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Abuse History and Pathological Dissociation Among Israeli and American College Students: A Comparative Study

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Abstract

This paper has three objectives: (1) to compare the abuse histories of American and Israeli college students, (2) to closely examine the different types of dissociative experiences among these students, and (3) to compare the dissociative experiences of American and Israeli college students. The US sample reported higher levels of abuse than the Israeli sample. The US and Israeli samples did not differ in overall level of dissociation but the US sample had higher rank-ordered scores for five kinds of dissociation: Flashbacks, Somatoform Dissociation, Persecutory Voices, Temporarily Dissociated Knowledge or Skills, and Being Told of Disremembered Behavior.
Abuse History and Pathological Dissociation
Among Israeli
and American College Students:
A Comparative Study
Dean Lauterbach, PhD
Eli Somer, PhD
Paul Dell, PhD
Haley VonDeylen, MS
ABSTRACT. This paper has three objectives: (1) to compare the abuse
histories of American and Israeli college students, (2) to closely examine
the different types of dissociative experiences among these students, and
(3) to compare the dissociative experiences of American and Israeli col-
lege students. The US sample reported higher levels of abuse than the
Israeli sample. The US and Israeli samples did not differ in overall level
of dissociation but the US sample had higher rank-ordered scores for
five kinds of dissociation: Flashbacks, Somatoform Dissociation, Per
-
secutory Voices, Temporarily Dissociated Knowledge or Skills, and Be
-
Dean Lauterbach is affiliated with Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI.
Eli Somer is affiliated with the University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
Paul Dell is affiliated with the Trauma Recovery Center, Norfolk, VA.
Haley VonDeylen is affiliated with Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI.
Address correspondence to: Dean Lauterbach, PhD, 507 Mark Jefferson Hall,
Department of Psychology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI 48197 (E-mail
DLauterba@emich.edu).
The authors would like to thank Dr. Eve Carlson for her thoughtful comments on an
earlier version of this manuscript.
This project was supported by a spring-summer grant awarded to the first author.
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, Vol. 9(1) 2008
Available online at http://jtd.haworthpress.com
© 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1080/15299730802073650 51
ing Told of Disremembered Behavior.
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cle copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service:
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KEYWORDS. Dissociation, multidimensional inventory of dissocia
-
tion, cross-cultural
ABUSE HISTORY AND PATHOLOGICAL DISSOCIATION
AMONG ISRAELI AND AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS:
A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Child abuse is a considerable international problem, yet data about its
prevalence in different countries are sparse. The prevalence of child-
hood sexual abuse in nonclinical North American samples suggests
prevalence rates as high as 22.3% for childhood sexual abuse (Gorey &
Leslie, 1997). The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse was similarly
high in other countries [e.g., 13.14% (United Kingdom: Oaksford &
Frude, 2001), 25% (Israel: Schein et al., 2000), and 25% (Spain: Lopez,
Hernandez, & Carpintero, 1995)].
There has also been increased recognition of the role that culture may
play in the nature and severity of psychopathology. For example, the
last two editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dis-
orders (American Psychiatric Association 1994; 2000) have attempted
to identify cultural features of disorders. More specifically, there is in
-
creased recognition of the need to examine whether any given symptom
is culture-specific (emic) or culturally universal (etic). Psychiatry has
long been aware that dissociation appears in a variety of cultures, but of
-
ten has culture-specific manifestations (e.g., amok, latah, pibloktoc, and
berserker).
Several studies have examined the presence and severity of dissocia
-
tion in different countries. A study of the Hebrew version of the Dis
-
sociative Experiences Scale (Somer, Dolgin, & Saadon, 2001) reported
mean H-DES scores for non-clinical participants that were comparable
to DES scores from nonclinical samples in the US, and H-DES scores
that co-varied with clinical diagnosis. Persons with dissociative disor
-
ders had higher scores than persons with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
(PTSD) or Acute Stress Disorder. These findings using the H-DES are
52 JOURNAL OF TRAUMA & DISSOCIATION
consistent with similar work using the DES in the United States
(Bernstein & Putnam, 1986). Barker-Collo (2001) found that DES
scores of New Zealand college students were similar to those of stu
-
dents from the United States, Scotland, and the Netherlands. These
studies examined mean group differences in global dissociation and did
not report data about specific types of dissociative experiences.
Most research on dissociation with college students, has used the
DES or the DES II (Carlson, 1997; Carlson & Putnam, 1993; Putnam et
al., 1996). The DES is a well-established brief (28 items) screening
measure with solid psychometric properties. Nevertheless, the DES
probably does not assess the full spectrum of pathological dissociation.
