metal ion adsorbed in milligrams per gram was 35.4, 35.1 and 34.6 mg/g for Zn²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ni²⁺, respectively, starting out from an initial solution at pH 3. Simultaneous removal of Zn²⁺, Cd²⁺ and Ni²⁺ ions from ternary systems was also investigated and compared with that from single systems. Cd²⁺ uptake was significantly affected by the presence of competing ions at pH 2. The results obtained in the tests with landfill leachate showed that bottom ash is effective in simultaneously removing several heavy metals such as Ni, Zn, Cd, As, Mn, Cu, Co, Se, Hg, Ag, and Pb.
... Six (6) series of mix portions with 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% CBA were casted including the control samples for testing for fresh and hardened properties respectively. The interval percentages of coal bottom ash are reliable suggested by Bilir [18] study which based on arithmetic average for representation of the corresponding group. ...
Article
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This experimental work presents the carbonation and strength behaviour of self-compacting concrete with coal bottom ash that was exposed to cyclic wetting-drying processes under condition of seawater environment. Six series of mix portions with 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% of coal bottom ash replacement to sand were produced. The samples arising from each mixture were exposed to seawater environment with an average of 15 hours of wetting and 9 hours of drying process per day. Thus, the carbonation and compressive strength behaviour at the durations of 28, 60, 90 and 180 days under curing process were observed. The results obtained in this study for seawater exposure has clearly indicated that the incorporation of 10% replacement of coal bottom ash to sand exhibited good result of carbonation and compressive strength.
... The development of science in the field of concrete technology allows the use of solid waste as the filling material of concrete forming [1]. Concrete is the building material which is often used in the construction world. ...
Article
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This paper presents an experimental work to study the deformation and compressive strength on Portland cement concrete with nickel slag aggregate. The amount of nickel slag varied were towards the total mass of coarse aggregate are 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. Each variation of the samples was made with a dimension of 15 cm X 15 cm X 15 cm, and then through the curing process. After 28 days, the sample was checked using mechanical testing conducted to investigate the compressive strength. The surface of the concrete fracture after mechanical testing process shows that the bonding between the matrix of Portland cement and nickel slag is a very strong. The bonding has connected very well. Therefore, when the force was given, then the fractions of nickel slag aggregate will hold the connectivity until to the maximum of the pressure force value before the materials are a damaged. The maximum of pressure force caused by the cracks will follow the fracture pattern of the concrete materials. This indicates that the bonding between matrix Portland cement and nickel slag has become the key factor in construction high-quality concrete.
... Sin embargo, su resistencia a la abrasión es mala [1,21] y la resistencia a las elevadas temperaturas tampoco está clara [22], aunque trabajos recientes exponen que por debajo del 30% de cenizas de cenicero el comportamiento del hormigón no es negativo [23]. Se ha observado que la utilización conjunta de escorias y cenizas de cenicero con áridos ofrece unas prestaciones mejoradas [24]. ...
Conference Paper
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Valorisation of thermal plant bottom ashes in construction: materials and products for the eco-construction in civil works and architecture
... It was seen that flexural and splitting tensile strengths of the experimental mix containing 75% bottom ash and 20% fly ash exceeded much more than the control sample. As can be seen from the previous studies, there are many studies on concrete performance using waste materials (Ghafoori and Bucholc, 1996;Topçu and Bilir, 2010a;Bilir, 2012;Singh and Siddique, 2013;Bilir, 2016;Lee et al., 2019;Karalar et al., 2022;Çelik et al., 2022;Qaidi et al., 2022;Aksoylu et al., 2022a) and other materials such as composite (Alam and Hussein, 2017;Truonga et al., 2017;Araba and Ashour, 2018;Bicer et al., 2018;Deng et al., 2018;Mahmood et al., 2018;Xu et al., 2018;Marvila et al., 2019;Azevedo et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2020;Azevedo et al., 2021;Özkılıç et al., 2021;Akın et al., 2022;Al-Rousan and Al-Muhiedat, 2022;Aksoylu et al., 2022b;Gemi et al., 2022;Huang et al., 2022;Lu et al., 2022;Tran et al., 2022;Özkılıç et al., 2022) in the literature. Researchers have identified differences in the properties of concrete, but few have discussed how the trade-offs of using a fine natural aggregate in place of a typical Portland cement (PC) mix. ...
Article
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In this research, it is studied the crack and flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams with various bottom ash ratios (BARs) considered as fine aggregate in an experimental and numerical investigation. For experimental purposes, different concrete series are considered varying aggregate sizes ranging from 0 to 25 mm. To supplement concrete, bottom ash is put to use in conjunction with material from 0-5 mm in size aggregate particles as replacement for fine aggregates with ratios of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Experiments were done to investigate the behavior of the beams and how flexural and fracture behaviors are represented. 75% BARs gave optimum results in terms of displacement capacity. Increasing BAR to 100% decrease deflection capacity of the beam. Also, ANSYS software is used to build 3D finite element models (FEMs) of beams to compare with experiment data. Experimental and 3D numerical tests show exceptionally tight flexural and fracture behaviors. Following this, a computergenerated structure is made by running SAP2000, and the strength of the beams is then utilised in an RC structural model. Every stage of the building's construction is thoroughly assessed utilizing multiple types of seismic testing, employing the SAP2000 program, with the resulting analysis providing significant findings on how the seismic force of 75% BAR affects horizontal displacement of each floor. The results showed that the weight of the structure dramatically decreases as the number of columns and RCBs are raised while also increasing the number of BARs. Moreover, the magnitude of earthquake and BAR have a significant effect on the horizontal displacement behavior of reinforced concrete structures. The strength of the concrete structure varies between close- and far-fault earthquakes, and for close-fault earthquakes, concrete strength is stronger than for far-fault earthquakes. This brings us to the second disadvantage of BAR which is the 75% strain produces a severe displacement of reinforced concrete structures.
... It can be employed in road bases and sub-bases, structural fills, backfills, drainage medias, aggregate for concrete, and masonry asphalt [7]. Table 1 Physical properties of BA collected from last studies [12,13,15,16,20,25,[47][48][49][50][51][52] [4] reported that the inter-particles friction increases (due to the increase of irregular shaped and porous particles) with the increase of BA as replacement of natural sand in concrete. Many studies have been conducted concerning workability of CCBA, but the results are highly contradicting, making it difficult to reach a strong consensus. ...
