Postmortem Skeletal Survey Practice in Pediatric Forensic Autopsies: A National Survey
Department of Pediatrics, Riley Hospital for Children, Children's Health Services Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, 410 West 10th Street, Suite 1020, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.Journal of Forensic Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.16). 12/2008; 54(1):189-91. DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00922.x
Recommendations for the evaluation of an unexplained death in infancy include a postmortem skeletal survey (PMSS) to exclude skeletal trauma. Objectives of this study were to assess adherence to these recommendations in forensic autopsies in children equal to or less than 36 months of age, and what factors influence the use or nonuse of the PMSS. We surveyed pathologists who were members of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. The survey included practice characteristics about where, when, and how PMSS were done. Nearly all respondents (99.6%) indicated they performed PMSS at least some of the time; however, almost a third did not use PMSS for all suspected Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), abuse, unsafe sleep, or undetermined causes of death. Despite evidence that "babygrams" are inappropriate in a SIDS workup, 30% of pathologists use them preferentially. Despite SIDS being a diagnosis of exclusion that requires a PMSS, almost 10% of pathologists do not order a PMSS. Future research is necessary to reduce barriers to this important component of the pediatric forensic autopsy.
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ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. Nonlinear dynamics of the electrohydraulic servoactuator are represented by linear models corresponding to different ranges of motion. Model uncertainty bounds are determined for each amplitude range and the corresponding robust performance controllers are designed. The controllers designed from the larger amplitude models provide robust performance for a wider range of reference signals, as demonstrated by the experimental sensitivity functions. The robust performance controllers are implemented with the corresponding repetitive controllers and feedforward controllers for the manufacturing application of non-circular turning for camshaft machining. The tracking performance results are obtained for reference cam profiles of five different scalings. For the larger reference cam trajectories, the best performance is obtained using the controllers designed from the larger model amplitude ranges. These observations validate the modeling of the electrohydraulic system using linear models for different input amplitude ranges
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