This brevity is in keeping with the intent of its authors to create a screen
-
ing instrument for dissociation. While the 8-item DES-Taxon subscale
(Waller, Putnam, & Carlson, 1996) provides greater clarity about patho
-
logical dissociation, it does not provide a rich description of those expe-
riences.
This paper reports findings from two exploratory studies that used
the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation 4.0 (Dell, 2006) to ex-
amine the type and severity of dissociation among college students.
This paper has three objectives: (1) to compare the abuse histories of
American and Israeli college students, (2) to examine the different types
of dissociative experiences among college students, and (3) to compare
the dissociative experiences of American and Israeli college students.
METHOD
Research Participants
The combined sample of American and Israeli college students in
-
cluded 142 persons. There were 68 United States students (13 men and
55 women), and 74 Israeli students (11 men and 63 women). The sam
-
ples did not differ in gender composition, but the US sample was signif
-
icantly younger t(125.69) = 5.53, p < .0005 [US: M = 20.9 (3.7) Israeli:
M = 25.4 (5.8)].
MEASURES
Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire (TEQ
1
)
The TEQ (Nijenhuis, Spinhoven, van Dyck, van der Hart, & Vander
-
linden, 1998) is a 25-item measure that assesses a wide range of trauma.
Lauterbach et al. 53
The first ten items assess the presence/absence of a wide variety of
stresses and trauma (e.g., having to look after parents and/or siblings as
a child). The last 15 items assess the presence/absence of abusive expe
-
riences. The TEQ yields an overall index of number of traumas experi
-
enced, and weighted composite scores of five types of abuse (i.e.,
Emotional Neglect, Emotional Abuse, Physical Abuse, Sexual Harass
-
ment, and Sexual Abuse). Three items load onto each composite scale
with total scores for each determined by the relationship with the
abuser, the age at which the abuse occurred, and subjective ratings of
the impact of the experience. The TEQ has good psychometric proper
-
ties (Nijenhuis, 1999). Scores are stable over time (test-retest r = .91),
and are moderately correlated with dissociation (Nijenhuis et al., 1998).
The standard version of the TEQ was used with the US sample. The
TEQ was translated into Hebrew and the translated version was used
with the Israeli sample. The procedure for translating the TEQ was con-
sistent with established protocol. The TEQ was translated into Hebrew
by ES then back-translated into English by a native English speaker
who was blind to the initial instrument. ES then compared the original
and back-translated English versions and reconciled differences in the
essential meaning of items.
Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID 4.0
2
)
The MID 4.0 is a 259-item
5
measure of dissociation (Dell, 2002b).
Items were rationally derived and designed to comprehensively assess
the domain of dissociation. Respondents are asked to indicate “How of-
ten do you have the following experiences when you are not under the
influence of alcohol or drugs?” Item scores range from 0 (Never Hap
-
pens)to10(Always Happens). There are 171 items that assess dissocia
-
tion. The remaining items assess other clinical symptoms (psychosis &
cognitive distraction) and dimensions of validity (Defensiveness, Neu
-
rotic Suffering, Attention Seeking, Rare Symptoms, and Factitious
Behavior). The MID yields two global indices of pathological dissocia
-
tion. The Mean MID Score is the average frequency of occurrence of
each dissociative symptom and can range from 0 to 100. Thus, values
on this scale use the same metric as the DES. The Severe Dissociation
Score assesses the number of severe dissociative symptoms reported.
The MID has 13 primary dissociation scales, 11 scales that assess par
-
tially-dissociated influences of another self-state and 6 scales that assess
fully-dissociated actions of another self-state (see Table 1). Previous
studies examining the psychometric properties of the MID 3.0 were
54 JOURNAL OF TRAUMA & DISSOCIATION
Lauterbach et al. 55
TABLE 1. Listing of scales included on the Multidimensional Inventory of Dis
-
sociation and result of equivalence testing.
quite favorable (Dell, 2002a). With one exception (i.e., Psychosis), the
subscales are internally consistent (α range = .77 to .96). The MID 3.0
scores are significantly correlated with the DES (rs .90-.94) (Dell,
2002a) and the effects of physical (r = .45) and sexual abuse (r = .54)
(Dell, 2001a).
The standard MID was used with the US sample. The MID was trans
-
lated into Hebrew and the translated version was used with the Israeli
sample. Previous analyses of the psychometric properties of the Hebrew
version of the MID (Somer & Dell, 2005) yielded promising findings.
The H-MID total score and the 13 primary scales were significantly cor
-
related with the DES (r = .53-.70) and with the total number of traumas
endorsed.