Article
Every year, there are million tons of bottom ash waste in piles and ponds adjoining the power stations threatening the health and safety of our life. In many countries, bottom ash (BA) wastes are identified as hazardous materials. Therefore, innovative, safe, sustainable, environmentally-friendly, and economical solutions to recycle the industrial by-products are indispensable. The special texture of bottom ash makes it a proper replacement for natural aggregates. The consumption of BA in concrete due to different physical and mineralogical characteristics may have a remarkable effect on the mechanical behavior of concrete compared with plain concrete (PC) in the hardened state. Therefore, it is worthwhile to know whether the utilization of all assumptions and relations formulating for PC in current design codes are also valid for concrete containing bottom ash (CCBA). This paper provides a literature review, and includes (a) extensive evaluation and comparison of the current international codes, (b) proposing new models for the mechanical properties of CCBA. The evaluated mechanical properties are compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, and flexural strength. An extensive body of data reported by many researchers for CCBA to evaluate the analytical models.
... Cementation of bottom ash as concrete is a common bottom ash recycling method. According to the literature, the strength of bottom ash-based concrete is not much different from that of general concrete [11]. However, when a concrete specimen made from bottom ash is stored for a period of time (approximately 3 months), apparent swelling effects occur, with maximum swelling capacity as high as 2%. ...
... The reactive character of the GBFS can lead to a much denser microstructure [5,6], since the similar reactions to the pozzolanics contribute to reducing the content in portlandite in the matrix of the cement and increasing the content in calcium silicate hydrate (CSH). These reactions also lead to changes in the capillary network, in the porosity of the concrete, and in the interfacial transition zone [7]. ...
Article
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The objective of the experimental work is to study the mechanical properties in self-compacting concretes (SCC) in which part of the limestone aggregate has been replaced by granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) in different percentages ranging from 0% to 60%. The results show that at early ages the SCC with the largest content in slag tend to have lower compressive strengths due to the poor compacting of the aggregates, although in the long-term their strength increases due to the reactivity of the slag. In fact, at the age of 365 days, the mortars made with the substitution of 50% of cement by ground GBFS reach compressive strength similar to that of the mortar made with 100% of cement. The consumption of calcium hydroxide during the hydration of the GBFS and the formation of hydrated calcium silicate (CSH) improve the mechanical properties of the slag-paste interface. The new compounds formed by the hydration of anhydrous oxides of the GBFS improve the aggregate-paste transition zone. The chemical interaction between the dissolution of the cement pore and the GBFS ends up generating new compounds on its surface. The increasing hydration of the GBFS produces a greater amount of silica gel that polymerises, densifying the matrix and reducing the porosity, which improves the mechanical properties of the concrete and perhaps its durability. The topography of the particles and their interface are analysed with atomic force microscopy techniques to assess the morphology depending on the aggregate used. On the other hand, a study was carried out of the aggregate-paste interface with scanning electronic microscope at different ages. It can be seen that in the contours of the hydrated GBFS particles, a band or ring forms with the new reaction products. The results obtained strengthen the previous conclusions. The new hydrated compounds fill the reaction ring, introducing chemical bonds between the aggregate and the interface, occupying part of the original pores or substituting spaces occupied originally by large portlandite crystals, of lesser mechanical strength and easily leached. For all this, the benefit is twofold. On the one hand, use is made of industrial by-products and, on the other hand, part of the destruction of natural quarries to obtain the necessary raw materials is avoided.
... Bilir [5] investigated the effect of non-ground coal bottom ash and non-ground granulated blast furnace slag on the permeability properties of concretes. Rashad [6] reviewed more than 40 studies in the literature in the past 15 years before 2015, and he stated that the blast furnace slag and copper slag can be used as a partiall/full replacement of natural fine aggregate in mortar and concrete. ...
Article
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The natural aggregates are one of the main components in the production of concrete. Although deposits of natural aggregates lie on the earth’s surface or at low depths and belong to common deposits, the shortage of aggregate, especially natural sand, is presently observed in many countries. In such a situation, one is looking for other materials that can be used as a substitute for natural aggregates in mortars and concrete production. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the potential usage of waste basalt powder in concrete production. For this purpose, the waste basalt powder, which is a by-product of the production of mineral–asphalt mixtures, was substituted with 10%, 20%, and 30% sand replacement. In the experimental program, the workability, compressive strength, water transport properties, and microstructural performances were evaluated. The results showed that the production of concretes that feature a strong internal structure with decreased water transport behavior is possible with waste basalt usage. Furthermore, when waste basalt powder is used as a partial sand replacement, the compressive strength of concretes can be increased up to 25%. According to the microstructural analyses, the presence of basalt powder in concrete mixes is beneficial for cement hydration products, and basalt powder substituted concretes have lower porosity within the interfacial transition zone.
... Micro inorganic particles (e.g., silica fume, fly ash, ground slag and micro limestone powder) can physically act as the micro fillers to fill the inter-particle spaces and/or chemically react with the hydration products to eliminate the pores. These actions would make the microstructure of CBMs denser, and as a consequence, the water permeability can be depressed [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
Article
Anti-water-penetration techniques are important to raise the durability of cement-based materials (CBMs). Here the water penetration resistances of cement mortars with ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) were in-situ and non-destructively probed by micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT). Caesium Chloride (CsCl) was mixed in water to enhance the contrast gradients of μ-XCT images. SEM and EDS tests were provided to assess the mortar microstructure changes induced by water penetration. Results show that the CsCl enhancement helps trace the water penetration fronts, while exerting minor influences on the water penetration kinetics. The polymers can greatly raise the resistance against the water penetration into the cement mortars. The pore blocking induced by the formation of polymer films on the surfaces of cement grains and aggregates may account for the enhanced water-penetration resistance. The findings of this work provide a new method to track the water penetration in CBMs by μ-XCT and deepen the knowledge in the anti-water mechanisms of polymer-modified cement materials.
... Investigating the different properties of prepared material approved the suitability of jarosite for sub surface applications (Bouzalako et al., 2008). Copper slag, ISF slag and GGBS slag (Morrison et al 2003, Liu et al 2016, Bilir et al 2012, Mithun et al 2016, Onuaguluchi et al 2016, Tripathi et al 2016).Current study aims the proper utilization of jarosite as replacement for natural fine aggregates along with fly ash (25% cement replacement) in concrete (Mehra et al, 2016). Concrete M A N U S C R I P T A C C E P T E D ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 3 mixtures have been prepared for three different w/c ratios (0.40, 0.45 & 0.50) and fine aggregates replacement by jarosite at different percentages (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 & 25%). ...
