ArticleLiterature Review

Nutritional Quality of Legumes, and Their Role in Cardiometabolic Risk Prevention: A Review

Authors:
  • University of Oran1 Ahmed Ben Bella
  • University Oran1
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Abstract

Abstract Legumes (including alfalfa, clover, lupins, green beans and peas, peanuts, soybeans, dry beans, broad beans, dry peas, chickpeas, and lentils) represent an important component of the human diet in several areas of the world, especially in the developing countries, where they complement the lack of proteins from cereals, roots, and tubers. In some regions of the world, legume seeds are the only protein supply in the diet. The health benefits of legume consumption have received rising interest from researchers, and their consumption and production extends worldwide. Among European countries, higher legume consumption is observed around the Mediterranean, with per capita daily consumption between 8 and 23 g, while in Northern Europe, the daily consumption is less than 5 g per capita. The physiological effects of different legumes vary significantly. These differences may result from the polysaccharides composition, in particular, the quantity and variety of dietary fibers and starch, protein make-up, and variability in phytochemical content. The majority of legumes contain phytochemicals: bioactive compounds, including enzyme inhibitors, phytohemagglutinins (lectins), phytoestrogens, oligosaccharides, saponins, and phenolic compounds, which play metabolic roles in humans who frequently consume these foods. Dietary intake of phytochemicals may provide health benefits, protecting against numerous diseases or disorders, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and inflammation. The synergistic or antagonistic effects of these phytochemical mixtures from food legumes, their interaction with other components of the diet, and the mechanism of their action have remained a challenge with regard to understanding the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. Their mitigating effects and the mechanism of their action need to be further addressed if we are to understand the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. This review provides an overview of the nutritional quality of legumes and their potential contribution in cardiometabolic risk prevention.

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... Additionally, whole grains and legumes contain a complex mixture of phytochemicals possessing potent antioxidants. Lately, their high nutritional value is gaining great interest in developed countries as well due to the elevating demand for healthy food and plant-based proteins (Bouchenak & Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). As far as Europe is concerned, legume consumption has increased in the last decade to 3.9 kg per capita/year. ...
... However, there are large differences between countries with Greece, Portugal, and Spain holding the highest annual consumption of approximately 6 kg per capita. It has been demonstrated that frequent legume consumption (four or more times weekly compared with less than once a week) can been associated with 22% and 11% lower risk of coronary heart disease and cardio vascular disease, respectively (Bouchenak & Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). In recent studies, consumption of legumes has been linked with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer that is globally recognized as the second most common type of cancer both in men and women. ...
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The Mediterranean diet (MD) has long been acknowledged as one of the healthiest in the world. The Dietary pattern of the MD cannot stand alone without considering its social characteristics, including practices and traditions related to food processing, preparation, preservation and consumption; therefore MD was also recognized as an Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO. In the present chapter we discuss MD in terms of 'a sustainable diet' that promotes local consumption and seasonality, improves nutrient intake through food diversity, and plant genetic diversity, including crop wild relatives, contributes to sustainable rural development, and finally fits with low energyuse and environment and biodiversity protection. Aspects of the lifestyle, dietary, sociocultural, environmental and health challenges that the current Mediterranean populationis facing, are also touched uponin view of the erosion of the local culture and traditional food systems and the need of their revival.
... They provide substantial protein intake support to a significant proportion of the world's population, particularly in most developing countries [5]. Because of their high nutritional value, abundance of minerals and secondary metabolites, grain legumes have become valuable components of staple and functional foods [6]. The Canavalia species are categorized as a member of these crops. ...
... However, these fat contents are low compared to high-fat legumes such as peanut and soybeans which have fat contents of about 25.3% and 22.19%, respectively [27,28]. In fact, the studied seeds could be useful for preparation of some low-fat foodstuffs and snacks and in preventing hypertension and hypercholesterolemia [6]. Thus, they would be ideal foods for obese persons and recommended as good source of food supplement for patients with cardiac problems or at risk with lipid induced disorders as commented by Pedrosa et al. [29]. ...
Article
Aims: The present study was aimed at investigating the nutritional properties of legume-seeds from Canavalia genus as a function of their ripening stage. Methodology: Seeds of three species of canavalia seeds notably Canavalia gladiata, Canavalia ensiformis and Canavalia rosea were obtained from an experimental plot located in Bouaké area’s (7°41′00″ N, 5°01′59″ W) in Côte d’Ivoire. The seeds of these three species were collected at different ripening stages. The seeds were sun dried and ground to obtain the crude flour. Chemical composition and functional properties were investigated using standard methods while amino acid profiles were performed by using HPLC analytical methods. Results: Results reveal that the profiles of nutrients in the three Canavalia species varied as a function of ripening stages. The highest fat (3.27 ± 0.01 %), protein (33.20 ± 0.17), fibre (7.51 ± 0.06 %), ash (6.67 ± 0.01 %) and total sugar (25.40 ± 0.05 %) contents were obtained at the last ripening stage. All the legume-seeds investigated are excellent sources of proteins mainly consisting of high amounts of essential amino acids such as lysine (100.23 ± 0.04 mg/g protein), leucine (103.51 ± 0.04 mg/g protein), valine (83.68 ± 0.04 mg/g protein), methionine (27.36 ± 0.04 mg/g protein), tryptophan (74.32 ± 0.04 mg/g protein), cysteine (44.24 ± 0.04 mg/g protein), isoleucine (63.61 ± 0.04 mg/g protein), threonine (40.22 ± 0.04 mg/g protein) and histidine (17.76 ± 0.04 mg/g protein). As regards mineral contents of these seeds, they were higher at penultimate ripening stage and, they partially meet dietary allowance of infants. Conclusion: These seeds could be ranked as protein rich food for human and then, used as valuable substitutes for meat or fish.
... Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important grain legume nutritionally since it is a good source of protein, dietary fibre, polyunsaturated fats, complex carbohydrates, and essential minerals [1,2]. The legume plays a major role in the diet of infants and young children and is often consumed raw, boiled, roasted, or processed into peanut butter in most sub-Saharan African households [3]. ...
... The backyard industries use low grade peanuts because they were cheaper and easy to process as they did not require high temperatures during the roasting stage of peanut butter production thus lower production costs. After roasting and blanching processes, the low grade and grade A peanuts were mixed so as to 2 International Journal of Food Science produce a product with better taste as larger quantities of lower grade peanuts produce a bitter product. The recovery for the aflatoxins at 5 μg/kg spiking level for AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , and AFG 2 were as follows 80.51%, 76.47%, 81.07%, and 80.78%, respectively (Table 1). ...
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Peanuts and peanut butter play an important role nutritionally in improving the diets of individuals in many parts of Africa, especially in the fight against child malnutrition. However, in developing countries such as Zimbabwe, most of the raw peanuts and peanut butter produced in backyard industries are sold in informal markets and rarely undergo formal safety inspection for aflatoxin contamination. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of aflatoxins in raw peanuts and backyard peanut butter sold at Mbare informal market. Ten (10) raw peanut samples and twenty (20) peanut butter samples were collected from Mbare informal market. Aflatoxin contamination was determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results revealed that sixty percent (60%) of the raw peanut samples were contaminated with total aflatoxin ranging from <0.75 to 426.4 μg/kg. One hundred percent (100%) of peanut butter samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins ranging from 4.7 μg/kg to 435.0 μg/kg. Aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent aflatoxin in both raw peanuts (range, 1.2 μg/kg to 90.8 μg/kg) and peanut butter (range, 4.7 to 382.9 μg/kg). Forty percent (40%) of the raw peanuts and 95% of peanut butter samples exceeded the maximum limits of AFB1 as set by Zimbabwe legislation. The results suggest that raw peanuts and especially the peanut butter from backyard industries are heavily contaminated with aflatoxins and could constitute a possible health risk to consumers who regularly purchase these food commodities from informal markets.
... These seeds are recognized globally as a low-cost meat substitute and regarded as the second most important dietary source after cereals (Kouris-Blazos and Belski, 2016). Legumes are high inprotein, essential amino acids, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibre, unsaturated fats, vitamins, and critical minerals, all of which are important in the human diet (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013;Clark et al., 2014;Rebello et al., 2014). Due to the abundance of useful bioactive chemicals, legumes also have been assigned economic, cultural, physiological, and therapeutic functions in addition to their nutritional excellence. ...
... As a result, beans have a low glycemic index (GI) rating for blood glucose control (Philips, 1993;Khalid and Elharadallou, 2013) making them ideal for diabetic patients and those at greater risk of acquiring diabetes. In general, legumes are beneficial for people who want to live a healthy, disease-free lifestyle (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). Legumes are also a rich source of dietary fiber (5-37%), with large levels of both soluble and insoluble fibers (Philips, 1993;Leonard, 2012;Kouris-Blazos and Belski, 2016). ...
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Globally more than two billion people suffer from micronutrient malnutrition (also known as “hidden hunger”). Further, the pregnant women and children in developing nations are mainly affected by micronutrient deficiencies. One of the most important factors is food insecurity which can be mitigated by improving the nutritional values through biofortification using selective breeding and genetic enhancement techniques. Chickpea is the second most important legume with numerous economic and nutraceutical properties. Therefore, chickpea production needs to be increased from the current level. However, various kind of biotic and abiotic stresses hamper global chickpea production. The emerging popular targets for biofortification in agronomic crops include targeting cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX). The CKXs play essential roles in both physiological and developmental processes and directly impact several agronomic parameters i.e., growth, development, and yield. Manipulation of CKX genes using genome editing tools in several crop plants reveal that CKXs are involved in regulation yield, shoot and root growth, and minerals nutrition. Therefore, CKXs have become popular targets for yield improvement, their overexpression and mutants can be directly correlated with the increased yield and tolerance to various stresses. Here, we provide detailed information on the different roles of CKX genes in chickpea. In the end, we discuss the utilization of genome editing tool clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) to engineer CKX genes that can facilitate trait improvement. Overall, recent advancements in CKX and their role in plant growth, stresses and nutrient accumulation are highlighted, which could be used for chickpea improvement.