As noted by van de Vijver and Leung (1997), merely reporting indi
-
ces of internal consistency or bi-variate correlations between measures
of similar constructs does not ensure that instruments developed and
normed in one country perform the same way in other countries. Estab-
lishing such functional equivalence is an essential first step before re-
searchers can turn their attention to the focal questions. Two techniques
were chosen to examine scale level performance of the MID across
samples. First, indices of internal consistency-reliability (alpha) were
compared. The statistic to test for equality of two independent reliability
coefficients is (1-α1)/(1-α2). Using this index, 17 of 30 MID scales are
equivalent across samples (Table 1).
The second procedure for examining scale performance is an exten-
sion of a procedure outlined by van de Vijver and Leung (1997) for ex-
amining performance of dichotomous items. First, three groups were
formed based on total MID scores. Then, each scale score was dich
-
otomized. A series of 2(culture) 2(symptom presence/absence) fre
-
quency tables were constructed, each of which is nested within the three
total MID groups. The goal is to determine whether scales perform sim
-
ilarly across different cultures at different overall levels of dissociation
severity. The Mantel-Haenszel procedure tests whether the odds of hav
-
ing a particular symptom type are identical for both cultures at all three
levels of total MID scores. As can be seen Table 1, 25 of the 28 MID
scales evidenced functional equivalence.
PROCEDURE
This research received written approval from the institutional review
boards at both universities. Potential participants were approached in
56 JOURNAL OF TRAUMA & DISSOCIATION
classes and told about the opportunity to earn extra credit in exchange
for completing a questionnaire packet. When the research participants
arrived at the testing site they were given a questionnaire packet con
-
sisting of the consent form, the TEQ, and the MID. After answering
questions, participants signed the consent form and procedures for com
-
pleting each questionnaire were then provided.
RESULTS
Description of Samples
To determine if the samples differed in level of exposure to abusive
experiences, a one-way ANOVA was computed. Levene’s test for
homogeneity of variance revealed that the two groups differed signifi-
cantly. Therefore, sample scores were rank-ordered and a Mann-Whit-
ney U was computed. For a number of reasons (i.e., limited sample size,
use of less powerful non-parametric tests) no post-hoc corrections for
alpha inflation secondary to multiple contrasts were made and alpha
was set at .05. The US students reported significantly higher rank-or-
dered scores than Israeli students for abuse type (emotional neglect: U =
1900.50, p < .005; emotional abuse: U = 1512.00, p < .0001; physical
abuse: U = 1980.50, p < .005; sexual harassment: U = 2017.00, p < .05);
sexual abuse U = 1808.50, p < .0001; and total trauma exposure: U =
1531.00, p < .0005). A substantial percentage of both samples reported
at least some exposure to abusive experiences (Table 2).
Lauterbach et al. 57
TABLE 2. Percentage of persons in Israeli and US samples who reported ex
-
periencing some level of abuse.
Comparison of Samples on Overall Dissociation
and 13 Primary Dimensions of Dissociation
There were no significant differences between the samples in overall
dissociation (i.e., MID Mean score & MID Severity score). The values
for the MID Mean, which are most similar to the DES mean score, were
substantially lower than DES scores that are typically seen in college
samples [United States M = 7.9(9.2), Israeli M = 5.9(6.9)]. A meta anal
-
ysis of DES scores (Ijzendoorn & Schuengel, 1996) found a mean value
of 14.4. A series of single group t-tests compared the MID mean values
for the focal groups with this theoretical population DES mean. The val
-
ues for both groups were significantly lower than this theoretical popu
-
lation mean [United States: t(66) = 5.9, p < .0005; Israeli: t(73) =
10.8, p < .0005].
Next, the US and Israeli students were compared on the 13 primary
dimensions of dissociation (see Table 1). The rank ordered scores of the
US group were significantly higher than the Israeli group for two of the
primary dimensions of dissociation: Flashbacks U = 1850.5, p < .01,
and Somatoform Dissociation, U = 1780.0, p < .005.
Comparison of Samples on Partially-Dissociated
and Fully-Dissociated Influences of Another Self-State
The rank-ordered scores of the two groups were compared on the
eleven scales assessing partially-dissociated influences of another self-
state and the six scales assessing fully-dissociated effects of another
self-state. There were three significant differences: Persecutory Voices,
U = 2066.5, p < .05, Temporarily Dissociated Knowledge or Skills, U =
1624.0, p < .0005, and Being Told of Disremembered Actions U =
1955.0, p < .05. In all cases, the rank-ordered scores of the US sample
were higher, indicating higher levels of dissociation.