Article
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This paper present the results of different properties and characteristics of jarosite added concrete along with fly ash during its fresh state. Jarosite is an industrial by product from Zinc Manufacturing industry obtained through hydrometallurgical process from its sulphide ore. It has been tried to incorporate jarosite in concrete as sand replacement. Different concrete mixtures have been prepared for three water-cement ratios (0.40, 0.45 and 0.50) and 5 jarosite replacement levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%). Cement has been partially replaced (25%) by fly ash in all the concrete mixtures. Density, Workability and setting & hardening of fresh concrete has been evaluated and analysed. Keeping the environmental suitability of concrete in mind, toxicity leaching characteristic potential test has been performed on raw jarosite and concrete samples.
... As seen at these works, there are many studies related to experimental tests and numerical analyses of reinforced concrete beams. Moreover, there are many studies about performance of concrete in the literature Bilir 2009, 2010;Bilir 2012Bilir , 2016Antoni et al. 2019;Zhang et al. 2016;Shamanth Gowd et al. 2020;Fuzail Hashmi et al. 2020;Liua et al. 2019;Jallu et al. 2020;Ghamari et al. 2020). However, in the literature, very few investigators examined the effect of various bottom ash 1 3 ratios on the crack and flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams. ...
Article
In this study, the effects of bottom ash and fly ash on the crack and flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams (RCBs) are observed considering experimental and 3D finite element analyzing. For experimental tests, 3 various aggregate sizes are used for 4 different concrete series in the laboratory. Then, fly ash is added to concrete mixture with bottom ash to better seen the effect of fly ash ratio on the cracks and flexure behaviour of RCBs. Created RCBs are subjected to the flexural and crack testing in a fully organized laboratory. According to test results, flexural and crack behaviors of the RCBs are examined. Moreover, experimental tests are confirmed by numerical analyses by using ANSYS software. Accordingly, it is observed that each ash ratio in the concrete mixture have different flexural and crack effects on the RCBs for experimental and numerical tests. Then, a concrete structure is modelled using SAP2000 software to investigate the effects of fly and bottom ash ratio on the structures under earthquakes. Total 3 different seismic analyses are performed using SAP2000 software and the seismic effects of bottom and fly ash ratio on the horizontal displacements of each floor are clearly seen in detail.
... Yüksel et al. (2007) investigated the durability property of concrete prepared by replacing fine aggregate to CBA, in conjunction with granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). It was observed that produced concrete positively responded against surface abrasion (Bilir et al., 2017) and rapid chloride permeability (Bilir, 2012). Hashemi et al. (2018) used thermal power plant bottom ash as replacement to fine aggregate to prepare mortar mixture. ...
Article
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The wastes generated from manufacturing industry are increasing at an alarming rate and causing severe threats to our environment’s sustainability. However, the strategic utilization of industrial waste in construction industry has the potential to solve the problems of waste disposal, unsystematic landfills and it may also reduce the demand for natural resource like river sand. Therefore, this study proposes the novel and sustainable method of concrete production from industrial wastes like coal bottom ash and marble dust. In the present experimental investigation the fine aggregate used for concrete production is fractionally replaced by coal bottom ash and marble dust at 10%, 20% and 30% separately, in the initial stages. Further, a sustainable hybrid concrete is prepared containing coal bottom ash and marble dust together by replacing fine aggregate in the same percentages having equal proportions. The test results shows that the compressive strength is maximum at 20% replacement of marble dust and bottom ash, with fine aggregate, when done individually; whereas in hybrid concrete when prepared with 30% replacement of fine aggregate attains highest 28 days compressive strength of 43.9 MPa which is 16.75% higher than control mix. This improved strength is attributed to strength compounds, observed in microstructural investigation, like Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) and Calcium aluminate-silicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) formed in hybrid specimen, prepared in conjunction with silica fume.
... Unground ground coal ash can be used at 30% proportion to produce very low permeable concrete. [9] Ashis Kumar Bera had reported on compaction characteristics of the ash pond. Three types of pond ash have been chosen to investigating the effects of compaction energy, moisture content and specific effects gravity. ...
Article
Nowadays, the construction cost is very high with the use of crucial material such as cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. This study includes the use of Pulverized fuel ash waste materials as partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate. Industries in India produce a large amount of waste such as fly ash, Bottom ash, Pond ash, etc., that can be useful in the partial replacement of all raw materials due to their different properties. Therefore, we study the number of useful research documents in this field and try to improve with locally available waste material can be proven economical as well. The objective of this study was to determine the environmental impacts of open dumping of pond ash around a thermal power plant.
... Researchers, on the other hand, are concerned about the environmental impacts of using natural sand. The industrial materials which have been introduced as substitutes for fine aggregates in conventional concrete are coal bottom ash (Bilir et al. 2012), fly ash (Siddique 2003, Rafieizonooz et al. 2016, foundry sand (Khatib et al. 2013), copper slag ( Ambily et al. 2015), steel slag (Rajan et al. 2014), iron filings (Alzaed 2014, Olutoge et al. 2016. ...
Article
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The use of industrial by-products in concrete production is part of concerted efforts on the reduction of environmental hazards attributed to the mining of conventional aggregates. Consideration of iron filings (IF), a by-product from steel production process, is an environmentally friendly way of its disposal which is expected to yield economic concrete production. Six self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixes were made by partially substituting river sand with IF at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% and the mix without IF (0% IF) served as the control. The water-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.45 was adopted for all mixes. The fresh state properties of SCC evaluated include: filling ability determined using slump flow and T 500 mm slump flow tests, passing ability determined using L-box test and segregation resistance determined using V-funnel tests. The strength properties of SCC considered were compressive and tensile strengths. All the SCC mixes met the fresh properties requirements for filling capacity, passing ability, and segregation resistance. The 28-day compressive and tensile strengths of SCC increased by 3.46% and 8.08%, respectively, with IF replacement up to 15% compared to the control SCC. However, there was reduction in compressive and tensile strengths of SCC with IF replacement beyond 15%. The strength properties of SCC is considerably enhanced with the addition of up to 15% IF. Hence, the optimum content of 15% IF is considered suitable as a replacement for river sand in SCC.
... Turhan Bilir carried out an investigate that the use of non-ground slag and bottom ash as fine aggregate generally increased permeability by increasing porosity due to physical properties. These by-products as fine aggregate could also reduce permeability of concrete due to their chemical and mechanical properties in terms of permeability durability tests [5]. In fresh concrete, the free water and air-voids were blocked coming out from matrix due to irregular shapes of crushed steel slag, then accumulated and deposited under the bottom of aggregate which result in formation of holes and voids near the interfaces harden concrete, which eventually lead to the decrease in strength and durability. ...