... They are an essential component not only of the Mediterranean diet but also of the diet in many developing countries (Clemente and Jimenez-Lopez 2020). Lentils, chickpeas, beans and peas, amongst other legumes, are rich sources of protein and complex carbohydrates such as insoluble fibre, which has a low glycaemic index (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji 2013;Dhull et al. 2020). They also have a high content of bioactive compounds, such as B vitamins, minerals such as potassium and magnesium, and polyphenols (Becerra-Tomás et al. 2019; Khazaei et al. 2019). ...
... Despite the high-quality nutritional profile of lentils and quinoa, they also contain antinutrients (phytates, polyphenols, such as tannins, and gastric protease inhibitors), which hinder digestibility and the absorption of nutrients (Schlemmer et al. 2009;Nkhata et al. 2018;Asensio-Grau et al. 2020). Phytates mainly affect the bioavailability of minerals, as may also occur with tannins (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji 2013;Khazaei et al. 2019). Tannins react with amino acids, such as lysine and methionine, limiting their bioavailability (Sarwar-Gilani et al. 2012;Samtiya et al. 2020). ...
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Solid-state fermentation (SSF) may be a suitable bioprocess to produce protein-vegetal ingredients with increased nutritional and functional value. This study assessed changes in phenol content, antinutrient content, biomass production and protein production resulting from the metabolic activity of Pleurotus ostreatus , an edible fungus, in lentils and quinoa over 14 days of SSF. The impact of particle size on these parameters was also assessed because the process was conducted in both seeds and flours. Fungus biomass increased during fermentation, reaching 30.0 ± 1.4 mg/g dry basis and 32 ± 3 mg/g dry basis in lentil grain and flour and 52.01 ± 1.08 mg/g dry basis and 45 ± 2 mg/g dry basis in quinoa seeds and flour after 14 days of SSF. Total protein content also increased by 20% to 25% during fermentation, in all cases except lentil flour. However, the soluble protein fraction remained constant. Regarding phytic acid, SSF had a positive impact, with a progressive decrease being higher in flours than in seeds. Regarding antioxidant properties, autoclaving of the substrates promoted the release of polyphenols, together with antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP), in all substrates. However, these parameters drastically decreased as fermentation progressed. These results provide scientific knowledge for producing lentil- or quinoa-based ingredients with low antinutrient content enriched with protein fungal biomass. Graphical Abstract
... Data epidemiologi telah menunjukkan bahwa konsumsi kacang-kacangan sangat bermanfaat menurunkan resiko penyakit kardiovaskular, hipertensi, serta sindrom metabolik seperti obesitas dan diabetes melitus 1 . Kandungan nutrisi dalam kacang-kacangan sangat dibutuhkan khususnya dalam rangka penyediaan makanan sehat. ...
... Biosintesis asam lemak dalam tumbuhan melibatkan dua jenis enzim yakni elongase yang berfungsi memperpanjang rantai karbon dan enzim desaturase yang berfungsi mereduksi unsur Hidrogen dari struktur asam lemak sehingga dihasilkan ikatan rangkap pada struktur asam lemak atau dikenal sebagai asam lemak tak jenuh 31,32 seperti yang tampak pada gambar 1. Secara alamiah, tubuh manusia tidak dapat memproduksi ALA dan LA, oleh karena itu keduanya dikategorikan sebagai asam lemak esensial 34 . ALA merupakan asam lemak golongan omega-3 yang juga merupakan prekursor pembentukan EPA dan DHA 1,16,33,34 pada tumbuhan. Adapun pada manusia ALA hanya sedikit dikonversi menjadi EPA dan DHA 33,34 , namun hal tersebut masih menjadi perdebatan 35 . ...
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p>Consumption of nuts is known to have a variety of health benefits. Nutritional contents in the nuts are needed, especially in order to provide healthy food. Nuts are rich in protein, carbohydrates, fiber, fatty acids, and bioactive compounds. There are four types of beans that are commonly consumed by Indonesian people, namely soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr], green beans [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilezek], peas (Pisum sativum L.), and red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L). The purposes of this study were to produce data on the content of secondary metabolites, the value of quality parameters, and data on fatty acid content in four types of nuts. A series of research phases have been conducted including phytochemical screening, analysis of quality parameters, and analysis of fatty acid content using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic methods (GCMS). The results showed that the four types of beans contained alkaloids and essential oils, and some of them contained flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and polyphenols. Analysis of quality parameters showed that the content of polar compounds was higher than the semi-polar and non-polar compounds. The largest yield of fatty oil was produced from soybeans (3.83%) followed by peas (1.25%), green beans (0.57%), and kidney beans (0.44%). The oils from the all both contained palmitic acid, LA, and stearic acid. Only green bean and red bean oil contained omega-3, namely ALA, in the amounts respectively 20.37% and 40%. Meanwhile, soybean and peanut oil contained LA 36.71% and 35.53% respectively.</p
... Legumes are a staple food in many countries around the world. The most commonly eaten varieties are beans, faba beans, chickpeas, peas, lentils, cowpeas, lupins, and soybeans [62][63][64]. Legumes are suitable for growing under adverse environmental conditions and in a variety of growing systems due to their low input requirements, short growing season, and nitrogen fixation capacity [64]. As shown in Table 2, legumes are a rich source of carbohydrates (30-60% of total content), dietary fiber (9-25%), and protein (19-36%) containing the necessary amino acids such as lysine, leucine, and arginine [22,65,66]. ...
... Their action can be considered positive, negative, or in some cases, both. Dietary fiber, resistant starch, polyphenols, and phytosterols are referred to as health-promoting ingredients [63,68,69]. Legumes are rich in both soluble and insoluble fiber. ...
Article
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Fermentation is widely used in the processing of dairy, meat, and plant products. Due to the growing popularity of plant diets and the health benefits of consuming fermented products, there has been growing interest in the fermentation of plant products and the selection of microorganisms suitable for this process. The review provides a brief overview of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their use in fermentation of legumes and legume-based beverages. Its scope also extends to prebiotic ingredients present in legumes and legume-based beverages that can support the growth of LAB. Legumes are a suitable matrix for the production of plant-based beverages, which are the most popular products among dairy alternatives. Legumes and legume-based beverages have been successfully fermented with LAB. Legumes are a natural source of ingredients with prebiotic properties , including oligosaccharides, resistant starch, polyphenols, and isoflavones. These compounds provide a broad range of important physiological benefits, including anti-inflammatory and immune regulation, as well as anti-cancer properties and metabolic regulation. The properties of leg-umes make it possible to use them to create synbiotic food, which is a source of probiotics and prebiotics.
... [16,45,50]. Most legumes contain phytochemicals: bioactive compounds, including enzyme inhibitors, phytohemagglutinins (lectins), phytoestrogens, oligosaccharides, saponins, and phenolic compounds, which may provide health benefits, protecting against diseases or disorders such as CVD and inflammation [56]. The most abundant and active isoflavone in soy is genistein, which acts as a natural selective estrogen receptors-β modulator and positively regulates some cardiovascular risk markers [57]. ...
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Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many non-infectious diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), a leading cause of death in Europe. The aim of the study was to assess the inflammatory potential of the diets of participants enrolled in the Polish arm of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, evaluate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) score with the dietary content, and to determine the correlation of DII score with selected anthropometric parameters and biochemical risk factors for CVD. Diets were assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Among participants with pro-inflammatory diets, we reported higher mean values of triglycerides (TG), fasting glucose (FG), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and the Castelli’s risk index (CRI) in the group of men and women, and higher waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in the group of women. Pro-inflammatory diets were associated with higher intake of refined grains, sweets, juices, red meat, high-fat cheese and cream, alcohol, fats except for vegetable oils, potatoes, sugar and honey, French fries, fried fish, and processed/high-fat poultry. Moreover, study participants with pro-inflammatory diets consumed more milk, low-fat dairy, and eggs associated with unhealthy dietary habits, but this should not be considered as an independent CVD risk factor. Anthropometric and biochemical outcomes were more favorable among study participants who consumed more vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, raisins, pulses, low-fat poultry, and tea. However, association of beverage consumption with dietary inflammatory potential requires further study.
... Legumes have numerous nutritional characteristics that have the potential to decrease the risk of disease [1][2][3]. Meta-analyses show that legume intake is inversely associated with incident cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and cardiometabolic risk factors [1,2,[4][5][6]. Despite the many disease-prevention and health-enhancing qualities associated with legume intake, consumption levels tend to be modest in the U.S. and appear to be decreasing [7,8]. Based on purchasing data from grocery stores, chain supermarkets, club stores, and other retail outlets, Semba et al. concluded in 2021, "Although legumes are inexpensive, healthy, and a sustainable source of protein, per capita legume intake remains low in the U.S. and below dietary guidelines" [9]. ...
