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Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Leguminosae): An Evidence-Based Systematic Review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

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ABSTRACT An evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology and dosing. doi:10.1300/J157v07n03_06 &lsqb;Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1–800-HAWORTH . E-mail address: <docdelivery@haworthpress.com> Website: <http://www.HaworthPress.com>]
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... Fenugreek alkaloids have been in use for decades to treat mild diseases (fever) to some lethal ones (diabetes). Fenugreek bioactive components regulate insulin secretion, stimulate different glucose metabolism enzymes, modulate cell regeneration and are hypoglycemic in nature (Hamza et al., 2012;Ulbricht et al., 2007;Zhou, Chan, & Zhou, 2012). Keeping into consideration the pricey chemical synthesis of the alkaloids (artemisinin, trigonelline, vincristine, vinblastine etc.) together with the persistent toxicity of such chemical drugs (synthetic analogues), increased production of the valuable plant alkaloids is exceptionally desirable to meet the swiftly increasing demand of the pharmaceutical market in order to keep the lethal ailments at bay (Ulbricht et al., 2007;Khazir et al., 2014). ...
... Fenugreek bioactive components regulate insulin secretion, stimulate different glucose metabolism enzymes, modulate cell regeneration and are hypoglycemic in nature (Hamza et al., 2012;Ulbricht et al., 2007;Zhou, Chan, & Zhou, 2012). Keeping into consideration the pricey chemical synthesis of the alkaloids (artemisinin, trigonelline, vincristine, vinblastine etc.) together with the persistent toxicity of such chemical drugs (synthetic analogues), increased production of the valuable plant alkaloids is exceptionally desirable to meet the swiftly increasing demand of the pharmaceutical market in order to keep the lethal ailments at bay (Ulbricht et al., 2007;Khazir et al., 2014). Recent advances in the agricultural sector have proven rewarding in this regard as the content of such life-saving alkaloids has been increased though the void between the demand and supply is still of quite a bigger size. ...
Chapter
Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers in which monosaccharide ((CH2O)n) units are covalently joined by an O-glycosidic bond in either a linear or branched configuration. Polysaccharides serve as storage of energy, as in starch (unbranched amylose and branched amylopectin) or in glycogen (highly branched molecule), and as a structural component, as in plant cellulose (linear polysaccharide of glucose), bacterial cell walls or agar of seaweeds. Radiation technology offers versatile tools that have an important role to play in support of sustainable development. Ionizing radiation is sufficiently strong to break molecular bonds, creating ions from otherwise stable substances. Being so, ionizing irradiation coming from gamma sources or electron beam accelerators, is one of the available physical methods that can be employed industrially. Radiation technology is used to modify many kinds of materials, changing some properties, many of which can be used in a wide variety of commercial application. Natural polysaccharides can be either degraded or cross-linked by radiation. In this chapter, the focus will be on the interaction of ionizing radiation with polysaccharides and extracellular polymeric substances.
... Fenugreek alkaloids have been in use for decades to treat mild diseases (fever) to some lethal ones (diabetes). Fenugreek bioactive components regulate insulin secretion, stimulate different glucose metabolism enzymes, modulate cell regeneration and are hypoglycemic in nature (Hamza et al., 2012;Ulbricht et al., 2007;Zhou, Chan, & Zhou, 2012). Keeping into consideration the pricey chemical synthesis of the alkaloids (artemisinin, trigonelline, vincristine, vinblastine etc.) together with the persistent toxicity of such chemical drugs (synthetic analogues), increased production of the valuable plant alkaloids is exceptionally desirable to meet the swiftly increasing demand of the pharmaceutical market in order to keep the lethal ailments at bay (Ulbricht et al., 2007;Khazir et al., 2014). ...
... Fenugreek bioactive components regulate insulin secretion, stimulate different glucose metabolism enzymes, modulate cell regeneration and are hypoglycemic in nature (Hamza et al., 2012;Ulbricht et al., 2007;Zhou, Chan, & Zhou, 2012). Keeping into consideration the pricey chemical synthesis of the alkaloids (artemisinin, trigonelline, vincristine, vinblastine etc.) together with the persistent toxicity of such chemical drugs (synthetic analogues), increased production of the valuable plant alkaloids is exceptionally desirable to meet the swiftly increasing demand of the pharmaceutical market in order to keep the lethal ailments at bay (Ulbricht et al., 2007;Khazir et al., 2014). Recent advances in the agricultural sector have proven rewarding in this regard as the content of such life-saving alkaloids has been increased though the void between the demand and supply is still of quite a bigger size. ...
