Optimal number of controlled-NOT gates to generate a three-qubit state

Physical Review A (Impact Factor: 2.81). 03/2008; 77(3). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.032320


The number of two-qubit gates required to deterministically transform a three-qubit pure quantum state into another is discussed. We show that any state can be prepared from a product state using at most three CNOT gates and that starting from the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, only two suffice. As a consequence, any three-qubit state can be transformed into any other using at most four CNOT gates. Generalizations to other two-qubit gates are also discussed.

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    ABSTRACT: We explicitly construct a quantum circuit which exactly generates random three-qubit states. The optimal circuit consists of three CNOT gates and fifteen single qubit elementary rotations, parametrized by fourteen independent angles. The explicit distribution of these angles is derived, showing that the joint distribution is a product of independent distributions of individual angles apart from four angles. Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures
    Preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Physical Review A
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    ABSTRACT: Every quantum operation can be decomposed into a sequence of single-qubit and Controlled-NOT (C-NOT) gates. In many implementations, single-qubit gates are simpler to perform than C-NOTs, and it is hence desirable to minimize the number of C-NOT gates required to implement a circuit. Previous work has looked at C-NOT-efficient synthesis of arbitrary unitaries and state preparation. Here we consider the generalization to arbitrary isometries from m qubits to n qubits. We derive a theoretical lower bound on the number of C-NOT gates required to decompose an isometry for arbitrary m and n, and give an explicit gate decomposition that achieves this bound up to a factor of about two in the leading order. We also perform some bespoke optimizations in the case of small m and n. In addition, we show how to apply our result for isometries to give a decomposition scheme for an arbitrary quantum operation via Stinespring's theorem, and derive a lower bound on the number of C-NOTs in this case too.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015
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