Article
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An experimental program was carried out to investigate the possibility of producing carbonated granulated steel slag aggregate (CSA) to replace common natural aggregate (NA) like limestone, quartzite, etc. and steel slag aggregate (SSA). Slump and compressive strength were tested to evaluate the fresh and hardened properties of concrete with different aggregate. Mineralogy, morphology, pore structure and volume stability properties of aggregate and concrete were analyzed. Test results showed that carbonation treatments can significantly improve the strength and volume stability of CSA and reduce water absorption, porosity and free calcium oxide. The workability of concrete with CSA was not significantly affected by the high water absorption of CSA. Besides, bleeding, and segregation were slighter and porosity of cement matrix was greatly reduced. After carbonation, harmful pores in aggregate reduced by 24.4% while harmless pores increased by 67.9%. The products were spindle and rod-like columnar calcium carbonate particles from SEM. Carbonation reduced the free CaO content from about 7 wt.% to less than 1 wt.% in 3 h. Compressive strength of concrete with CSA could be improved by 20% at 28 days. Strength of CSA concrete exceeded SSA concrete at 60 days. The volume stability of CSA met the required standards of autoclave chake and immersion expansion test.
... For improving the durability properties of concretes made of concrete recyclate, three types of fine silicate admixtures (Table 2) were alternately added (Schulze et al. 1990;Bilir 2011). Ground granulated blast-furnace slag is produced in the Dětmarovice power plant and is supplied by Cemex CR, dosed at the amount of 30% of cement mass per 1 m 3 of concrete; Fly ash for concrete is produced in the Chvaletice power plant and is supplied by Cemex CR, dosed at the amount of 30%; Microsilica is produced by Romex Romania, dosed at the amount of 10%. ...
Article
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The aim of this research is to find an optimum combination of silicate admixtures and epoxy dispersion additives which would positively influence the durability and mechanical properties of concretes made of concrete recyclate. The durability of concrete is dependent on its cover layer permeability and also on the overall permeability of concrete recyclate. The cover layer permeability was evaluated by means of three methods, namely the air permeability method TPT and two methods of measuring water permeability, GWT and ISAT. Fine silicate admixtures and dispersion additives influence the air and water permeability of concrete made of concrete recyclate in different ways. The dose of 10% of microsilica or 30% of slag or fly ash decreases the air permeability of concrete. Water permeability, on the other hand, is decreased by adding a dose of 12% of pure epoxy dispersion. As regards improving the mechanical properties of concrete made of concrete recyclate, it seems to be promising to use a combination of 30% of slag admixture or 10% of microsilica admixture with 12% of epoxy dispersion additive. However, the price of admixtures and additives is relatively high. That is why additive enhanced concretes made of concrete recyclate are intended for special purposes.
... The absorption capacity of GGBS was reported at 1.2%, which adversely affects the flowability of concrete. GGBS has a grain size range of 1.18 mm to 0.10 mm, with 62% of the material falling between these two sizes [52]. The bulk density of GGBS ranges from 1200 to 1670 kg/m 3 , roughly equal to that of cement at 1440 kg/m 3 . ...
Article
In the last few decades, the concrete industry has been massively expanded with the adoption of various kinds of binding materials. As a substitute to cement and in an effort to relieve ecofriendly difficulties linked with cement creation, the utilization of industrial waste as cementitious material can sharply reduce the amount of trash disposed of in lakes and landfills. With respect to the mechanical properties, durability and thermal behavior, ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) delineates a rational way to develop sustainable cement and concrete. Apart from environmental benefits, the replacement of cement by GGBS illustrates an adequate way to mitigate the economic impact. Although many researchers concentrate on utilizing GGBS in concrete production, knowledge is scattered, and additional research is needed to better understand relationships among a wide spectrum of key questions and to more accurately determine these preliminary findings. This work aims to shed some light on the scientific literature focusing on the use and effectiveness of GGBS as an alternative to cement. First and foremost, basic information on GGBS manufacturing and its physical, chemical and hydraulic activity and heat of hydration are thoroughly discussed. In a following step, fresh concrete properties, such as flowability and mechanical strength, are examined. Furthermore, the durability of concrete, such as density, permeability, acid resistance, carbonation depth and dry shrinkage, are also reviewed and interpreted. It can be deduced that the chemical structure of GGBS is parallel to that of cement, as it shows the creditability of being partially integrated and overall suggests an alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). On the basis of such adjustments, the mechanical strength of concrete with GGBS has shown an increase, to a certain degree; however, the flowability of concrete has been reduced. In addition, the durability of concrete containing GGBS cement is shown to be superior. The optimum percentage of GGBS is an essential aspect of better performance. Previous studies have suggested different optimum percentages of GGBS varying from 10 to 20%, depending on the source of GGBS, concrete mix design and particle size of GGBS. Finally, the review also presents some basic process improvement tips for future generations to use GGBS in concrete.
Article
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Factors influencing chloride penetration depth as determined by AgNO3 colorimetric method were investigated, through analyzing a series of rapid chloride migration (RCM) test results. It is revealed that, compared with the true value, AgNO3 colorimetric method underestimates the chloride penetration depth. And correspondingly, the migration coefficient calculated by the RCM method is smaller than the true value. The chloride concentration at the color change boundary has a significant influence on the calculated chloride migration coefficient. According to the experimental results, this factor could bring an error up to 20% to the calculation. The chloride concentration at the color change boundary is a function of calcium hydroxide content in cement based materials. The higher the calcium hydroxide content is the higher the chloride concentration is required for color change. The incorporation of fly ash could make the chloride concentration required for color change lower, thus the chloride penetration depth as measured by AgNO3 colorimetric method tends to be larger as compared with the case of plain cement concrete.
Article
In the last 15 years, the worldwide consumption of natural sand as fine aggregate in mortar/concrete production is very high and many developing countries have encountered some problems in the supply of natural sand in order to meet the increasing demands of construction development. In many countries there is a shortage of natural sand that is suitable for construction. On the other hand, disposal of wastes such as fly ash (FA), bottom ash (BA) and agricultural wastes can be considered as the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with the increase of these wastes. Therefore, studies have been carried out to find suitable solutions of the shortage of natural sand and the huge increasing in the wastes disposal. One logical option to solve this problem is employing these materials as a part of fine aggregate instead of natural one in mortar/concrete. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of the previous wastes as a partial or full of natural fine aggregate replacement in traditional mortar/concrete mixtures based on Portland cement (PC). Other cementitious material such as ground basaltic pumice and metakaolin (MK), which can replace part or full of natural fine aggregate was also included. Fresh properties, hardened properties and durability of mortar/concrete containing these waste/cementitious materials as natural fine aggregate replacement have been reviewed.