Chapter
Polysaccharides, as the name implies, are comprises of monosaccharide residues connected by glycosidic bonds. The average number of monosaccharide units in polysaccharides varies from about 10 to perhaps 10 million. Depending upon the nature of the monosaccharide unit, polysaccharides are classified as linear or branched chain polysaccharides which determine the diversity and complexity of the polysaccharides. Branches may be short saccharide units on a linear backbone or the molecule may have a branch-on-branch structure. All polysaccharides are polydisperse, i.e., are present in a range of molecular weights rather than having a single molecular weight. They are the most abundant natural biopolymer derived from multiple natural resources such as plants, animals, bacteria, fungi, algae, arthropods etc. Polysaccharides possess unique chemical, physical and biological properties. They are not only an important component of energy and structural components but also serve a variety of biological functions. Polysaccharides possess a number of reactive functional groups in their chemical structure, including hydroxyl, amino, and carboxylic acid groups, indicating the possibility for chemical modification. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the natural occurrence, distribution and the multifaceted structures of polysaccharides.
... Fenugreek or Shanblid (scientific name: Trigonella foenumgraecum) is a Fabaceae plant with one vivid yellow to brown blossom that grows 10 to 50 cm tall. The plant is an edible vegetable that grows throughout Iran in several sections of the country, including Azerbaijan, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan, Semnan, and Damghan (65) . There was selective cytotoxicity against some cell lines in a study of the effects of crude fenugreek extract, including MCF7, TCP (T-cell lymphoma), FRO (thyroid papillary carcinoma), and brain tumours (66) . ...
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Nowadays natural products are considered protective markers compared to synthetic products that are considered unsafe for human health and the environment. Although a large number of synthetic drugs have been added to the world of current pharmacopoeia, there is still no drug system in the world that has been able to solve all health problems, including diseases such as Cancer. The extracts from plants have played an important role in the development of clinically effective anti-cancer agents. The plant kingdom produces naturally occurring secondary metabolites that are being investigated for their anti-cancer activities leading to the development of new clinical drugs. Global results continue to identify new anticancer compounds from plants. In recent years out of fear of adverse effects, people have chosen to make greater use of natural cancer products. This review attempted to summarize a few plants in India and outside India that have anti-cancer activity.
... The plants bear white or yellow flowers, which give rise to long, slender, yellow to brown pods (Ulbricht et al., 2008;Yadav and Baquer, 2014). This herb used to cure a vast conditions including bronchitis, fever, sore throat, wound, swollen glands, skin irritation, diabetes, ulcers, cancer, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (Nathiya et al., 2014;Olaiya and Soetan, 2014;Yadav and Baquer, 2014). ...
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The incidence of hypertension is very high in human societies and its treatment is the most important priority in many countries. Knowledge of the plants that are used may provide insight on their properties, for further exploration. This study aimed to collect the knowledge on traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension in different regions of Morocco. We reviewed 145 research publications based on data from the six explored regions of Morocco published until August 2021 in various journals. This was achieved using literature databases: Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Science Direct and Researchgate. The findings of this study indicated that 23 plants have been reported to possess antihypertensive activities in in vivo / in vitro experiments, while 81 plants had not been studied for such an activity. Plants from the Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families were used most often. Leaves were the plant parts used most often. Decoction was the main preparation method. Twenty three plants have been explored experimentally for their antihypertensive activity. This review provides baseline data for plant species used to treat hypertension in Morocco and provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of these plants.
... 18,19 The antidiabetic effect, hypocholesterolemic influence, antioxidant potency, antiplatelet and hepatoprotective effect of TFG and ATR were also reported. [20][21][22][23][24][25] In view of the present orientation towards the effective indigenous drug development, this study was undertaken to compare the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extracts of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng and Trigonella foenum graecum. ...