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There were three objectives: (1) evaluate the relationship between legume intake and weight change across the previous 10 years, (2) examine the cross-sectional associations between legume consumption, BMI, and abdominal adiposity, and (3) determine if the relationship between legume intake and the outcomes were influenced by multiple covariates, particularly fiber intake. The sample included 15,185 randomly selected adults representative of the U.S. population. Percent change in weight was used as the outcome measure for the 10-year analysis. BMI, and waist circumference, corrected for height, were employed as the outcomes for the cross-sectional analyses. Legume, fiber, and energy intakes were measured using the average of two 24-h dietary recalls. Legume intake was divided into three categories. Five demographic and five lifestyle covariates were controlled statistically. There was an inverse dose-response relationship between legume intake and percent weight change over the previous 10 years after adjusting for 9 of the covariates (F = 6.5, p = 0.0028). However, after controlling for fiber with the other covariates, there were no differences across the three legume intake groups (F = 1.9, p = 0.1626). The cross-sectional findings showed similar inverse dose-response results until fiber intake was controlled. Then the associations became non-significant. In conclusion, legume intake is a good predictor of percent weight change over the previous 10 years, and it is also a significant predictor of BMI and abdominal adiposity cross-sectionally. These relationships are strongly influenced by fiber consumption. Evidently, legumes have dietary advantages, especially high fiber levels, that seem to be valuable in the battle against weight gain and obesity.
... Recent years have seen a rising interest in legumes and their benefits as a healthy diet worldwide. Pulse grains are known as dietary rich in protein, carbohydrates, fibers, and minerals (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013;De Cillis et al., 2019). Therefore, pulses are considered an alternative highprotein diet to dietary meat, especially in areas where most people are suffering from poverty and low-quality diet. ...
... In addition to their nutritional value, legumes have recently gained interest because their frequent consumption supports health and disease mitigation through their nutritional profile and bioactive compounds [9]. Legumes help the homeostatic control of lipids and may potentially prevent cardiometabolic risks [10] or diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus [11]. In addition, they modulate the gut microbiome, improve glycemic control and reduce cholesterol absorption. ...
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Legumes are a highly nutritious source of plant protein, fiber, minerals and vitamins. However, they also contain several bioactive compounds with significant potential benefits for human health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant, antitumor and chemopreventive activity of functional extracts from legumes using raw and germinated flours of six legume species of commercial interest. The methodology carried out consisted on the development of protein hydrolysates, assessment of their antioxidant capacity and in vitro tests on T84, HCT15 and SW480 colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Our results showed a high antitumor activity of protein hydrolysate from M. sativa. Likewise, when combined with 5-Fluorouracile (5-Fu), there was a synergistic effect using extract concentrations from 50 to 175 µg/mL and 5-Fu concentrations from 1.5 to 5 µM. Similarly, the induction effect on detoxifying enzymes by the extracts of M. sativa, germinated V. faba Baraca × LVzt1 and V. narbonensis, which produced a higher induction rate than the positive control sulforaphane (10 µM), should be highlighted. Therefore, incorporating these enzymes into the diet could provide nutritional effects, as well as play an effective role in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.
... Grain legumes occupy an important place in human nutrition, especially in the dietary pattern of low-income groups of people in developing countries (Wani et al., 2013). Legumes, considered as poor man's meat, are generally good sources of nutrients (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). They are an important and inexpensive source of protein, dietary fiber, unsaturated fats, complex carbohydrates and essential minerals for a large part of the world's population, mainly in developing countries (Rebello et al., 2014). ...
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Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is an important legume and an alternative source of protein which can be used as a substitute for animal protein that is limited in supply in Ethiopia. This study was initiated to evaluate the nutritional, antinutritional, functional properties and cooking time of two improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) varieties (Bole and Kanketi) grown in Ethiopia. The crude protein (28.80%), total ash (5.04%) and total energy (336.89 Kcal/100g) contents were higher for Bole variety than Kanketi variety (25.32%, 4.71% and 329.72 Kcal/100g), respectively. Kanketi variety had greater moisture content (8.91%), crude fiber (6.60%), crude fat (2.12%) and digestible carbohydrate (52.34%) than Bole variety (8.45%, 4.71%, 1.91% and 51.12%), respectively. The mineral content of the Bole variety revealed significantly higher values of Ca (43.36 mg/100g), Zn (6.17 mg/100g) and Fe (15.65 mg/100g) than Kanketi variety (41.91 mg/100g, 4.99 mg/100g and 13.32 mg/100g), respectively. Tannin and phytic acid content were found in the range of 28.43 to 31.23 mg/100g and 80.37 to 127.99 mg/100g, respectively, for Bole and Kanketi varieties. Both varieties had no significance (p < 0.05) difference on swelling power. Water solubility (20.19%) and oil absorption capacity (2.24 g/g) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher for Bole variety than Kanketi variety (17.56% and 2.06 g/g). Bulk density and water absorption capacity were found in the range of 0.75 to 0.79 g/ml and 2.39 to 2.54 g/g, respectively, for Bole and Kanketi varieties. The cooking time was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for Kanketi (27.42 min) than Bole variety (17.59 min). The results showed that Bole variety had good nutritional potential, low antinutritional factor, better functional properties and short cooking time than Kanketi variety. Hence, it can be used as a raw material in the food processing industries in the production of quality weaning and supplementary food products.
... Legumes, pasta, and cereal-based meals are fundamental foods of the Mediterranean diet. Dietary interventions for diabetes prevention have frequently focused on foods with a low GI [10], among which pulses stand out not only for producing ameliorated glycemic responses [11], but also for other positive nutritional attributes including high amounts of dietary fiber, micronutrients, phytochemicals, low amounts of fat, and slowly digestible carbohydrates [12,13]. Among the bioactive compounds contained in legumes, some molecules influence glucose metabolism, due to inhibition of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), suppression of glucose absorption in the intestine, and stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells [14]. ...
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Low glycemic index (GI) diets have been associated with decreased chronic disease risk. In a randomized, cross-over study we investigated the GI and glycemic response to three traditional Greek mixed meals: Lentils, Trahana, and Halva. Twelve healthy, fasting individuals received isoglucidic test meals (25 g available carbohydrate) and 25 g glucose reference, in random order. GI was calculated and capillary blood glucose (BG) samples were collected at 0–120 min after meal consumption. Subjective appetite ratings were assessed. All three tested meals provided low GI values. Lentils GI was 27 ± 5, Trahana GI was 42 ± 6, and Halva GI was 52 ± 7 on glucose scale. Peak BG values were lowest for Lentils, followed by Trahana and then by Halva (p for all <0.05). Compared to the reference food, BG concentrations were significantly lower for all meals at all time-points (p for all <0.05). Lentils provided lower glucose concentrations at 30 and 45 min compared to Trahana (p for all <0.05) and at 30, 45, and 60 min compared to Halva (p for all <0.05). BG concentrations did not differ between Trahana and Halva at all time points. No differences were observed for fasting BG, time to peak rise for BG, and subjective appetite ratings. In conclusion, all three mixed meals attenuated postprandial glycemic response in comparison to glucose, which may offer advantages to glycemic control.
... Many legumes also contain dietary fiber and resistant starch, which reduces the glycemic response and provides health benefits. Since legumes are a better source of essential amino acids, particularly lysine, the enrichment of cereal flour with pulses can improve the nutritional quality of the resulting product, increasing the protein content and contributing to a better balance in the protein profile (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). Food enrichment with pulses, flours, or their proteins has beneficial effects on health, well-being, and potential disease prevention. ...
Chapter
Functional foods are food products having an additional function beneficial for the consumer, beyond the provision of nutrients. It is common opinion that functional foods should be an integral part of the eating habits of the population they are intended for. Cereal-based products represent a staple food in many cultures; therefore due to their frequency of consumption they represent ideal functional foods. Sweet and savory cereal-based products can be functional for their intrinsic characteristics, or the “functionality” can be conferred through the addition of functional ingredients such as fibers, proteins, bioactive molecules or other ingredients containing them. Commonly, the general acceptability of these products results only little compromised by the addition of functional ingredients, which is another reason of the success of these products as functional foods. An emerging trend is the employ of agro-food by-products for the fortification of cereal-based goods, together with the use of new fibers sources and underexploited grains. This chapter illustrates recent advances in the formulation of functional baked goods such as bread, biscuits, cakes and other cereal-based products, mainly breakfast cereals and pasta. Physical, chemical, nutritional and sensory properties will be illustrated without neglecting the potential effect on consumers’ health presenting the results of in vitro and in vivo studies.KeywordsFunctional foodsBakery productsPastaBreakfast cerealsFood quality
... sesquipedalis). Food products prepared from Vigna are a source of many nutrients: proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, minerals, fiber, vitamins, and other bioactive compounds [3][4][5][6][7]. This crop has a high level of polyphenols, some profiles of which are not commonly found in other legumes. ...
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The research presents a comparative metabolomic study of extracts of Vigna unguiculata seed samples from the collection of the N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources. Analyzed samples related to different areas of use in agricultural production, belonging to different cultivar groups sesquipedalis (vegetable accessions) and unguiculata (grain accessions). Metabolome analysis was performed by liquid chromatography combined with ion trap mass spectrometry. Substances were localized in seeds using confocal and laser microscopy. As a result, 49 bioactive compounds were identified: flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidin, phenolic acids, amino acids, monocarboxylic acids, aminobenzoic acids, fatty acids, lignans, carotenoid, sapogenins, steroids, etc. Steroidal alkaloids were identified in V. unguiculata seeds for the first time. The seed coat (palisade epidermis and parenchyma) is the richest in phenolic compounds. Comparison of seeds of varieties of different directions of use in terms of the number of bioactive substances identified revealed a significant superiority of vegetable accessions over grain ones in this indicator, 36 compounds were found in samples from cultivar group sesquipedalis, and 24 in unguiculata. The greatest variety of bioactive compounds was found in the vegetable accession k-640 from China.