Article
Jarosite, one of the byproduct of zinc manufacturing industry has been of a major concern in this context because of its hazardous nature. The present study aims to assess the durability of cement concrete containing jarosite. Fine aggregates have been replaced by jarosite in different percentages. Equivalent volume of 25% cement has also been replaced by fly ash. Durability parameters like chloride diffusion and corrosion in jarosite were determined. Keeping the environmental suitability of concrete in mind, toxicity leaching characteristic potential test has been performed on raw jarosite and concrete samples. It was observed that the chloride diffusion in concrete and corrosion of reinforcement in jarosite added concrete has been less than control mixtures. The satisfactory performance of durability properties has been validated with the SEM images and X-ray diffraction.
Article
The aim of this experimental work was to study shrinkage evolution with age in self-compacting concretes (SCC) in which part of the fine aggregate was replaced by granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) as sand. Seven types of SCC were made with a w/c ratio of 0.55 and different slag contents. The results show that replacing sand by GBFS gives rise to mixes with higher pore volume but with slightly finer porous structure (smaller median pore and threshold diameters). At early ages slag SCCs have similar compressive strength to that of the reference concrete, although in the long term their strength increases as a result of slag reactivity. We also observed that the higher the slag content, the higher were both autogenous and drying shrinkage and consequently also total shrinkage. In comparison with the reference concrete, the increase in total shrinkage was found to be of the order of 4% and 44% when 10% and 60%, respectively, of the sand was replaced by slag.
Chapter
As a capillary-porous material, concrete constantly interacts with atmospheric moisture. Low environmental moisture leads to moisture desorption from concrete, and vice versa, its increase contributes to the water layers absorption in the cement stone pores. This particularly effects on the properties of concrete pavement during traffic. The article discusses the effect of changing the concrete moisture on its water resistance and strength. The author shows that a change in the concrete moisture has a particularly strong effect on its hydrophysical properties, which must be considered when designing water resistant structures.
Article
The current review article focuses on the behaviour of High Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) based Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) prepared with Natural Coarse Aggregates (NCA) and Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA). The overall performance of HVFA based SCC has been estimated from the observations of the available literature in terms of fresh, mechanical and durability properties. The utilization of coal ashes i.e. Fly Ash (FA) and Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) in SCC has become an attractive substitute for disposal, thus their impact on aforementioned properties has also been summarised briefly. The study also encompasses the characteristics and applications of coal ashes (used as binder and fine aggregates) and RCA (coarse aggregates). The outcomes of the various investigations depict that replacement of binder and aggregates affects the fresh; mechanical as well as durability properties of HVFA based SCC. The literature signifies that HVFA based SCC made with specified levels of coal ashes (FA/CBA) and non-conventional aggregates (RCA) do not inhibit the overall performance. Further, the study also supports in minimization of over pounding of natural assets for achieving the desired sustainability.
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This paper present studied usage of alternate materials in concrete which includes upcoming changes in concrete technology that paves the way to utilise some of the alternative materials that can be utilized as a composition to the ingredients of concrete that can be partially or completely be replaced with one or more materials that can be used other than the traditional concrete that we are using since time immoral. This paper covers the applications of the waste foundry sand in concrete. Various aspects about the using of waste materials in concrete as alternate aggregate and changes in strength parameters with different composition mixture of concrete and usage of alternate materials in concrete at present scenario.
Article
This study investigates the effects of continuous deicer exposure on the performance of pavement concretes. For this purpose, the differences in the compressive strength, the changes in the dynamic modulus of elasticity (DME) and the depth of chloride ingress were evaluated during and after the exposure period. Eight different concrete mixtures containing two types of coarse aggregates (i.e. air-cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS) and natural dolomite) and four types of binder systems (i.e. plain Type I ordinary portland cement (OPC) and three combinations of OPC with fly ash (FA) and/or slag cement (SC)) were examined. These mixtures were exposed to three types of deicers (i.e. MgCl2, CaCl2, and NaCl) combined with two different exposure conditions (i.e. freezing-thawing (FT) and wetting-drying (WD)). In cold climates, these exposure conditions are the primary durability challenges that promote the physical deterioration of concrete pavements. The results indicated that among the studied deicers, CaCl2 had the most destructive effect on the tested concretes while NaCl was found to promote the deepest level of chloride ingress yet was shown to have the least damaging impact on concretes. The microstructure evaluation revealed that the mechanism of concrete deterioration due to the deicer exposure involved chemical reactions between the deicers and concrete hydration products. The use of FA or SC as partial replacements for OPC can offset the detrimental effects of both deicers and FT/WD cycles.
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Article
Conservation of natural products and recycling in concrete industry wastes are the foremost needs of the current period. Intense utilization of alternate materials in concrete manufacturing has already been initiated from the past few decades. The present investigation has been piloted to evaluate the overall feasibility of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) prepared with Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) and Recycled Coarse Concrete Aggregates (RCA) by replacing of Normal Fine Aggregates (NFA) and Normal Coarse Aggregates (NCA) respectively. The performance of SCC prepared with coal industry by-products [Fly Ash (FA), CBA] and construction industry wastes (RCA) has been evaluated experimentally. Various mechanical (compressive and tensile) and long-term (chloride permeability, capillary suction, accelerated carbonation, electrical resistivity, ultrasonic pulse velocity) properties of SCC prepared with different proportions of RCA and CBA have been estimated. The investigation inferences that the incorporation of constant amount of CBA (10%) along with varying content of RCA (up to 50%) has been proved to be advisable for the use in construction industry as enhanced/equivalent performance compared to that of control SCC has been achieved. Ample variation in the results of experiments conducted on SCC mixes has been noticed with increase in content of RCA. To capture the observed loss in the behavior of SCC prepared with higher alternate levels (>50% RCA) and CBA, Metakaolin (MK) has been inculcated. The attained findings revealed that the inclusion of MK (along with other by-products) results in comparable/at-par performance for SCC prepared up to full alternate levels (100%) of NCA with RCA.
Article
The mechanical and durability behavior of Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) based High volume fly ash-Self compacting concrete (HVFA-SCC) has been examined through detailed experimental investigation. The article explores the overall behavior of HVFA-SCC made with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of RCA with alteration of Natural coarse aggregates (NCA) and in conjunction with 10% of Coal bottom ash (CBA) as alteration of Natural fine aggregates (NFA) through evaluation of several properties. Various mechanical tests (Compressive and Tensile strength) and durability tests (Accelerated carbonation, Electrical resistivity, Rapid chloride penetration-chloride permeability, Capillary suction, Initial surface absorption, Ultrasonic pulse velocity-UPV) were carried on HVFA-SCC mixes prepared with specific amounts of RCA, Fly ash (FA) and CBA. The findings confirmed the feasibility of HVFA-SCC made with alteration of NFA/NCA with CBA/RCA at specific levels respectively resulting in reasonable performance with respect to aforesaid properties. Projecting three (3) way benefits (i.e. Portland cement (PC) with HVFA; NFA with CBA and NCA with RCA) probably leads to widespread usage and recycling of by-products generated from the coal (FA and CBA) and construction industry (RCA) respectively. Such an effort assures the minimization of concerns like regulation and disposal of coal and construction industry wastes/by-products to a significant extent.