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Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATR) and Trigonella foenum graecum (TFG) have been used as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. So, the present study was planned to compare the antihyperlipidemic effect of the alcoholic extract of ATR and TFG in high cholesterol diet (HCD) induced hyperlipidemia in albino rabbits along with their effect on coagulation profile. Forty-two albino rabbits (1.5-2 kg) were divided into 7 groups (n=6). Hyperlipidemia was induced by administration of high cholesterol diet (HCD) 400 mg/kg for 30 days. The group 1 were treated: (2% Gum Acacia) vehicle control, group 2; disease control, group 3 & 4: 200 and 400 mg/kg ATR extract, group 5 & 6: 200 and 400 mg/kg TFG extract and group 7: (rosuvastatin 2 mg/kg). Lipid and coagulation profile were estimated on day 31 & 61 by semi autoanalyser using standard kits. Lipid profile significantly (p<0.001) increased in HCD group as compared to the control group. The ATR and TFG at both the dose 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) reduced all the elevated lipid profile parameters. However, the hypolipidemic efficacy of ATR was found significantly (p<0.01) higher than TFG at the dose 400 mg/kg. In case of coagulation profile, ATR significantly (p<0.001) increased the prothombin and clotting time in a dose-dependent manner. However, TFG only raised the bleeding time. This finding of the present study illustrated that ATR extract was more potent than TFG against HCD induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits.
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Dietary supplements (DSs) are used by 50% of Americans and 70% of United States military service members (SMs); some have adverse effects (AEs). This cross-sectional investigation examined AEs associated with specific DSs. A stratified random sample of SMs from the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy was obtained. Volunteers completed a questionnaire reporting AEs for 96 generic and 62 specific DSs. The highest prevalence (≥1 AE) in specific DS categories was 35% prohormones, 33% weight loss supplements, 26% pre/post workout supplements, 14% herbal products, 12% multivitamin/multiminerals, 11% protein/amino acids, 9% muscle building supplements, 7% other DSs, 6% joint health products, and 5% individual vitamins/minerals. Specific DSs of concern (with proportion reporting AEs) included: Libido Max® (35%), Hydroxycut Hardcore® (33%), OxyElite® (33%), Roxylean® (31%), Growth Factor 9® (30%), Super HD® (29%), Hydroxycut Advanced® (29%), Lipo 6® (28%), The Ripper® (27%), Test Booster® (27%), Xenadrine Xtreme Thermogenic® (27%), C4 Extreme® (26%), and C4 Origional® (25%). Products marketed for weight loss, use before/after workout, and prohormones had the highest AE prevalence. DSs can contain substances with independent/additive AEs and/or interact with other ingredients or prescribed medications. Methods described here could provide a continuous surveillance system detecting dangerous DSs entering the market.
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Background Pregnant and breastfeeding women's use of complementary medicine products (CMPs) is common, and possibly associated with autonomous health care behaviours. However, the health literacy levels and health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs of women who use CMPs in pregnancy and lactation have not been previously assessed in a large Australian sample. Aim The aim of this study is to determine the health literacy levels and HLOC beliefs of women who use CMPs in pregnancy and lactation and determine the types of CMPs used. Methods A cross-sectional, national, online survey of Australian pregnant or breastfeeding women aged 18 years and older, and currently using CMPs was conducted. Results A total of 810 completed surveys (354 pregnant and 456 breastfeeding women) were analysed. Most had adequate functional health literacy levels (93.3%). Health care practitioners (HCPs) HLOC mean scores were the highest for the sample, followed by Internal HLOC beliefs mean scores. Almost all (n = 809) took at least one dietary supplement, the most popular being pregnancy and breastfeeding multivitamins, iron supplements and probiotics. Use was generally in line with clinical recommendations, except for low rates of iodine supplementation. Herbal medicine use was lower for the total sample (57.3%, n = 464), but significantly higher (p < .0001) for the breastfeeding cohort, with consumers taking one to four herbal medicines each. The most popular herbs were raspberry leaf, ginger, peppermint and chamomile (pregnant respondents) and chamomile, ginger and fenugreek (breastfeeding respondents). Conclusions Respondents were health literate, with high scores for Internal and HCP HLOC scales, suggesting that they are likely to demonstrate self-efficacy, positive health behaviours and work well in partnership with HCPs. HCPs can facilitate discussions with pregnant and breastfeeding women using CMPs, while considering women's health literacy levels, health beliefs and goals.