... Numerous phytochemicals with pharmacological properties that promote health have been found in legumes. As a result, legumes/legume-based foods are gaining more interest, resulting in their increased production and utilization [1]. Among the various phytochemicals identified to date, polyphenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their many pharmacological activities and health-promoting benefits [2]. ...
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Bambara groundnut (BGN) is an underexploited crop with a rich nutrient content and is used in traditional medicine, but limited information is available on the quantitative characterization of its flavonoids and phenolic acids. We investigated the phenolic profile of whole seeds and cotyledons of five BGN varieties consumed in South Africa using UPLC-qTOF-MS and GC-MS. Twenty-six phenolic compounds were detected/quantified in whole seeds and twenty-four in cotyledon, with six unidentified compounds. Flavonoids include flavan-3-ol (catechin, catechin hexoside-A, catechin hexoside-B), flavonol (quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, rutin, myricetin, kaempherol), hydroxybenzoic acid (4-Hydroxybenzoic, 2,6 Dimethoxybenzoic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, syringaldehyde, gallic acids), hydroxycinnamic acid (trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic acids) and lignan (medioresinol). The predominant flavonoids were catechin/derivatives, with the highest content (78.56 mg/g) found in brown BGN. Trans-cinnamic and ferulic acids were dominant phenolic acid. Cotyledons of brown and brown-eyed BGN (317.71 and 378.59 µg/g) had the highest trans-cinnamic acid content, while red seeds had the highest ferulic acid (314.76 µg/g) content. Colored BGN had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher content of these components. Whole BGN contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher amount of flavonoids and phenolic acids, except for the trans-cinnamic acid. The rich flavonoid and phenolic acid content of BGN seeds highlights the fact that it is a good source of dietary phenolics with potential health-promoting properties.
... Understanding the mechanism of seed longevity has greater ecological, agronomical and economical significance. Legumes belonging to the family of Fabaceae are nutritionally invaluable, providing proteins with essential amino acids together with carbohydrates, fibers and vitamins (Bailly, 2004;Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013;Annor et al., 2014), however associated with the problem of poor seed longevity. Seed longevity in legumes greatly varies within the species, and can be ascertained based on the P 50 value (half viability index). ...
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Sustainable agricultural production largely depends upon the viability and longevity of high-quality seeds during storage. Legumes are considered as rich source of dietary protein that helps to ensure nutritional security, but associated with poor seed longevity that hinders their performance and productivity in farmer's fields. Seed longevity is the key determinant to assure proper seed plant value and crop yield. Thus, maintenance of seed longevity during storage is of prime concern and a pre-requisite for enhancing crop productivity of legumes. Seed longevity is significantly correlated with other seed quality parameters such as germination, vigor, viability and seed coat permeability that affect crop growth and development, consequently distressing crop yield. Therefore, information on genetic basis and regulatory networks associated with seed longevity, as well as molecular dissection of traits linked to longevity could help in developing crop varieties with good storability. Keeping this in view, the present review focuses towards highlighting the molecular basis of seed longevity, with special emphasis on candidate genes and proteins associated with seed longevity and their interplay with other quality parameters. Further, an attempt was made to provide information on 3D structures of various genetic loci (genes/proteins) associated to seed longevity that could facilitate in understanding the interactions taking place within the seed at molecular level. This review compiles and provides information on genetic and genomic approaches for the identification of molecular pathways and key players involved in the maintenance of seed longevity in legumes, in a holistic manner. Finally, a hypothetical fast-forward breeding pipeline has been provided, that could assist the breeders to successfully develop varieties with improved seed longevity in legumes.
... Fermentation of leguminous substrates can influence the presence of various bioactive components, such as vitamins, natural phenolics, and bioactive peptides (Gan et al., 2017) and can promote the reduction of anti-nutritional factors, as oligosaccharides, proteinase inhibitors, and trypsin inhibitors, saponins, and phytates (Worku and Sahu, 2017). Phytochemicals with antioxidant properties, as polyphenols compounds, play a key role in the prevention of some cancers, heart diseases, osteoporosis, and other chronic degenerative diseases (Bouchena and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). They are mainly found in conjugated form with organic acids or sugar groups, or can be covalently bound to cell wall macromolecules, as polysaccharides and proteins. ...
... However, these antinutrients ill-effects may be avoided by dehulling, soaking, steaming, boiling, cooking (heating), sprouting, roasting, and fermentation (Huma et al., 2008). On the other hand, phytochemicals with antioxidant properties can substantially reduce the risk of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and other chronic degenerative diseases (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013;Rebello et al., 2014). Coloredseed coats of Bambara groundnut, black bean, red kidney bean, and black gram have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity (Maphosa and Jideani, 2017). ...
Chapter
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Legume-based cropping systems (LCS) are considered instrumental to sustainable intensification in smallholder systems with multiple ecological, social, and economic benefits. Legumes are promising components in cereal-based cropping systems and can generate beneficial impacts on soil, animal., and human health. Such multifunctionality asks for contextualizing legumes and LCS from a system perspective involving several nexuses of soil, plant, feed, food, environment, market, nutrition, and health. System yield increment due to incorporation of legume has been observed in many sequential cropping systems. Legumes improve soil quality through biological nitrogen fixation and reduce chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer application in the current and succeeding crops. It has been estimated that legume crops can fulfil 80%–90% of their N requirements during one crop season from this biological nitrogen fixation and transfer 0%–70% of this biologically fixed N to the succeeding crops. Legumes also utilize residual soil moisture of postrice fallow, require significantly less input, enhance the resilience of farming systems, promises a higher economic return, and ensure food and nutritional security of resource-poor farm families. Besides, legumes can reduce energy input requirements and mitigate greenhouse gases emissions from the cropping system. Legumes are essential components of livestock feed and can potentially improve the quantity and quality of livestock products. The LCS can also play a pivotal role in improving human health and nutrition, thus reducing malnutrition and morbidity. Profitable legume-based systems are being reported or designed, and value-added legumes are increasingly gaining popularity and share in the global food market. Summarily, legumes can be considered an important crop for ecological balance, poverty alleviation, and human nutrition. It is high time that we value and judge legumes in terms of their multifunctionality in the agricultural and food systems. We hypothesize that inviting a system perspective in understanding multiple pathways of legume-based systems might help us design and target LCS for smallholder systems.
... Legumes, predominantly lentils, have been proposed as a crucial dietary factor that can prevent cardiovascular disease. Certain functional phytochemicals of legumes possibly will act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents and can have consequent protective functions on pathological conditions triggered by oxidative stress, including cardiovascular disease (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). The legumes are rich in bioactive compounds, among which they give a tough competition to the weeds for niche and nutrients. ...
Chapter
Agriculture is a prevailing mean to manage cultivable landscapes across the globe due to strong interconnection with the surroundings. Ecological systems bestow several services which are essential to the welfare of mankind. Agroecosystems are prolific providers of several provisioning ecological services such as food, feed and energy. In turn, agroecosystems are greatly reliant on superior ecological conditions like soil health, water quality and availability, control of soil runoff, etc. Anthropogenic activities aiming to obtain enhanced food productivity result in the destruction of these properties of the ecological system in several ways. However, legume farming plays a vital function in maintaining the qualities of ecosystems. Evaluation of these interconnections of ecosystems and services are desirable to recognize their associations in greatly directive systems. The conservation of ecological services and sustainability in food productivity needs a models wing in agricultural practices which allow a collective approach supporting the mean of enhanced usage of soil, water and other biological sources to improve the ecosystem rather than the solitary way.
... Likewise, they contribute to the food's physicochemical and sensory properties (Korhonen & Pihlanto, 2006). For example, legume seeds contain about 17-40% protein, predominantly rich in lysine due to a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria that convert the unusable nitrogen gas into ammonium, allowing the plant roots to incorporate it into protein synthesis (Bouchenak & Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). ...
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Extensively consumed worldwide, legumes such as beans, soybeans, chickpeas, and peas represent a great source of protein. Legume‐derived proteins provide bioactive peptides, small sequences of amino acids produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, gastrointestinal digestion, fermentation, or germination. Recent studies showed diverse biological effects of these peptides as antioxidants, antihypertensives, anti‐inflammatory, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic, and even immunomodulators. These beneficial effects aid in preventing and treating chronic illnesses, particularly inflammatory disorders, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, this work discusses these biological functions in gastrointestinal digestion health of bioactive peptides obtained from common beans, soybeans, chickpeas, peas, and other legumes. Practical applications Knowledge of the nutraceutical properties of legumes can encourage the use of these seeds as ingredients in the development and design of functional foods.
... In Africa, several of such alkaline fermented food products are produced in each country or region, thus contributing to a complex rich traditional dietary diversity, with important food security and sustainability implications (Iwuoha and Eke, 1996;Parkouda et al., 2009). Soybean, the most common plant substrate for AFFs produced in Asia, is nutritious with high levels of protein and fat (Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013). However, unprocessed soybean contains high levels of complex oligosaccharides and antinutrients (Reddy and Pierson, 1994), as well as potential allergens (Phromraksa et al., 2008). ...