Chapter
One of the construction industry’s most prominent characteristics is its demand for natural resources, with aggregate consumption. A total of 35% of that aggregate is used in civil works such as bridges and roads and the remaining 65% in the construction of residential (25%), commercial (20%), and public (20%) buildings. Those numbers are particularly significant when set against the present backdrop of sustainability and circular economy policies encouraged internationally and supported by research institutions and universities. As a result, over the past few decades the industry has sought ways to manufacture cement-based products (CBMs: cement, mortar, concrete) with alternative raw materials sourced from industrial waste. The foremost problem is that most of the research has been conducted on the laboratory scale, with very little prototype development or experimentation in real-life situations. In light of those circumstances, this chapter describes a few examples of the use of construction and demolition waste, seashells and coal bottom ash as aggregates in building construction.
Article
Coal-fired slag concrete (CSC) is widely used in underground engineering construction. In this study, axial compression tests on three CSC groups with varying slag–cement ratios (1, 1.5, and 2) were conducted using an RLJW-2000 rock mechanics test system to characterize the internal mesostructure of CSC quantitatively and establish the constitutive relationship of CSC. The relationship between the fractal dimension and compressive strength of the CSC was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the compressive strengths of concrete with slag–cement ratios of 1, 1.5, and 2 were 27.3, 20.3, and 15.1 MPa, respectively, and the corresponding internal mesostructural dimensions were 1.837, 1.897, and 1.905, respectively. The compressive strength of CSC gradually decreased with an increasing slag–cement ratio. The fractal dimension described the microstructural development of the CSC and was negatively correlated with the compressive strength. The theoretical results obtained using the improved segmental CSC constitutive model were consistent with the experimental results, and the degree of fitting exceeded 0.99. These results form a theoretical basis for future studies on CSC.
Article
Copper (Cu) slag is a by-product of copper industries whereas Coal BA (bottom ash) is a waste product of thermal power plants. The objective of this research study was to examine the compressive strength parameters and microstructure investigation like SEM, EDS, and XRD of concrete-incorporated waste Cu slag and Coal BA as partial substitutes of fine aggregate. Compressive strength in 7 and 28 days curing ages, and 1 day and 28 days unit weight were assessed experimentally. Experiment results show that the workability of the fresh mix first slightly decreases and then increases with an increase in sand replacement. There is no remarkable difference seen in 1 day and 28 days unit density of design concrete mixes with reference to control concrete. Effect of combined utilization of waste Cu slag and coal BA improves the compressive strength up to 50% replacement with reference to control concrete (without substitution of river sand) in concrete. As compared to the reference mix, the design concrete mix containing Cu slag and coal BA gives the higher initial strength. Scanning electron micrograph of concrete samples shows the development of C–S–H gel, calcium hydroxide, and ettringite and change in morphology by the replacement.
Article
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The environmental conditions of sustainable improvement in manufacturing consist of the application of secondary raw materials in the design and structure of new structures. Presently, the demand to construct new structures is growing rapidly, especially in the developed world. All of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste is deposited in open landfills in easily reachable spaces, which leads to numerous environmental problems. The utilization of this waste in concrete will help in sustainable and greener development. The main goals of using waste, by-products, and recycled materials to develop sustainable concrete are to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, which are a cause of environmental pollution and climate change, and to enhance exploitation of waste, which creates problems of disposal that can be solved by completely or partially replacing concrete components. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the published literature on the replacement of cement in concrete such as rice husk ash (RHA), olive stone biomass ash (OBA), recycled coal bottom ash (CBA), and recycled palm oil fuel ash (POFA), and its effects on the characteristics of concrete like workability, density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, shrinkage, and durability. Also, this paper aims to review the impact of the replacement of cement on sustainability. The author has also included recommendations for future research.
Article
This research investigates the influence of high temperature on the properties of bricks containing non-ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) as fine aggregate replacement. Replacement percentages were 0%, 25% and 50% by dry weight of fine aggregates. The manufactured bricks were exposed to 200°С, 400°С, 600°С, and 800°С for a constant duration of two hours after 28 days of curing. Tests were conducted according to both Egyptian Standard Specifications (ESS) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in order to determine compressive strength, absorption percentage, oven-dry weight, and ultrasound pulse velocity. Also, loss in weight was performed. Compressive strength limit regarding load-bearing units was met by mix 1 at all tested temperatures. Mixes 2 and 3, resulted in compressive strength that satisfied the requirement for load-bearing units at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 600°С.Compressive strength obtained regarding mixes 2 and 3 met the requirements of non-load bearing units at 800°С. The control mix resulted in normal weight bricks when tested at the various temperatures till 600°С. At 800°С, mixes 2 and 3 yielded light weight and medium weight bricks, respectively. There was a significant reduction in mass when comparing the mass at 800°С with the corresponding mass at room temperature concerning the three mixes. Results showed that it is feasible to partially replace fine aggregate with GBFS even when bricks are subjected to elevated temperature.
Article
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Concrete is generally known as a two-phase composite material containing cement matrix and aggregate particles. The effect of transition zone between aggregates and cement paste on compressive strength is well known for traditional concrete but its effect on modulus of elasticity is not yet obvious. İn this study, it is aimed to apply composite material rules on estimating modulus of elasticity of rubberized concrete. İn experimental study, some cylindrical specimens are produced by using waste tire rubber aggregate (RA). RAs replace traditional sand at 15, 30, and 45% ratios by volume. Modulus of elasticity of concrete is determined by conducting experimental test. Hashin—Shtrikman (H—S) bounds are applied and it is attempted to determine whether rubberized concrete match the interval between H—S bounds or not. Consequently, it is indicated that analysis of rubberized concrete as a two-phase material is not corrected by using H—S bounds and it should be considered as a three-phase composite material. İt is also pointed out that transition zone must be considered as the third phase.