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Background: Humans are exposed to aluminum from the mouth, nose and epidermal route inducing toxic effects. Accumulation of aluminum has been associated with a variety of pathologies such as anemia, osteodystrophy, joint diseases, muscular weakness, and Alzheimer’s diseases Fenugreek extracts have been shown to be neutralizing of free radicals and enhancing antioxidant status. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effects of fenugreek seeds against hematotoxicity induced by Aluminum chloride in male rabbits. Materials and Methods: This study included twenty-four adult male rabbits, which were divided into 4 groups, 6 rabbits for each. Group I (control group): Animals were provided with tap water and fed with a normal diet for 30 days. Group II (Fenugreek seeds powder group): Fenugreek seeds powder was given to rabbits in food at a dose of 10 g per kilogram of diet weight/kg of body weight/day for 30 Days. Group III (Aluminum chloride (ALCl3) group): Rabbits were treated orally with 150 mg/kg BW of AlCl3/day for 30 consecutive days. Group IV (Aluminum chloride/fenugreek co-administered group): Fenugreek seeds flour was added at a rate of 10 g per kilogram of diet weight, and rabbits were treated orally with 150 mg/kg BW of AlCl3/day for 30 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment and 24 hours after the last dose, all animals were anesthetized with ether and blood samples were collected by heart puncture. Results: The results of the study showed that the treatment of male rabbits with aluminum chloride resulted in a significant decrease (P<0.01) in RBCs count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value, MCV, MCH, and MCHC as compared to the control group. While there was a significant increase (P<0.01) in WBCs count, lymphocytes, and monocytes percentages and a significant decrease in granulocyte percentage when compared with the control group. Co-administration of fenugreek seeds powder and AlCl3 significantly improved all haematological parameters. Conclusion: The results showed that the administration of rabbits with aluminum chloride caused a hematotoxicity, and co-administration of fenugreek seeds powder with AlCl3 alleviate the hematotoxicity induced by AlCl3. The use of fenugreek seeds powder by humans can be considered beneficial in the alleviation of hematotoxicity. It is recommended that humans exposed to AlCl3 should be advised to take fenugreek seeds powder as a rich source of antioxidants to prevent hematotoxicity induced by AlCl3. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the exact mechanism of the anti-hematotoxic effect of Fenugreek seeds powder and the potential usefulness of fenugreek seeds powder as a protective agent against AlCl3 induced hematotoxicity in clinical trials.
Article
Effect of raw, boiled and germinated fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on post-prandial levels in normal (controls) and non-insulin dependent diabetic human subjects was studied. Experimental recipes wherein powdered seeds of raw, boiled and germinated fenugreek were incorporated into the pongal (a traditional recipe) at the levels of 12.5 g each were served to the subjects at breakfast. Pongal without fenugreek was used as a control. Fasting blood glucose, mean % peak rise, area under curve (AUC) and % glycemic response were studied in all the subjects, before and after consuming the control and experimental recipes. Raw and germinated fenugreek significantly (P<0.05) reduced the post-prandial blood glucose levels in all the subjects, as compared to control recipe (without fenugreek) and boiled fenugreek.