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Traditional food fermentation is a practice that precedes human history. Acidic products such as yogurts and sourdoughs or alcoholic beverages produced through lactic acid or yeast fermentations, respectively, are widely described and documented. However, a relatively less popular group of fermented products known as alkaline fermented foods are common traditional products in Africa and Asia. These products are so called “alkaline” because the pH tends to increase during fermentation due to the formation of ammonia resulting from protein degradation by Bacillus species. Plant-based alkaline fermented foods (AFFs) are generally produced from legumes including soybean, non-soybean leguminous seeds, and other non-legume plant raw materials. Alkaline fermented food products such as natto, douchi, kinema, doenjang, chongkukjang, thua nao, meitauza, yandou, dawadawa/iru, ugba, kawal, okpehe, otiru, oso, ogiri, bikalga, maari/tayohounta, ntoba mbodi, cabuk, and owoh are produced at small industrial scale or household levels and widely consumed in Asia and Africa where they provide essential nutrients and health-promoting bioactive compounds for the population. Alkaline food fermentation is important for sustainable food security as it contributes to traditional dietary diversity, significantly reduces antinutritional components in raw plant materials thereby improving digestibility, improves health via the production of vitamins, and may confer probiotic and post-biotic effects onto consumers. In this review, we present currently available scientific information on plant-based AFFs and their role as sustainable sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds for improved health. Finally, we provide perspectives on research needs required to harness the full potential of AFFs in contributing to nutrition and health.
... However, oil seeds have a range of lipid content from about 18% in soybeans to as high as 43% in groundnuts as reported by Osagie (1998), Dewey and Brown (2003). All legume grains contain a larger amount of minerals and vitamins, fibres, antioxidants and some other bioactive compounds (Bouchenak and Lamri-senhadji, 2013). Cowpeas, soybeans, and bambara groundnuts are good sources of calcium and iron with their contents being higher than those of animal sources such as meat, fish or eggs. ...
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The review was carried out to create awareness among individuals, government and non-governmental organizations on the roles of complementary foods for growth and development of infants in developing countries. Literature on complementary foods was critically assessed. Breast milk and complementary foods have been responsible for optimal growth and development of a young child. The period during which other foods or liquids containing nutrients are given to a young baby, along with breast milk, is considered to be complementary feeding. Information has been reported that breast milk becomes insufficient to meet the required nutrients for growth and development after six months. Therefore, the introduction of complementary foods is strongly required for sustainable growth. Unlike in developing countries, the use of complementary foods in the developed countries is well controlled, because of improved technologies, moderate to high incomes and government supports where needed. Conclusively, there is a need to sensitize nursing mothers on the importance of complementary foods for the growth and development of their children. Besides, there is also a need for government interventions to reduce the costs of such foods and to increase their accessibility, especially in the rural areas.
... These results were consistence with the findings of Shimeles (2004) and Derese (2014). (Bouchenak et al, 2013;Campos-Vega and Oomah, 2010). Anti-nutritionals are those compounds present in human foods or animal feeds that reduce nutrient utilization or food intake. ...
... Cluster bean plant has received tremendous attention as functional foods based on their high nutritional profile like 28.3 to 35.0% crude protein, 4.1 to 8.0% crude fiber, 38.8 to 59.1% carbohydrate contents, 2.3% to 7.3% oil and moisture contents along with polyphenols, tannins, and phytic acid up to 25 mg, 1750 mg and, 540 mg/100 g contents, respectively, in cluster bean seed reported by Pathak et al, 2011;Bouchenak and Lamri-Senhadji, 2013. The cluster bean seeds with important Fatty acids such as linoleic acid (55.1%), palmitic acid (24.97%), and oleic acid (23.59%) were reported by Arora et al, 1985. ...
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The current study aimed to explore active metabolites of locally recognized and high yielding cultivar cluster bean (BR-99) with a wide range of adaptability having antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic potential. Six solvents were used (crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and aqueous) with escalating polarity for colorimetric determination of antioxidants such as total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. Moreover, an antidiabetic and anticancer study was conducted by α-amylase inhibition and MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Biological investigations were carried out against the most commonly found infectious microbial strains. The significant results (P ≤ .001) of each activity were seen among six tested solvent extracts. The ethyl acetate and methanol extract have more antioxidant potential with the highest TPC (16.38 ± .13 mg GAE/g) and TFC (8.15 ± .24 mg CE/g), respectively. Similarly, methanol extract presented the highest free radical scavenging activity (46.31 ± .91%), followed by ethyl acetate, butanol, chloroform, aqueous, and n-hexane extract. However, the maximum α-amylase inhibition (62.54 ± 1.47%) and anticancer activity against human lung cancer cells were congregated (78.31 ± 1.46%) in butanol and chloroform, respectively. A positive correlation was seen between TPC with TFC ( R ² = .8356), FRSA ( R ² = .8381), and anti-diabetic activity ( R ² = .8082), which highlights the phenolic contents as strong anti-oxidant agents especially flavonoids. Each extract of cluster bean (BR-99) showed significant antimicrobial activities for all tested bacterial strains except B. cereus and E. coli. The profound results of maximum antibacterial activity were witnessed by chloroform extract while ethyl acetate extracts showed great antifungal potential against all tested fungal strains. The HPLC quantitative analysis results of cluster bean (BR-99) revealed the presence of active phytochemicals such as gallic acid, HB acid, vanillic acid, kaempferol, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, coumarins, quercetin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, and catechin, and the variation in both phytochemical and biological spectrums envisioned the cluster bean (BR-99) used in future as a cheap, safer, and potent source of bioactive drugs.
... 3-18). In general, legumes are low in fat content and afford vitamins and minerals (Rebello, Greenway, & Finley, 2014;Bouchenak et al., 2013). Additionally, the study of Li, Li, Shen, Wang, and Zhou (2017) showed that legume consumption correlates well with a lower risk of all causes of mortality. ...
Article
The volatile compounds of twelve legume cultivars were evaluated by headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) from both whole seeds and their flours. The total identification percentages of the extracted volatiles were ranged between 94.2% and 99.7%. The number of aroma compounds detected was 104. Among them, 60 compounds were determined in the emission of whole legume seeds and 69 from legume flours. The volatiles were classified into seven chemical classes, i.e. monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, phenylpropanoids, apoc�arotenes, nitrogen/sulfur derivatives, and non-terpene derivatives. Aldehydes were considered one of the most abundant constituents in non-terpene derivatives, followed by esters, alkanes, alcohols, ketones, lactones, phe�nols, phenones, alkenes, and hydrocarbons. A wide difference in term of volatiles was observed between whole and crushed seeds. Multivariate data analysis (PCA) was assessed to compare among legume cultivars, which leads to the identification of relevant constituents to specific cultivar. Overall, this is the first time a multivariate analysis was used to characterize the volatile profiles of twelve legume cultivars with their flours. This study can provide useful information on the conception of legume–based ingredients combined with specific volatile characteristics in order to reduce unwanted odors and definitely for pertinent breeding programs.
... Moreover, an improvement in weight management [193] was observed. Additionally, other studies have demonstrated the richness of peanuts in phytonutrients with high nutritional value which contribute to improve the overall human health and well-being [194]. Among macronutrients, a high content of starch carbohydrate was found in dry roasted peanuts [189], while watersoluble B vitamins (involved in vital reactions in energy metabolism, cholesterol synthesis and heme and DNA synthesis) and fat-soluble vitamin E (tocopherol, with important antioxidant activity) [165] were observed in the peanut micronutrient fraction. ...
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Consumption of tree nuts and peanuts has considerably increased over the last decades due to their nutritional composition and the content of beneficial compounds. On the other hand, such widespread consumption worldwide has also generated a growing incidence of allergy in the sensitive population. Allergy to nuts and peanuts represents a global relevant problem, especially due to the risk of the ingestion of hidden allergens as a result of cross-contamination between production lines at industrial level occurring during food manufacturing. The present review provides insights on peanuts, almonds, and four nut allergens—namely hazelnuts, walnuts, cashew, and pistachios—that are likely to cross-contaminate different food commodities. The paper aims at covering both the biochemical aspect linked to the identified allergenic proteins for each allergen category and the different methodological approaches developed for allergens detection and identification. Attention has been also paid to mass spectrometry methods and to current efforts of the scientific community to identify a harmonized approach for allergens quantification through the detection of allergen markers.
... Quantifying the biochemical properties in KG can serve as a guide to exploit its potential and benefits for human and animal nutrition. Bouchenak et al., 2013). These findings showed high variability in the levels of nutrients and anti-nutrients in KG, which is potentially due to the biochemical analysis techniques, seed quality, environments, as well as landraces used. ...
Article
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Kersting’s groundnut [Macrotyloma geocarpum (Harms.) Maréchal and Baudet], Fabaceae, is an important source of protein and essential amino acids. As a grain legume species, it also contributes to improving soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, the crop is characterized by a relatively low yield (≤500 kg/ha), and limited progress has been made so far, toward the development of high-yielding cultivars that can enhance and sustain its productivity. Recently, there was an increased interest in alleviating the burdens related to Kersting’s groundnut (KG) cultivation through the development of improved varieties. Preliminary investigations assembled germplasms from various producing countries. In-depth ethnobotanical studies and insightful investigation on the reproductive biology of the species were undertaken alongside morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterizations. Those studies revealed a narrow genetic base for KG. In addition, the self-pollinating nature of its flowers prevents cross-hybridization and represents a major barrier limiting the broadening of the genetic basis. Therefore, the development of a research pipeline to address the bottlenecks specific to KG is a prerequisite for the successful expansion of the crop. In this paper, we offer an overview of the current state of research on KG and pinpoint the knowledge gaps; we defined and discussed the main steps of breeding for KG’ cultivars development; this included (i) developing an integrated genebank, inclusive germplasm, and seed system management; (ii) assessing end-users preferences and possibility for industrial exploitation of the crop; (iii) identifying biotic and abiotic stressors and the genetic control of responsive traits to those factors; (iv) overcoming the cross- pollination challenges in KG to propel the development of hybrids; (v) developing new approaches to create variability and setting adequate cultivars and breeding approaches; (vi) karyotyping and draft genome analysis to accelerate cultivars development and increase genetic gains; and (vii) evaluating the adaptability and stability of cultivars across various ecological regions.