Article
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Drying shrinkage is generally classified as an important hardened concrete property. It expresses the strain occurring in hardened concrete due to the loss of water. During the drying process, free and absorbed water is lost from the concrete. When the drying shrinkage is restrained, cracks can occur, depending on the internal stresses in the concrete. The ingress of deleterious materials through these cracks can cause decrease in the compressive strength and the durability of concrete. In this study, being as a fine aggregate in mortars, crushed tile (CT) effect on drying shrinkage and drying shrinkage cracking is investigated. Thus, compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and free and restrained drying shrinkage tests are conducted on mortar specimens produced with and without crushed tile fine aggregate. The ring test has been used in order to investigate the cracks induced by restrained drying shrinkage. In this way, free drying shrinkage strain, along with the number and development of drying shrinkage cracks, of the crushed tile fine aggregate mortar composites are quantified and observed.
Article
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This paper describes the results of research aimed at studying the possible usage of bottom ash (BA) and granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS) in production of plain concrete elements. Sufficient number of briquettes, paving blocks and kerbs specimens containing GBFS and BA as fine aggregate replacement were produced in laboratory. Then, some of tests were conducted for investigating durability and mechanical properties of these specimens. Unit weight, compression strength and freeze–thaw tests were conducted for briquette specimens. Compression strength, freeze–thaw, water absorption and surface abrasion tests were conducted for paving blocks. Surface abrasion and flexural tensile strength tests were conducted for kerb specimens. While compression strength was decreased slightly, durability characteristics such as resistance of freeze–thaw and abrasion were improved. The results showed that usage of partially fine aggregate of these industrial by-products has more beneficial effects on durability characteristics of plain concrete elements.
Article
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The paper presents investigation of how the usage of bottom ash (BA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), and combination of both of these materials as fine aggregate in concrete affects the concrete durability. To assess durability characteristics of concrete, durability tests were conducted and the results were evaluated comparing with reference concrete. Three series concrete were produced. GBFS, BA and GBFS+BA are replaced the 3–7 mm-sized aggregate. Five test groups were constituted with the replacement percentages as 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% in each series. These by-products were used as non-ground form in the concrete. Durability properties of the concretes were compared in order to study the possible advantages of different replacement ratios. According to results, GBFS and BA affects some durability properties of concrete positively in case of it is used as fine aggregate. Resistance to high temperature and surface abrasion are positively affected properties. Capillarity, drying-wetting and freezing-thawing resistance of the concrete can be accepted to some extent. Properties of by-products and its replacement ratio are controlling the influence level and direction. Comparison of the SEM images and test results show that chemical and physical properties of GBFS and BA are the main factors affecting the concrete durability. It is concluded that it is possible to produce durable concrete by using GBFS and BA as fine aggregate.
Article
The use of high early-strength portland cement fulfilled the construction industry's need for high speed construction, which also resulted into durability problems of built concrete structures. The loss of watertightness of the concrete during service makes the structure vulnerable to a variety of deterioration processes. Generally, it is not lack of strength but the lack of soundness, or freedom from cracking, which accounts for an increase in the permeability during service. Therefore, a holistic approach to durability must place equal emphasis on the structural design, selection of materials, mixture proportions, and processing methods that protect the soundness of a concrete structure in the environment of exposure.
Article
Wood coating experts are concentrating to manufacture waterborne UV coatings so as to protect wood and keep them natural along with fulfilling the demands of the latest chemistry and curing technology. They are working constantly on cutting-edge technical solutions by collaborating with leading coating system manufacturers thereby formulating waterborne and UV products to meet a wide range of requirements within the industrial coatings industry. The waterborne coatings offer the advantage of producing a dry film that can be applied using a variety of techniques, over standard waterborne or solvent borne coatings. Certain other benefits of these deployed coatings include excellent chemical and physical features but require high initial costs of investment in equipment and materials for UV coating users. The wood industry especially is facilitated with increased productivity along with marked reductions in solvent emission through the development of these waterborne UV coatings.
Article
A historical review is presented to show how the concrete industry in the 20th century, while responding to calls for higher and higher strength, inadvertently violated a fundamental rule in materials science that there exists a close connection between cracking and durability. It is emphasized that to pursue the goal of building environmentally sustainable concrete structures, a paradigm shift in certain beliefs and construction practices is needed.
Book
uilding materials cover a very important aspect of civil engineering. The knowledge of the materials is essential for every civil engineer. This book is an effort to give information about the popular building materials of Pakistan and has been prepared according to the guidelines of Higher Education of Pakistan. The earthquake of 2005 brought enormous destruction in northern Pakistan. The damage multiplied because of the use of unsuitable materials and practices. The book covers a blend of conventional and advanced materials, useful for ordinary and special purposes. While conventional materials have their own advantage in terms of cost effectiveness and easy availability, advanced materials have their own usefulness in terms of its strength, environmental impact and durability.
Article
On the 19th century, cement became to be known as a binding material for aggregates to produce artificial stone. For several decades, intensive research commenced in a worldwide scale to clarify the deterioration mechanisms and to identify the parameters influencing them. The purpose of this issue is to present the main factors governing the durability of concrete structures and to make proposals as to how to avoid durability failures. The topics chosen are related to the generally accepted state of the art and new developments.
Article
A pilot study was undertaken on the use of lignite-based bottom ash as a fine aggregate in structural grade concrete. Bottom ash is combined with portland cement, crushed limestone coarse aggregate, and water to produce concretes with a uniform slump of 100 mm (4 +/- 1/4 in.). Four different mixes with cement contents ranging from 297 to 475 kg/m(3) (500 to 800 Ib/yd(3)) are utilized, The bottom ash concretes are studied for fresh properties, hardened characteristics, and long-term durability. The engineering characteristics of mixtures made with bottom ash are compared with those of conventional concretes in order to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of bottom ash as a viable fine aggregate in portland cement-based mixtures. Laboratory test results conclude that the inclusion of bottom ash increases the demand for mixing water in obtaining the required workability. As a consequence, both fresh and hardened properties are impacted, particularly for mixtures of low cement content. When a water-reducing admixture is used, the engineering properties of bottom ash concretes are similar, and in most cases superior, to those of control concretes.
Article
This paper reports the results of some experimental studies on the use of non-ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (NGGBFS) as fine aggregate in concrete. Two groups of concrete samples were produced. The NGGBFS/sand ratios were 0% (reference), 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The first group (C1) contains only 0 to 7 mm (0 to 0.276 in.) sand as fine aggregate. The second group (C2) contains two sub-types of fine aggregates that are 0 to 3 mm (0 to 0.118 in.) and 0 to 7 mm (0 to 0.276 in.) sands. NGGBFS replaces 0 to 7 mm (0 to 0.276 in.) sand in both groups. Strength and durability characteristics of concrete were compared with respect to control samples and vice versa. According to the results, if the NGGBFS/ sand ratio is high in the C1 type, the concrete is porous and has relatively low compressive strength. In the C2 type, however, concrete strength and durability characteristics were better than those in the C1 type. It was concluded that the non-ground-granulated blast-furnace slag can be used as fine aggregate under some conditions.
