How delivery mode and feeding can shape the bacterial community in the infant gut

Canadian Medical Association Journal (Impact Factor: 5.96). 02/2013; 185(5). DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.130147
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Se Jin Song, Nov 11, 2014
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    • "For example, infants born vaginally acquire a community more similar to the mother's vaginal and fecal microbiota, whereas infants born by cesarean section have a microbiome that is more similar to those of skin and hospital environments (Dominguez-Bello et al., 2010; Brooks et al., 2014). Cesarean section infants appear to have lower microbial richness and diversity relative to vaginally born infants at 4 months of age (Song et al., 2013). Throughout the first year of life the microbial community increases in diversity, reaching an adult-like state around 2.5 years of life (Koenig et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: While there has been growing interest in the gut microbiome in recent years, it remains unclear whether closely related species and strains have similar or distinct functional roles and if organisms capable of both aerobic and anaerobic growth do so simultaneously. To investigate these questions, we implemented a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify proteins in fecal samples collected on days of life 13-21 from an infant born at 28 weeks gestation. No prior studies have coupled strain-resolved community metagenomics to proteomics for such a purpose. Sequences were manually curated to resolve the genomes of two strains of Citrobacter that were present during the later stage of colonization. Proteome extracts from fecal samples were processed via a nano-2D-LC-MS/MS and peptides were identified based on information predicted from the genome sequences for the dominant organisms, Serratia and the two Citrobacter strains. These organisms are facultative anaerobes, and proteomic information indicates the utilization of both aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms throughout the time series. This may indicate growth in distinct niches within the gastrointestinal tract. We uncovered differences in the physiology of coexisting Citrobacter strains, including differences in motility and chemotaxis functions. Additionally, for both Citrobacter strains we resolved a community-essential role in vitamin metabolism and a predominant role in propionate production. Finally, in this case study we detected differences between genome abundance and activity levels for the dominant populations. This underlines the value in layering proteomic information over genetic potential.
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    ABSTRACT: Modern civilization is faced with a progressive increase in immune-mediated or inflammatory health problems such as allergic disease, autoimmune disorders and obesity. An extended version of the hygiene hypothesis has been introduced to emphasize the intimate interrelationship between diet, the immune system, microbiome and origins of human disease. the modern infant, particularly when delivered by caesarean section and without the recommended exclusive breast-feeding, may lack sufficient stimulation of the mucosal immune system to generate a tolerogenic immune milieu and instead be prone to develop chronic inflammatory conditions. These deviations may take the form of allergic or autoimmune disease, or predispose the child to higher weight gain and obesity. Moreover, evidence supports the role of first microbial contacts in promoting and maintaining a balanced immune response in early life and recent findings suggest that microbial contact begins prior to birth and is shaped by the maternal microbiota. Maternal microbiota may prove to be a safe and effective target for interventions decreasing the risk of allergic and non-communicable diseases in future generations. These results support the hypothesis that targeting early interaction with microbes might offer an applicable strategy to prevent disease.Pediatric Research (2014); doi:10.1038/pr.2014.173.
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