... Quantifying the biochemical properties in KG can serve as a guide to exploit its potential and benefits for human and animal nutrition. Bouchenak et al., 2013). These findings showed high variability in the levels of nutrients and anti-nutrients in KG, which is potentially due to the biochemical analysis techniques, seed quality, environments, as well as landraces used. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kersting's groundnut [Macrotyloma geocarpum (Harms.) Maréchal and Baudet], Fabaceae, is an important source of protein and essential amino acids. As a grain legume species, it also contributes to improving soil fertility through symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, the crop is characterized by a relatively low yield (≤500 kg/ha), and limited progress has been made so far, toward the development of high-yielding cultivars that can enhance and sustain its productivity. Recently, there was an increased interest in alleviating the burdens related to Kersting's groundnut (KG) cultivation through the development of improved varieties. Preliminary investigations assembled germplasms from various producing countries. In-depth ethnobotanical studies and insightful investigation on the reproductive biology of the species were undertaken alongside morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterizations. Those studies revealed a narrow genetic base for KG. In addition, the self-pollinating nature of its flowers prevents cross-hybridization and represents a major barrier limiting the broadening of the genetic basis. Therefore, the development of a research pipeline to address the bottlenecks specific to KG is a prerequisite for the successful expansion of the crop. In this paper, we offer an overview of the current state of research on KG and pinpoint the knowledge gaps; we defined and discussed the main steps of breeding for KG' cultivars development; this included (i) developing an integrated genebank, inclusive germplasm, and seed system management; (ii) assessing end-users preferences and possibility for industrial exploitation of the crop; (iii) identifying biotic and abiotic stressors and the genetic control of responsive traits to those factors; (iv) overcoming the cross-pollination challenges in KG to propel the development of hybrids; (v) developing new approaches to create variability and setting adequate cultivars and breeding approaches; (vi) karyotyping and draft genome analysis to accelerate cultivars development and increase genetic gains; and (vii) evaluating the adaptability and stability of cultivars across various ecological regions.
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A starch‐rich portion is produced as a by‐product of black Tartary buckwheat processing. The effect of enzymatic combined with autoclaving–cooling cycles (one, two, or three times) on the physicochemical and structural properties of black Tartary buckwheat type 3 resistant starch (BRS) was evaluated. The autoclaving–cooling cycles enhanced solubility and reduced swelling, with the BRS content increasing from 14.12% to 25.18%. The high crystallinity of the BRS reflected a high molecular order. However, increasing the number of autoclaving–cooling cycles did not result in higher BRS content. The highest BRS yield in the autoclaved starch samples was 25.18% after double‐autoclaving–cooling cycles. Furthermore, the autoclaving–cooling cycles altered the crystalline structure of black Tartary buckwheat, and the subsequent crystallinity changed from 36.33% to 42.05% to 38.27%. Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the number of cycles results in more efficient double‐helical packing within the crystalline lamella. Principal component analysis showed that the autoclaving–cooling cycle treatment leads to significant changes in the molecular structure of resistant starch (RS). These results indicated that autoclaving–cooling cycles might be a feasible way for producing RS from black Tartary buckwheat starch with better structural stability to expand their application range.
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Legumes are essential foods for man and animal. They contribute to food security globally. However, they are negatively affected by Sclerotinia diseases caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which infects over 600 plant species. There is a limited number of review studies on the management of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum disease in legume crops. Here, we explore earlier studies on the occurrences , yield losses, and other negative effects caused by Sclerotinia spp. in legumes. Additionally, we studied the various strategies used in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum diseases in legume crops. We conclude that the impact of Sclerotinia diseases on legume crops causes an economic loss, as it reduces their quality and yield. Among the management strategies explored, genetic control is challenging due to the limited resistance among germplasm, while biological agents show promising results. Fungicide application is effective during outbreaks of Sclerotinia diseases. Lastly, this review has uncovered gaps in the current knowledge regarding the alleviation of Sclerotinia diseases in legume crops.
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Background: Legumes are plants that contain edible seeds and belong to the family Leguminosae with varying nutritional benefits to humans and animals. This study aimed to detect and identify toxicogenic molds on some legumes purchased from two local markets in Ho Municipality, Ghana. Methods: A total of 36 samples, including cowpea (n=9), soybean (n=9), brown bean (n=9), and Bambara bean (n=9) were randomly obtained from 2 local markets in the Volta region of Ghana. Culturing of the legume seeds were done on mycological media using serial dilution technique. Fungal species occurrence was also determined. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 was used to analyze the data. Results: Fungal counts on cowpea, soybean, brown beans, and Bambara beans ranged between 1.91 and 2.84 log Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g on both media. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the samples from the different vendors. The Moisture Content (MC) ranged between 6.74 and 12.15%, pH ranged between 6.27±0.03-6.53±0.02. A total of 13 fungal species belonging to 7 genera were isolated on SDA and OGYEA media; Aspergillus species (A. niger, A. terreus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus), Fusarium species (F. oxysporum), Trichoderma harzianum, Rhizopus species (R. stolonifer), Penicillium species (P. digitatum, P. verucosum), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Mucor racemosus were recorded on the legumes. Conclusion: The presence of some mycotoxigenic fungi in legumes examined in this study showed the potential health hazards in the local people of Ho, Ghana. DOI: 10.18502/jfqhc.9.3.11153
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Currently the inappropriate use of agrochemicals has generated negative impacts in the agricultural and environmental sector, due to this the influence of the different concentrations of the “biol” in the growth and development of Medicago sativa (Fabaceae) “alfalfa” was evaluated for which five treatments made up of five 1m2 patches of Medicago sativa “alfalfa”; they were watered every four days with 100% “biol”; 50.0%; 25.0%; 12.5% and with drinking water respectively for four months. The “biol” used was produced at the Applied Biochemistry Experimental Station and the seeds of Medicago sativa “alfalfa” were acquired from the commercial company Suppliers Agropecuarios Foll Perú S.A.C. The results show the presence of N, P, and K at concentrations of 290.0 mgL-1; 17.78 mgL-1; 111.7 mgL-1 respectively; in addition to other micronutrients; likewise, the microbiological analysis reported the absence of total and fecal coliform microorganisms. It was observed that the length of the stem of the plants treated with “biol” at 50.0% with respect to the other treatments, presented a significant difference at P <0.05, however; the number of leaves of the treatments with “biol” at 25.0%, 50.0% and 100% did not show significant difference according to the “t” test, therefore it was concluded that the “biol” did favor the growth and development of Medicago sativa “alfalfa”. The importance of this research lies in the positive effects that the “biol” provides on the proper growth and development of the species to be cultivated and as an environmentally friendly product.
Article
Aims To summarize the evidence on the association between the intake of legumes and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overall, coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and to identify optimal intake levels for reduced disease risk through a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Data synthesis We have systematically searched PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science up to March, 2022 for the retrieval of intervention and observational studies (PROSPERO Reg. number: CRD42021247565). Pooled relative risks (RRs) comparing extreme categories of intake were computed using random-effects models. One-stage dose-response meta-analyses were also performed using random-effects models. 22 831 articles were screened resulting in 26 eligible observational studies (21 prospective cohort and 5 case-control studies). When comparing extreme categories of intake, the consumption of legumes was inversely associated with CVD (n=25: RR=0.94; 95%CI:0.89,0.99) and CHD (n=16: RR=0.90; 95%CI:0.85,0.96), but not with stroke (n=9: RR=1.00; 95%CI:0.93,1.08). We further found evidence for an inverse dose-response association with CHD, increasing in magnitude up to an intake of 400g/week, after which the benefit seems to level-off. Conclusions The intake of legumes was associated with a reduced risk of CVD and CHD, but not with stroke, among individuals with the highest consumption levels. An intake level of 400g/week seemed to provide the optimal cardiovascular benefit. Further research is needed to better understand the role of legumes in stroke subtypes.
Article
Crude polysaccharides extracted from red kidney bean (RK) display significant antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetic mice, but the underlying mechanism and the core functional component has not been elucidated. In this study, the antidiabetic effect and mechanism of RK are investigated by serum metabolomics and high-throughput sequencing. In addition, the key component was identified by evaluating the improvement on glucose and lipid homeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats. Our data indicated that RK relieved the symptoms of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. RK not only improved the metabolic disturbance by regulating the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, but also modified gut microbiota composition by selectively enriching in key genera of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Succinivibrio, Blautia. We further found the purified polysaccharides (RKP) were identified as the core biofunctional component in RK. Our present studies provide evidence that RKP are potential effective dietary supplement for type 2 diabetic individuals.