Article
Bottom ash (BA) is a kind of solid waste from coal-fired thermal power plants. In Turkey, there is not any usage field of this waste and dumping this waste to landfills requires high costs day after day. In this study, a possible usage of bottom ash (BA) as fine aggregate in concrete briquette production was researched. The research is constituted in two stages. The first stage is the experimental investigation of natural sand replaced by BA. Concrete briquettes specimens providing TS406 were produced by replacing natural sand with BA by volume in various percentages. Unit weight, compressive strength and freeze-thaw tests were applied on these specimens. In second stage, cost analysis, lightness and some example applications about them were made. Although, in BA-replaced briquettes, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance decreases, it is still possible to produce briquettes providing the minimum conditions in the related standard. Furthermore, being low-cost, environmentally friendliness and lightness are positive results.
Article
In this study, the effect of the nonground bottom ash (BA), as fine aggregate in mortar or concrete, on shrinkage cracking is observed on mortar specimens. The replacement was made by weight; the replacement ratios for BA as fine aggregate were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100%. After that, unit weights, ultrasonic pulse velocity, flexural and compressive strengths, and length changes due to free shrinkage were determined by producing 1.58 x 1.58 x 6.3 and 0.984 x 0.984x 11.22 in. (40 x 40 x 160 and 25 x 25 x 285 mm) prismatic mortar specimens for each series. Furthermore, the modulus of elasticity was also determined by producing 5.91 x 5.91 x 5.91 in. (150 x 150 x 150 mm) cubic mortar specimens. Finally, a ring test was conducted to determine the effect of BA on shrinkage cracking. The widths of the cracks during the ring test were measured using an optical crack microscope. Consequently, it was seen that BA usage up to 100% replacement ratio decreases shrinkage cracking because of the porous structure of mortar specimens related to the coarser structure of BA compared to reference sand. Free shrinkage, however, occurred irregularly. Moreover, the strength and modulus of elasticity also decreased with the increase in BA content due to the same increased porous structure of the mortars containing higher replacement ratios of BA.
Article
In this study, the effect of non-ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (n-GGBS) as fine aggregate in mortars on shrinkage cracking was investigated The n-GGBS replaced fine aggregate by weight. The replacement ratios ranged from 0 to 100% in increments of 10%. Unit weight, ultrasonic pulse velocity, flexural strength, compressive strength, and length change due to free shrinkage were determined by producing prismatic mortar specimens for each series. The moduli of elasticity were also determined by producing cubic mortar specimens. The ring test was conducted to determine the effect of n-GGBS on shrinkage cracking. The length and width of the cracks that occurred during the ring test were measured using an optical microscope and a caliper. Consequently, it was observed that the increase in n-GGBS content decreased shrinkage cracking because of the porous structure of mortar specimens related to the structure of n-GGBS. Furthermore, the flexural strength, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity also decreased for the same reason.
Article
In this study, the usage of ground elastic wastes such as rubber in SCC is investigated. Rubber has replaced aggregates at the contents of 60, 120 and 180 kg/m3 in SCC by weight. Four different mixture proportions have been prepared. Moreover, 24 series have been produced by using six different viscosity agents in both SCC and rubberized self-compacted concrete (RSCC). By using these agents, it is attempted to see the effects of them on the properties of RSCC. Fly ash (FA) is used as filler material. The slump–flow, V-funnel, compressive strength, high temperature and freezing–thawing resistances of RSCC have been compared to the properties of ordinary SCC. At the end, it is observed that increase in RA content leads to increase in fresh properties of RSCC such as workability because of the existence of viscosity agents in mixtures. It decreases the hardened properties such as compressive strength and durability. However, the different viscosity agents can provide appropriate results for RSCC containing the same rubber aggregate (RA) content and the hardened properties of RSCC are better than the properties of ordinary concrete even if they are lower than the ones of SCC.
Article
Use of waste glass or glass cullet (GC) as concrete aggregate is becoming more widespread each day because of the increase in resource efficiency. Recycling of wastes is very important for sustainable development. When glass is used as aggregate in concrete or mortar, expansions and internal stresses occur due to an alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Furthermore, rapid loss in durability is generally observed due to extreme crack formation and an increase in permeability. It is necessary to use some kind of chemical or mineral admixture to reduce crack formation. In this study, mortar bars are produced by using three different colors of glass in four different quantities as fine aggregate by weight, and the effects of these glass aggregates on ASR are investigated, corresponding to ASTM C 1260. Additionally, in order to reduce the expansions of mortars, 10% and 20% fly ash (FA) as mineral admixture and 1% and 2% Li(2)CO(3) as chemical admixture are incorporated by weight in the cement and their effects on expansion are examined. It is observed that among white (WG), green (GG) and brown glass (BG) aggregates, WG aggregate causes the greatest expansion. In addition, expansion increases with an increase in amount of glass. According to the test results, it is seen that over 20% FA and 2% Li(2)CO(3) replacements are required to produce mortars which have expansion values below the 0.2% critical value when exposed to ASR. However, usages of these admixtures reduce expansions occurring because of ASR.
Usage of blast furnace slag to produce concrete pavement blocks and kerbs. In: National kocaeli symposium on earthquake
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Yuksel _ I, Bilir T. Usage of blast furnace slag to produce concrete pavement blocks and kerbs. In: National kocaeli symposium on earthquake; March 2005, Kocaeli.(in Turkish).
Use of Granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate in concrete. In: 5th national congress on concrete (durability of concrete)
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Yuksel I, Ozkan O, Bilir T. Use of Granulated blast furnace slag as fine aggregate in concrete. In: 5th national congress on concrete (durability of concrete);
TS EN 197-1 Cement-Part I: composition, specifications, and conformity criteria for common cements
  • Turkish Standards
Turkish Standards Institute. TS EN 197-1 Cement-Part I: composition, specifications, and conformity criteria for common cements. TSE, Ankara; 2005. p. 25.
ASTM C1202-97 Standard test method for electrical indication of concrete's ability to resist chloride ion penetration
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ASTM. ASTM C1202-97 Standard test method for electrical indication of concrete's ability to resist chloride ion penetration, USA; 1997.
TS EN 197-1 Cement-Part I: composition, specifications, and conformity criteria for common cements. TSE, Ankara
  • Turkish Standards Institute
Turkish Standards Institute. TS EN 197-1 Cement-Part I: composition, specifications, and conformity criteria for common cements. TSE, Ankara; 2005. p. 25.