DISCUSSION
This paper had three primary objectives: (1) to compare the abuse
histories of American and Israeli college students, (2) to provide a
detailed report of the types and severity of dissociative experiences
reported by college students, and (3) to compare the dissociative experi
-
ences of American and Israeli college students. These two sets of data
58 JOURNAL OF TRAUMA & DISSOCIATION
provide information regarding the extent to which dissociation may be
culture specific, as opposed to culturally universal.
Surprisingly, these two groups reported marked differences in level
of exposure to abuse. In every domain measured by the TEQ, the US
sample reported higher levels of abuse.
4
There are at least three possible
explanations for these findings. First, there may be a genuine difference
in abuse exposure experienced by American and Israeli students. This
explanation, however, is inconsistent with the similar rates of child sex
-
ual abuse that were reported in previous studies in the USA (22.3%,
Gorey & Leslie, 1997) and Israel (25.0%, Schein et al., 2000). Second,
the US sample was younger than the Israeli sample (ages = 20.9 and
25.4, respectively). It is possible that the younger cohort interpreted
items on the TEQ differently than their older counterparts. However,
the magnitude of the differences between these two groups makes this
explanation unlikely. Third, it is possible that cultural differences influ-
ence the willingness of US and Israeli college students to report abusive
experiences.
Given the magnitude of the differences in exposure to abuse, and the
robust relationship between exposure to abuse and dissociation, a corre-
sponding difference in frequency of dissociative experiences might be
anticipated. While, the US and Israeli students did not differ in overall
dissociation, American students had higher scores on two primary di-
mensions of dissociation, two partially-dissociated manifestations of
another self-state, and one fully-dissociated effect of another self-state.
The present study examined 32 MID scales (overall dissociation = 2,
primary dimensions = 13, partially-dissociated influences = 11, and
fully-dissociated influences = 6). Thus, 27 of 32 contrasts revealed no
significant differences between the two samples suggesting that the
MID can be administered in Hebrew with results consistent with those
in the US. These findings are consistent with the notion that overall se
-
verity of dissociation may be a universal phenomenon (etic), but they
also suggest that culture (and other factors) may be related to specific
kinds of dissociation (emic). It should be noted, however, that few stud
-
ies have directly compared cultural groups on overall severity of disso
-
ciation and severity of specific dimensions of dissociation. Most studies
have compared groups on overall level of dissociation. For example,
Xiao et al. (2006) found that dissociation was far lower in Chinese sam
-
ples (clinical and non-clinical) than in a Canadian general population
sample. Investigators are only beginning to compare the psychometric
properties of dissociation measures developed in the United States with
their performance in other cultures (e.g., Nilsson & Svedin, 2006) and
Lauterbach et al. 59
currently no studies have examined factorial invariance of extant disso
-
ciation measures across cultures.
Although this study advances our understanding of the universality
of dissociation among college students, one important limitation should
be noted. The TEQ, while relatively comprehensive, assesses some
events that are nontraumatic (i.e., “emotional neglect by more distant
members of family”). Moreover, some of the behavioral descriptors
provided to test takers are sufficiently vague to produce over-reporting.
For example, the behavioral descriptors for emotional neglect include
“being left alone, or receiving insufficient affection.” Similarly, the be
-
havioral anchors for emotional abuse include teasing and name-calling
by siblings. Future research should employ a more rigorous measure of
trauma exposure. In addition, future researchers might which to exam
-
ine both the factorial and metric equivalence of the TEQ across samples
[within culture(s)], and across cultures.
NOTES
1. A number of trauma exposure instrument have been developed that have the
same acronym (TEQ: Vrana & Lauterbach, 1994) or a similar one (TLEQ: Kubany,
2000). All references to the “TEQ” in this manuscript will refer to the Dutch TEQ.
2. Unless specifically stated otherwise, all references to the MID in this paper refer
to version 4.0.
3. Subsequent to the completion of this paper, the MID 4.0 was revised twice. The
MID 5.0 has 229 items and the MID 6.0 has 218 items. Each version of the MID has a
corresponding scoring protocol. The scoring protocol for version 4.0 was used in the
present study. The scoring program for the present study was written by DL. All ques
-
tions regarding development and use of the MID should be directed to PD.
4. While the US sample reported significantly higher levels of abuse, this is not
meant to imply that the US sample has a higher level of trauma exposure. Were this ar
-
ticle to focus on events such as exposure to terrorist attacks, the Israeli sample would no
doubt obtain higher scores.