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Tropical regions such as South Asia (SA) and Sub-Saharan (SSA) do have storage environment that may impose abiotic and/or biotic stress or. This book chapter aims to broaden current knowledge on the ‘Abiotic and Biotic Stress Factors Affecting Storage of Legumes in Tropics’. This book chapter is prepared by including all relevant studies and detailed literatures using various scholastic search approaches. Typically, published papers and abstracts are identified by a computerized search of electronic data bases that include PubMed, Science Direct, Scirus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials). Thus, diseases, insects, etc…, are biological factors that cause biotic stress in plants while abiotic stress is caused by either physical or chemical factors. Biotic and abiotic stresses create adverse effects on multiple procedures of morphology, biochemistry and physiology that are directly connected with growth and yield of legume grains. It is, therefore, clear that the most important factors of food grains loss are moisture, temperature, metabolic activity and respiration, insects, mites, micro-organisms, rodents, birds and storage structures. Initial grain condition or quality of the seed for storage can indirectly be affected by abiotic stresses like water scarcity, high salinity, extreme temperatures, and mineral deficiencies or metal toxicities which reduce the crop’s productivity. For maintenance of storage of initial grain’s quality, grain must be dried and cooled prior to storage, the store must be constructed for blocking rodents and birds, enabling protection from sun and light entrance, allowing aeration to keep the temperature uniform in the store. Also, bringing the temperature of the grain down to below 12°C is necessary, since this temperature is a threshold at which microorganisms’ reproductive activity is inhibited. Storage spaces with higher relative humidity (95%) and a temperature of 35°C, are detrimental for storage of legume grains. In general, legume grains should be attaining a temperature of about ≤ 10 °C before placing them in store. For storage safety, it is preferable to place the grain in the storage at moisture content of 13%, or less than 14% on wet basis. Also, combining drying and storage facilities in one and the same structure is economical, and allows further conditioning at later stages if required. In order to reduce postharvest loss from customs of traditional storage by farmers in tropics, governments should mobilize and integrate multidisciplinary management system of storage loss, and monitor precautionary measures of the stored grain throughout the storage period. They should be facilitating the selection and promotion of alternative, cost-effective and appropriate storage structures considering suitability to local conditions and sustainability.
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Recently, we have seen a growing demand for plant-based meat alternatives as more and more people want to replace the meat on their plate with a protein alternative of plant origin. Food manufacturers are able to make plant-based protein foods that simulate the taste and texture of meat. Fast food giants have introduced such meat alternatives for the growing population of flexitarians and others concerned for their own personal health and the health of the planet. But how healthy are these new products? What is their nutritional quality? Do they have adequate protein and iron? What about their sodium and saturated fat levels? Are they fortified and are they considered ultraprocessed foods? How do the different product formats compare with regular meat products both nutritionally and from a sustainability viewpoint? There is vast array of products available to meet various needs and satisfy every palate.
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Background and aims Multimorbidity is a common health condition, and the relationship between different patterns of multimorbidity and food consumption through dietary patterns needs to be determined. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary patterns and multimorbidity patterns in women. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study included 1128 women (aged 20–69 years) living in southern Brazil. We identified multimorbidity patterns using principal component analysis, and the main exposure of the study was three dietary patterns, as derived in a previous study: healthy, risk, and Brazilian patterns. Using Poisson regression with robust variance, the scores of multimorbidity patterns (high/low) were evaluated using different adjustment models. Results Three patterns of multimorbidity were derived: cardiometabolic (dyslipidemia, circulatory disorders, hypertension, diabetes), endocrine–articular (thyroid diseases, osteoporosis/osteopenia, rheumatic diseases), and psychosomatic (chronic pain, common mental disorders, acid-related digestive disorders). In the relationship between the dietary patterns and multimorbidity patterns, after adjustment, it was observed that a greater adherence to the Brazilian dietary pattern was associated with a lower probability of a high score for the cardiometabolic pattern (PR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51–0.89) and psychosomatic pattern (PR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47–0.84). Greater adherence to the healthy dietary pattern was associated with a higher probability of a high score for the cardiometabolic pattern (PR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.27–2.25) and endocrine–articular pattern (PR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.39–3.02). The risk dietary pattern did not demonstrate an association after adjustment was implemented. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of an association between dietary patterns and multimorbidity patterns. Greater adherence to the Brazilian dietary pattern was a protective factor for a high score for the cardiometabolic and psychosomatic pattern in women. Dietary orientation should be considered in guidelines related to multimorbidity, constituting part of the prevention and management strategies for this condition.
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Minor crop species and their wild relatives are resilient to multiple environmental stressors and are a great potential resource for promoting global food and nutritional security. However, since many of these species are deficient in a few or several desirable domestication traits which reduce their agronomic value, further work on their trait improvement is required in order to fully exploit their food benefits. Thus, to some extent, a minor crop may be regarded as semi-domesticated species based on the extent to which it is deficient in a number of agronomically significant domes-tication traits. Quite recently, research has revealed prospects of creating new crops out of wild plant species via de novo domestication. Minor crops deficient in desirable domestication traits as well as their wild relatives can possibly be subjected to such a systematic process of redomestication and de novo domestication in order to increase their food, nutritional, or raw material utilization value. This review discusses the feasibility of employing CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing techniques for the genetic enhancement of minor legumes and de novo domestication of their wild relatives.
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Background: Diet is fundamental to maintaining and improving human health. There is ample evidence identifying the beneficial and/or harmful effects of diet on noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. However, the associations of the diet to chronic venous disease has not been fully described. Methods: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey conducted on 1,571 community-dwelling adults in 2018. Diet intake frequency was assessed using valid food group consumption frequency questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of diet with chronic venous disease. Results: 857 participants were diagnosed with chronic venous disease. Those who ate soybean products daily and 4-6 days per week had a 51% - 31% lower risk of chronic venous disease compared with those who only occasionally consumed soybean food, respectively. Participants who consumed eggs and egg products 1 to 3 days per week versus those who only occasionally ate eggs showed a lower risk of chronic venous disease (OR = 0.542, 95%CI: 0.375 - 0.782). Eating fried food 4 to 6 days each week was associated with an increased risk of chronic venous disease (OR = 3.872, 95%CI: 1.263 - 11.599) compared with those who only occasionally ate fried foods. There is a decreasing tendency of the adjusted OR for eating soybean products daily with the severity of disease (CVD (C0-C2),OR = 0.575, 95%CI: 0.408-0.812; CVI (C3-C6), OR = 0.222, 95%CI: 0.114-0.435). Conclusions: A higher frequency in the consumption of soybean products and eggs were associated with a lower risk of chronic venous disease. High level of fried food consumption was positively associated with risk of chronic venous disease. There are a certain of specific trends in the relation of dietary consumption and the severity of disease, although the trends were less strong. These associations are largely independent of other dietary and non-dietary factors.
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Background and Objective: Orphan legume species can provide cheap and quality nutrients, serve as sources of herbal medicine, forage crop, biomass feedstock and green manure but largely unexploited. The present study investigated phytochemical and proximate contents of three orphan legumes comprising three accessions of African Yam Bean (AYB), four of Kersting’s Groundnut (KG) and six of Winged Beans (WB). Materials and Methods: The seeds were collected from the Genebank of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture via the Standard Material Transfer Agreement (SMTA). The samples were oven-dried, grounded into a fine powder and analyzed for their biochemical profiles using standard procedures. Results: Carbohydrate, betacyanin, quinone and terpenes were found in the samples, while saponins were found only in AYB and KG accessions. Alkaloids and coumarin were only detected in samples of WB and KG. The crude protein was quite high among all the samples ranged from 18.4% in TSs-33 of AYB-52.7% in TPt-126 of WB with a mean of 30.16±3.01. Conclusion: The study indicates that the species and the accessions are rich in proteins and essential proximate contents that can be explored as sources of food and feeds for both humans and animals.
Article
The legume consumption is increasing because this food represents a rich and sustainable source of plant proteins and biological activities considered effective in the prevention of some chronic diseases, including those age-related. With the aim to characterize functional properties of some legume foodstuffs, the total polyphenolic content and the antioxidant, metal chelation and ACE-inhibitory activity contained in the flours from industrial cooking processes of eight legumes were analyzed using specific spectrophotometric assays. Experimental results show that especially flours from cooked lentils and some beans represent a good source of antioxidants. The estimated amount of chelating activity, ranging from 0.97 (tondini bean) to 4.4 (green lentil) micromoles of EDTA equivalents/g of flours, could contribute to the prevention of the accumulation in the body of heavy metals, representing a possible risk factor forrespiratory infectious diseases. Some beans showed an ACE-inhibitory activity higher than chickpea and lentils. It was estimated that 125 g of the bean flour with the highest activity contain an ACE-inhibitory activity corresponding to 25 mg of the drug captopril, representing the initial daily dosage recommended for the treatment of moderate high blood pressure. These data could contribute to formulate personalized diets to address the needs of different subjects.
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Plant protein foods are physiologically important and play a key role in human nutrition. They contain several bioactive compounds with diverse chemical configurations and traits, which can modify the antioxidant potential, inhibit, or induce the enzyme actions, impact the gene expression and receptor activities as well as nutrient bioavailability. Bioactive molecules are known to regulate the oxidative processes, upregulate the expression of antioxidant enzymes, slow down the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, increase the expression of neurotrophic factors and can interact with different intracellular signaling pathways. The beneficial health effects of bioactive compounds may vary depending upon the digestive processes, which determine their bioavailability and bio-accessibility. However, only limited scientific information is available about their bioavailability and health benefits in humans. Legumes contain many antioxidative bioactive compounds which have been reported to augment the body’s immune system and protect it against various human chronic diseases. Consumption of legume-based diets increase satiety, help in controlling glycemia and body weight, reduce body fat and LDL cholesterol levels together with several other potential health benefits. Although the bioactivity of individual plant phenolic compounds has now been well characterized, further studies are required to comprehend the synergistic and antagonistic actions of different combinations of these compounds to develop the state-of-the-art food products, and dietary supplements in the prevention and/or management of different chronic and neurodegenerative diseases. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a global threat as the morbidity and mortality from NCDs is steadily on the increase and almost 71% of all global deaths occur due to NCDs. This chapter discusses the supply of bioactive molecules from plant protein foods, their possible interactions and impact on health and potential advantages in the prevention and management of NCDs.