Article
Research has focussed on the hypocholesterolemic effects of certain types of dietary fiber such as enhancing conversion of hepatic cholesterol to bile acids or increase in catabolism of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the apo B,E receptor. The effect of oral administration of a unique fibre cocktail of fenugreek seed powder, guar gum and wheat bran (Fibernat) and its varied effects on some aspects of lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis in rats were examined. Rats were administered Fibernat along with the atherogenic diet containing 1.5 % cholesterol and 0.1 % cholic acid. Amounts of hepatic lipids, hepatic and fecal bile acids and activity of hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) were determined. Transmission electron microscopic examination of the liver tissue and extent of uptake of (125)I-LDL and (125)I-VLDL by the hepatic apo B,E receptor was carried out. Food intake and body weight gain were similar between the 3 different dietary groups. Fibernat intake significantly increased apo B,E receptor expression in rat liver as reflected by an increase in the maximum binding capacity (B(max)) of the apo B,E receptor to (125)I-LDL and (125)I-VLDL. The activity of HTGL was increased by approximately 1.5-fold in Fibernat-fed rats as compared to those fed the atherogenic diet alone. A marked hypocholesterolemic effect was observed. Cholesterol homeostasis was achieved in Fibernat-fed rats. Two possible mechanisms are postulated to be responsible for the observed hypocholesterolemic effect a) an increase in conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and b) possibly by intra-luminal binding which resulted in increased fecal excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols. The resulting reduction in cholesterol content of liver cells coupled with upregulation of hepatic apo B,E receptors and increased clearance of circulating atherogenic lipoproteins-LDL and very low density lipoprotein (LDL and VLDL)-is the main mechanism involved in the hypocholesterolemic effect of Fibernat. The results suggest that Fibernat's effect on plasma LDL concentration is also possibly mediated by increased receptor-mediated catabolism of VLDL. Thus, Fibernat therapy is an effective adjunct to diet therapy and might find potential use in the therapy of hyperlipidemic subjects.
Article
In this study the effect of varying levels of fenugreek were examined on the plasma lipids of animals pretreated with either a control diet or a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. Although the plasma cholesterol was significantly reduced in both groups, triglyceride levels were only reduced in animals pretreated with the high-fat diet. HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly altered in and case. In addition, the effect of fenugreek seed powder and some of its extracts were investigated for the determination of the active fraction. Fenugreek seed powder and its extracts at 30% of the animals' diet were observed to greatly affect the plasma lipids when added to animals pretreated with a high-fat. Fenugreek and its extracts reduced the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol with no effect on the HDL-cholesterol. This selective reduction in LDL-cholesterol results in the improvement of the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to LDL-cholesterol which is beneficial in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In addition, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol was reduced. This hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek was associated with the defatted fraction of the seed powder, and among the extracts analysed, the crude saponin extract was the most effective fraction with respect to the fenugreek seeds. The improvement of the plasma lipid profile by fenugreek treatment further supports the use of fenugreek seeds as a hypolipidaemic agent in the improvement of lipid disorders. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The lipid lowering activity of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) was studied in 60 non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Isocaloric diets without and with fenugreek were given for 7 days and 24 weeks respectively. Ingestion of an experimental diet containing 25 g fenugreek seed powder resulted in a significant reduction of total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These results indicate the beneficial effect of fenugreek seeds in diabetic subjects.
Article
Toxicological evaluation of fenugreek seeds was made in 60 NIDDM subjects in a 24 week study in which changes in body weight, clinical signs and symptoms and serum parameters such as SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine and blood urea, together with haematological parameters, was studied. Ingestion of an experimental diet containing 25 g fenugreek seed powder resulted in no renal or hepatic toxicity, but interestingly blood urea levels were seen to decrease after week 12.
Article
The seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) have been reported to have antidiabetic and hypocholesterolaemic properties in both animal models and humans. Activity has been attributed largely to fenugreek's saponin and high fibre content, and is probably not related to its major alkaloid trigonelline. Antihyperglycaemic effects have been linked to delayed gastric emptying caused by the fibre content, and to (unidentified) components that inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes. Fenugreek administration may increase plasma insulin levels in vivo. Its major free amino acid, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, stimulates insulin secretion from perfused pancreas in vitro. The hypocholesterolaemic effect has been attributed to increased conversion of hepatic cholesterol to bile salts due to loss, in the faeces, of complexes of these substances with fenugreek fibre and saponins. Fenugreek treatment selectively reduces the LDL and VLDL fractions of total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol has also been reported to increase in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and type II diabetic individuals following treatment with fenugreek. Fenugreek administration has not been reported to cause any toxicological effects. Its regular consumption may therefore be beneficial in the management of diabetes and the prevention of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) was evaluated in ten hyperlipidaemic subjects. Isocaloric diets with and without fenugreek were each given for 20 days. Ingestion of experimental diets, containing 100 g of debitterized fenugreek powder, resulted in a significant reduction in the serum total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. HDL cholesterol levels were not altered but the ratio with total cholesterol and LDL and VLDL cholesterol were significantly increased. These results indicate the beneficial effect of fenugreek seeds in hyperlipidaemic patients.