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RECEIVED: 09/29/06
REVISED: 12/04/06
ACCEPTED: 04/11/07
62 JOURNAL OF TRAUMA & DISSOCIATION
... MID-60 scores in the present sample (M = 13.0) are markedly higher than found by Lauterbach, Somer, Dell and VonDeylen (2008) using the full diagnostic version of the MID in college students in the US (M = 7.9%) and in Israel (M = 5.9%). As the MID-60 is derived from the five items with the highest loading from each subscale, it is plausible that these are more commonly endorsed items. ...
... , it is possible that the full MID is calibrated differently and produces a lower mean score in college students than would the DES. Support for this premise can be seen in Lauterbach et al. (2008) ...
Thesis
The aim of this thesis is to examine the prevalence of dissociation and Dissociative Disorders (DDs), and the role of trauma and parent-child dynamics as etiological factors, to assess the validity and plausibility of the Trauma Model and Fantasy Model of dissociation. Its meta-analysis found 11% of college students (N = 2,148) meet the criteria for a DD following assessment by a structured clinical interview; 17% (N = 4,061) had clinical levels of dissociation on the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES); students were experiencing dissociative symptoms 17% (N = 26,821) of the time; and DES scores were highest in countries that were comparatively unsafe. Using a short version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID-60) at least 8% of participants at an Australian university (N = 313) had clinical levels of dissociation, and participants reported experiencing dissociative symptoms 13% of the time. In females 51% of MID-60 scores were predicted by secure attachment, the number of sexual abuse episodes, the number of different types of sexual abuse and physical abuse, and being choked. In males 53% of MID scores were predicted by the number of sexual abuse episodes, a father who was not kind and caring, and parents who preventing independence by organizing and problem solving on the child’s behalf. Fantasy factors, including therapist suggestion, hypnosis and organic amnesia could not account for these findings. The second study (N = 309) compared three university groups (normal, elevated, and clinical levels of dissociation) and a group of inpatients and outpatients diagnosed with a DD. This found DDs, and levels of dissociation consistent with a DD, occur in individuals that report a childhood history of interpersonal trauma (particularly sexual abuse and life threatening trauma) alongside negative interpersonal dynamics between themselves and their parents, including an insecure and fearful attachment style. Odds ratios for a DD diagnosis in iii females include an insecure attachment style (72 : 1), negative parent-child dynamics (21 : 1), the mother’s role in, or response to, maltreatment being negative (45 : 1), any sexual abuse (16 : 1), being choked (28 : 1), choking or smothering and sexual abuse (106 : 1). There were strong similarities in antecedents reported by the university group with clinical levels of dissociation and the group of patients diagnosed with a DD and both groups had the highest rates of corroboration for abuse claims. The findings of this study provide strong support for the Trauma Model.
... This study was conducted among an Israeli student sample. The few studies that have examined the prevalence of CSA among this population (e.g., Lauterbach, Somer, Dell, & VonDeylen, 2008;Zamir & Lavee, 2016) reported somewhat lower levels of CSA as compared to student samples from others countries (Pereda et al., 2009). This difference may reflect either a genuine difference in exposure or social/cultural differences regarding the willingness to expose the abuse (for discussion see Lauterbach et al., 2008). ...
... The few studies that have examined the prevalence of CSA among this population (e.g., Lauterbach, Somer, Dell, & VonDeylen, 2008;Zamir & Lavee, 2016) reported somewhat lower levels of CSA as compared to student samples from others countries (Pereda et al., 2009). This difference may reflect either a genuine difference in exposure or social/cultural differences regarding the willingness to expose the abuse (for discussion see Lauterbach et al., 2008). Furthermore, Israel, which is largely an immigrant society, is comprised of various social and cultural subgroups. ...
Article
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may have long-term negative outcomes for victims’ body representations. In this study we examined a model in which the relation between CSA and an individual’s discomfort when in close proximity to others is mediated by disrupted body boundaries, and the relation between CSA and body shame is mediated by body self-objectification. Since most of these variables were conceptualized and assessed primarily among women, gender differences regarding the proposed model were examined. Study participants were 843 college/university students (536 women and 307 men). Results from structural equation modeling analyses indicated that in both genders, disrupted body boundaries mediated the relations between CSA and an individual’s discomfort when in close proximity to others, as well as between CSA and body shame. Body self-objectification was not associated with history of CSA. Finally, we discuss the role these findings may play in the detrimental long-term effects of CSA on both male and female survivors, and refer to their common underlying mechanism.
... Victims' ethnicity and culture may influence the childhood experience of sexual abuse [26]. In a study of 142 college students, Lauterbach, Somer, Dell, and Vondeylen found that 30.9% of American students had a history of child sexual abuse; however, only 4.1% of Israeli students reported child sexual abuse [27]. In another study of 94 African American and Latino adults, Sciolla et al. asked child-victims of sexual abuse to reflect on their experiences in later life [28]. ...
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The purpose: Child sexual abuse is considered an important national public health problem that must be addressed with a sense of urgency. This paper was to provide a comprehensive information on the child and family characteristics which may influence the vulnerability of child sexual abuse. Recent findings: Underreporting of child sexual abuse may be due to family’s and children’s and their families’ characteristics. These include their demographics and personal characteristics. Summary: The important role of healthcare providers as well as parents to be aware of children’s and families’ characteristics which may influence child sexual abuse. It is discussed along with implications for praxis.
... Victims' ethnicity and culture could influence the way they report and react to child sexual abuse (Hershkowitz, Lanes, & Lamb, 2007). In a study of 142 college students, Lauterbach, Somer, Dell, and VonDeylen (2008) found that 30.9% of U.S. students reported a history of child sexual abuse, compared to 4.1% of Israeli students. In another study of 94 African American and Latino adults, Sciolla and colleagues (2011) asked adults who were child victims of sexual abuse to reflect on their experiences in later life. ...
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Most child sexual abuse research is based on the recollections of adults whose perspectives and biases might hinder identification of abuse risk factors. This study examined children’s immediate postassault reports. A convenience sample of health records of 95 children ages 6 to 14 treated in emergency departments from 2006 to 2010 was examined. Child victims’ mean age was 11.3; most were African American (87%) girls (86%) who were abused on weekends (73%). Most parents and caregivers (63%) reported alleged sexual abuse within 24 hours; 57% obtained medical help within 12 hours of abuse. Perpetrators had a mean age of 23.3, were overwhelmingly male (97%), and known to the child victims (80%), usually through their mothers, explaining why most children (57%) offered no resistance. Education, research, and health policy are needed to increase awareness of the potential for sexual abuse and physical harm to children by men known to the family.
... First, Israeli community participants reported significantly less exposure to traumatizing events than responding individuals sampled from specialized treatment centers. The reported trauma levels of the Israeli community sample were lower than those measured in comparable samples in North America (Briere & Elliot, 2003;MacMillan et al., 1997) and in line with a previous comparison of Israeli and American respondents (Lauterbach, Somer, Dell, & Vondeylen, 2008). Second, our clinical samples reported higher levels of dissociative psychopathology than our community sample. ...
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This study examined the association between exposure to domestic violence and dissociative symptoms. A sample of 68 Israeli opiate use disorder patients in recovery, 80 battered Arab Israeli women, and 103 respondents from a community sample participated in structured interviews that included the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule (DTDIS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). As predicted, community participants reported significantly less exposure to traumatizing events and lower levels of dissociative psychopathology than individuals sampled from specialized treatment centers. In all, 91% of battered female participants were taxon-positive for dissociative disorder with 1 of every 2 respondents reporting symptoms corresponding to dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder, suggesting that this group may be particularly vulnerable to dissociative psychopathology. Extrasensory and paranormal experiences (ESP) and dissociative trance disorder experiences were strongly related to dissociative experiences and features of dissociative identity disorder (DID). These statistical associations suggest that dissociative disorders and ESP/trance experiences may share an underlying construct. Further research is needed on trauma and dissociation among female victims of domestic abuse in patriarchal, collectivist societies, particularly in the Arab world.
Article
This paper investigated a 60-item version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) with the potential to capture the full range of dissociative symptoms that characterize each of the dissociative disorders (DD). The 28-item Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) was designed to capture a wide range of dissociative phenomena, but college population studies indicate it may not be adept at identifying the full range of dissociative symptoms and disorders. The 218-item MID has the advantage of capturing the full range of dissociative symptoms and has diagnostic capabilities for all DSM-5 DD, but the disadvantage of taking considerably longer than the DES to complete. Using university students and staff (N = 313), this paper investigated a 60-item version of the MID with the potential to capture the full range of dissociative symptoms that characterize each of the DD. Results indicate the MID-60 has a nearly identical factor structure to the full MID, excellent internal reliability, and content and convergent validity. Using the MID-60, at least 8% of participants at an Australian university were positive for a DD and, on average, participants self-reported having dissociative experiences 13% of the time. The present study’s findings suggest the MID-60 is a promising alternative to the DES, with results about the prevalence of DDs and dissociative experiences consistent with those found using clinical interviews and the DES.
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Abstract Psychologists have long assumed a connection between traumatic experience and psychological dissociation. This hypothesis is referred to as the Trauma Model of dissociation. In the last decade, a series of papers have been published that question this traditional causal link, proposing an alternative Fantasy Model of dissociation. In this research, the relationship among dissociation, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were examined. Suggestibility was measured through the Gudjonsson Scale of Interrogative Suggestibility (GSS), as well as an autobiographically based version of this measure based on the events of September 11, 2001. Consistent with prior research and with the Trauma Model, dissociation correlated positively with trauma severity (r = .32, p < .01) and fantasy proneness (r = .60, p < .01). Inconsistent with the Fantasy Model, dissociation did not correlate with the neutral form of the Gudjonsson, and correlated negatively (r = -.24, p < .05) with the trauma-focused form of this suggestibility measure. Although some participants did become quite emotional during the procedure, the risk/benefit ratio was perceived by almost all participants to be positive, with more reactive individuals evaluating the procedure more positively. The results consistently support the Trauma Model of dissociation and fail to support the Fantasy Model of dissociation.
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This study is part of a larger project (Gingrich, 200418. Gingrich , H. D. 2004. Dissociation in a student sample in the Philippines, Quezon City, , Philippines: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of the Philippines. View all references) that examined dissociation in a student sample in the Philippines. High and low-moderate dissociators were identified from a sample of 459 freshman university students based on cutoff scores on two brief screening instruments. The Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) were then used to determine if any of the participants met diagnostic criteria for dissociative identity disorder (DID) or other dissociative disorders (DDs). Comparisons were made between the frequency of specific DDs diagnosed by each instrument and an evaluation done of the usefulness of the MID and SCID-D as diagnostic tools in a Filipino student sample.
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Ob jec tives : The pur pose of this re search was to ex plore the va lid ity of the con cept of dis so ci a tion as mea sured by a He brew version of the Dissociative Ex pe ri ences Scale (H-DES) in Is rael.De sign: The first study ex am ined the re li abil ity and va lid ity of the H-DES by as sess ing 340 con sec u tive ad mis sions to an Is raeli out pa tient clinic, and 290 nonclin i cal sub jects. The sec ond study ex plored the construct va lid ity of the con cept of dis so ci a tion by study ing re la tion ships be tween re ported past traumatization and cur rent lev els of dis so ci a tion among a dif fer ent co hort of 70 women Is raeli out pa tients.Re sults: The H-DES has good testre test and split-half re li abil ity in clin i cal and nonclin i cal sub jects, and is in ter nally con sis tent. Its con vergent va lid ity with the MMPI 2 Philips Dis so ci a tion Scale is good, and it has good cri te rionre lated va lid ity with DSM-IV dissociative dis or der di ag no ses. The con cept of dis so ci a tion as mea sured in Is rael by the H-DES has high re li abil ity and va lid ity.Con clu sions : The re li able iden ti fi ca tion of dis sociative ex pe ri ences in Is rael as well as in sev eral cul tures out side North Amer ica sup ports dis soci a tion as a valid psy cho log i cal con struct with wide spread cross cul tural ap pli ca bil ity. This study con tra dicts claims that dis so ci a tion is merely a pass ing North Amer i can pro fes sional fash ion.
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Reviews studies that relate to the norms, reliability, and validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Appropriate clinical and research use of the scale are discussed together with factor analytic studies and fruitful statistical analysis methods. Research reported for 1989–1992 with the DES is described, and promising new research questions are highlighted. Suggestions are made for translating and using the DES in other cultures. A 2nd version of the DES, which is easier to score, is included as an appendix. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined dissociation and its relationship to demographics, coping and symptomatology in a New Zealand student sample. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) performance of 137 students was examined in relation to gender and cultural identity, the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R), and Coping Response Inventory (CRI) The results indicate that (1) overall, DES performance was similar to that of students from the United States, Scotland, and the Netherlands; (2) there were significant main effects for gender and cultural identity and an interaction of the two when SCL-90-R and CRI performances were considered; (3) there was a significant main effect for cultural identity on the DES; and (4) performance on the DES was significantly related to symptomatology and emotion-focused coping, but only for individuals of European cultural identity. Implications for the assessment of New Zealand samples are discussed.
Book
(from the cover) Heavy migration patterns, the globalization of markets, and increased cross-cultural communications have made cross-cultural research a necessity in the behavioral and social sciences. In "Methods and Data Analysis for Cross-Cultural Research," the authors have developed a guide for graduate students and professionals that presents cross-cultural methodology in a practical light. The central focus is primarily on the design and analysis of quasi-experiments, which is the dominant framework for cross-cultural research. This volume presents an overview of tools of cross-cultural research and illustrates the most meaningful techniques in feature boxes, complete with sample data. (cover) This guide will be of interest to researchers in the fields of clinical/counseling psychology, social work, research methods, sociology, ethnic studies, and social psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (cover)
Article
En este artículo hacemos una revisión de los abusos sexuales. Para ello tenemos en cuenta la literatura internacional sobre este tema y una investigación realizada por nosotros en España. En dicha investigación entrevistamos a 2000 personas, una muestra representativa estructurada por comunidades autónomas, edad y sexo. Todas las investigaciones demuestran: que los agresores suelen ser varones, una alta prevalencia de los abusos sexuales, tanto en chicas (entre el 20% y el 25/%) y en chicos (entre el 10 % y el 15%), que éstos se repiten en casi la mitad de los casos y que tienen efectos importantes a corto plazo (en aproximadamente el 70% de los casos) y a largo plazo (en aproximadamente el 30% de los casos). Todo ello hace que sea necesaria y urgente la prevención, llevando a cabo programas con padres, profesionales y niños. To study the incidence of child abuse in Spain, a representative sample of 2,000 people structured according to autonomous communities, age and sex were interviewed. The data shows that: aggressors are usually male; there is a high prevalence of sexual abuse to girls (20%-25%) and boys (10%-15%); in almost half of the cases abuse is recurrent and has important short and long term effects (in about 70% and 30% of the cases, respectively). Thus, prevention programmes involving parents, children, and professionals are both necessary and urgent.
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Expanding the definition of disassociation in psychiatry, Ellert J. Nijenhaus presents a summary of the somatoform components of disassociation--how sensory and motor functions are affected by dissociative disorders. Founded in the current view of the mind-body integration, this book is essential reading for those engaged in the diagnosis, treatment, and study of dissociative disorders, PTSD, and other trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Nijenhaus takes a Janetian perspective, describing dissociation as arising from "mental stigmata" and the complexities of "mental accidents." Drawing on an empirical base of research, Nijenhuis links aspects of clinical dissociation with freezing in the presence of a predator illustrating the fundamental role of dissociation defenses in the face of overwhelming fear and danger. The author describes the assessment tools necessary to determine individual reactions. Nijenhaus discusses how trauma, somatoform dissociation and defense may work together, and how goals of assessment and therapy must include a thorough analysis of events and physical conditions as well as psychological and psychiatric techniques. Each chapter topic includes questionnaires and an assessment checklist. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article examined evidence for dimensional and typological models of dissociation. The authors reviewed previous research with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; E. B. Bernstein-Carlson & F. W. Putnam; see record 1987-14407-001) and note that this scale, like other dissociation questionnaires, was developed to measure that so called dissociative continuum. Next, recently developed taxometric methods for distinguishing typological from dimensional constructs are described and applied to DES item-response data from 228 adults with diagnosed multiple personality disorder and 228 normal controls. The taxometric findings empirically justify the distinction between two types of dissociative experiences. Nonpathological dissociative experiences are manifestations of a dissociative trait, whereas pathological dissociative experiences are manifestations of a latent class variable. The taxometric findings also indicate that there are two types of dissociators. Individuals in the pathological dissociative class (taxon) can be identified with a brief, 8-item questionnaire called the DES-T. Scores on the DES-T and DES are compared in 11 clinical and nonclinical samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It is well established that child sexual abuse is a considerable international problem, yet evidence regarding its prevalence in the United Kingdom is extremely sparse, with the most comprehensive study conducted over a decade ago. The aim of this study is to establish a current estimate of the prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in the United Kingdom, using a sample of female university students. Of the 213 female undergraduate students who completed questionnaires, 28 were sexually abused, giving a prevalence rate of 13.14%. Information was also obtained regarding the nature of the abuse. These results show that a substantial proportion of female students in the United Kingdom, who appear to be coping with tertiary education, have been sexually abused in childhood. The implications regarding the benefits of prevalence rates to health practitioners are discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
In this paper I return to the survivor case study and sex offender data I used in my paper on conceptual models of the relationship between pornography and child sexual abuse in Child Abuse Review in 1997. Here I use them to show how paedophile typologies and sex offender classifications contribute to constructing the invisibility of the normal, ordinary, heterosexual family men who sexually abuse their own and other people's children on a very substantial scale. I also use it as the basis for developing a typology which constructs the connections between incest, paedophilia, pornography and prostitution in the form of a ‘Continuum typology of child sexual abuse and the characteristics of child sexual abusers’, and captures the crossover of victims and perpetrators and the overlap of intrafamilial and extrafamilial child sexual abuse and exploitation. This, in turn, becomes the basis for constructing a ‘Nosology of child sexual abuse classification’ which genders the abusers and takes account of both the overlap and the dominant discourse currently of policing and policy, in which ‘paedophilia’ and ‘child sex offending’ have become synonymous, and incest abusers are invisible. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.