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Excessive rainfall provides a favorable condition for field mold infection of plants, which triggers field mold (FM) stress. If FM stress occurs during the late maturation stage of soybean seed, it negatively affects seed yield and quality. To investigate the responses of soybean seed against FM stress and identify the underlying biochemical pathways involved, a greenhouse was equipped with an artificial rain producing system to allow the induction of mold growth on soybean seed. The induced quality changes and stress responses were revealed on the levels of both transcriptome and metabolome. The results showed that soybean seeds produced under FM stress conditions had an abnormal and inferior appearance, and also contained less storage reserves, such as protein and polysaccharide. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that genes involved in amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid, β-oxidation of fatty acids, and isoflavone biosynthesis were induced by FM stress. These results were supported by a multiple metabolic analysis which exhibited increases in the concentrations of a variety of amino acids, sugars, organic acids, and isoflavones, as well as reductions of several fatty acids. Reprogramming of these metabolic pathways mobilized and consumed stored protein, sugar and fatty acid reserves in the soybean seed in order to meet the energy and substrate demand on the defense system, but led to deterioration of seed quality. In general, FM stress induced catabolism of storage reserves and diminished the quality of soybean seed in the field. This study provides a more profound insight into seed deterioration caused by FM stress.
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Bal arıları meyve, sebze ve tohum oluşumu için çok önemli hayvanlardır. Arılar, çiçekli bitkilerin erkek yapılarındaki polenleri dişi kısımlarına aktararak bitkilerde meyve ve tohum oluşumunu sağlar. Ayrıca bal yapmaları nedeniyle de tarih boyunca bu böceklere çok önem verilmiştir. Biz insanlar her zaman bal arısına hayran olmuşuzdur. Afrika, Avrupa ve Asya’daki en eski atalarımız, yüz binlerce yıl boyunca, bu arının bal depolama ve balmumu yapma konusundaki şaşırtıcı endüstrisine, çok değerli iki maddeye kesinlikle hayran kaldılar. Daha yakın zamanlarda, son 10.000 yılda, karmaşık arıcılık zanaatını icat ettik ve bal arıları üzerine bilimsel çalışmalarımıza başladık. Örneğin, bu arının «çiçek değişmezliği» uygulamasını ilk kez tanımlayan antik filozof Aristotales’ti: Bir işçi arı, yiyecek toplamanın verimliliğini artırmak için yiyecek arama gezisi boyunca genellikle bir tür çiçeğe yapışır. Bal arısının doğal dünyasında nasıl yaşadığını bilmek, geniş bir bilimsel araştırma yelpazesi gerekmektedir. Bunun nedeni, Apis mellifera’nın biyolojideki, özellikle davranışla ilgili temel soruları araştırmak için model sistemlerden biri haline gelmesidir. Bu arıları ister hayvan bilişindeki, ister davranışsal genetikteki veya sosyal davranışlardaki bazı gizemleri çözmek için çalışıyor olun, birinin deneysel araştırmalarını tasarlamadan önce doğal biyolojilerine aşina olmak kritik derecede önemlidir.
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Phytoestrogens are the phytochemicals quite similar in function to gonadal estrogen hormone and are potential alternatives to the synthetic selective estrogen receptor modulators currently used in hormone replacement therapy. They can be classified as flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumestans, stilbenes, lignans and terpenoids. Soybean is rich in isoflavones like genistein, daidzein and their methyl ether derivatives, biochanin A and formononetin. Consumption of these is associated with reduced risk of osteoporosis and related health problems. The main dietary source of phytoestrogenic stilbenes is trans-resveratrol from the skin of red grapes and peanuts. Coumestrol and 4'-methoxy-coumestrol are two potent members of coumestans mainly found in sprouted legumes. Secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol are two lignan dimers which are not estrogenic by themselves, but readily convert to the mammalian lignans, enterodiol and enterolactone, respectively and have estrogenic, antiviral, antifungal and antioxidant activities. Terpenoids (ferutinine, tschimgine, and tschimganidine) found in the Umbelliferae family have estrogenic activities. In females, life is affected by a variety of estrogen-related conditions such as osteoporosis, cognitive and cardiovascular decline, increased risk of breast cancer and other symptoms that decrease the overall quality of life. Phytoestrogens are effective in maintaining bone mineral density, prevent bone loss, and help in the prevention and/or treatment of such health related problems. Plant-derived foodmay supply a variety of phytoestrogens capable of producing a range of pharmacological effects and protection from various diseases.
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Baked bean consumption has been linked to reductions in total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in previous research with hypercholesterolemic adult men in controlled settings. The objective of the current research was to determine if daily intake of half a cup of vegetarian baked beans would reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in free-living hypercholesterolemic men and women over an 8-week period. The study was a randomized, crossover, 2 × 2 block design. Participants received each treatment for 8 weeks with a minimal 14-day washout in between. Fasting blood samples collected at the beginning and end of the study were analyzed for TC, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols (TAG), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, insulin, glucose, homeostasis model assessment, and hemoglobin A1c. A significant absolute decrease in TC concentrations after 8 weeks (P = .01) was observed with the vegetarian baked bean treatment in contrast to the control. Mean percentage change of serum TC for baked beans was −5.6% ± 1.5% SEM in contrast to 0.5% ± 1.8% SEM for the control (P = .01). Mean percentage change of serum LDL-C was −5.4% ± 2.3% SEM and 1.0% ± 2.7% SEM (P = .08, nonsignificant), respectively. No significant differences were found with the other blood concentrations. These findings indicate that vegetarian baked bean consumption can reduce serum TC in hypercholesterolemic adults.
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Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals and other foods rich in sulphur-containing amino acids and tryptophan. The protein content of most pulse legumes fall within the range of 17–30% (d.w.b.). Apart from their nutritional properties, pulse proteins also possess functional properties that play an important role in food formulation and processing. Examples of such functional properties include solubility, water and fat binding capacity and foaming. Various research studies indicate that some functional properties of pulse proteins may be comparable to those of other frequently used proteins such as soy and whey. The functional properties of pulse proteins have been exploited in the preparation and development of products such as bakery products, soups, extruded products and ready to eat snacks. The growing body of research on the health benefits associated with the consumption of pulses has increased interest in developing innovative technologies to expand the use of pulses in food products. At the same time, there are growing global food security challenges and protein malnutrition continues to be a problem in many countries around the world. Pulses, especially when blended with cereal proteins, may offer a promising alternative source for nutritional and functional proteins. This review provides an overview of the characteristics of pulse proteins, current and emerging techniques for their fractionation, their major functional properties and opportunities for their use in various applications.
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A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (DAD) procedure separating and quantifying 16 phenolic acids was used for determination of phenolic acids content in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Dry beans from 10 market classes and 15 varieties that are commonly consumed in the United States were screened for phenolic acids content. Systematic sequential hydrolysis of a model Black bean (Eclipse variety) showed an insignificant amount of free phenolic acids were extracted with a mixture of methanol and water (85:15,%v/v) containing 10% acetic acid. The majority of phenolic acids were extracted from the base hydrolyzed fraction, and further sequential acid hydrolysis of the same extract did not yield any additional amounts of phenolic acid. Therefore all bean samples were ground and hydrolyzed with base in the presence of ascorbic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and the free phenolic acids were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by HPLC. Ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid were detected and quantified in all varieties. However, caffeic acid was detected in measurable amount only in two Black bean varieties (T-39 and Eclipse). The average phenolic acid content of dry bean sample was determined to be 31.2 mg/100 g. Total phenolic acid content among all samples varied between 19.1 and 48.3 mg/100 g of bean samples. Ferulic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid present in all samples, whereas intermediate levels of p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid were extracted from all bean samples. Over 83% of the total phenolic acids were retained in bean samples during the cooking process, and only 2% or less were detected in water extracts during overnight soaking.
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Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1) to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC); (2) to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3) to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.
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The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, making finding effective solutions to reduce obesity a public health priority. One part of the solution could be for individuals to increase consumption of nonoilseed pulses (dry beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils), because they have nutritional attributes thought to benefit weight control, including slowly digestible carbohydrates, high fiber and protein contents, and moderate energy density. Observational studies consistently show an inverse relationship between pulse consumption and BMI or risk for obesity, but many do not control for potentially confounding dietary and other lifestyle factors. Short-term (≤1 d) experimental studies using meals controlled for energy, but not those controlled for available carbohydrate, show that pulse consumption increases satiety over 2-4 h, suggesting that at least part of the effect of pulses on satiety is mediated by available carbohydrate amount or composition. Randomized controlled trials generally support a beneficial effect of pulses on weight loss when pulse consumption is coupled with energy restriction, but not without energy restriction. However, few randomized trials have been conducted and most were short term (3-8 wk for whole pulses and 4-12 wk for pulse extracts). Overall, there is some indication of a beneficial effect of pulses on short-term satiety and weight loss during intentional energy restriction, but more studies are needed in this area, particularly those that are longer term (≥1 y), investigate the optimal amount of pulses to consume for weight control, and include behavioral elements to help overcome barriers to pulse consumption.
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Phytosterol intake is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for hypercholesterolemia, and plant sterols/stanols can reduce cholesterol absorption at the intestinal lumen through the Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) transporter pathway by competitive solubilization in mixed micelles. Phytosterol absorption is of less magnitude than cholesterol and is preferably secreted in the intestinal lumen by ABCG5/G8 transporters. Therefore, plasma levels of plant sterols/stanols are negligible compared with cholesterol, under an ordinary diet. The mechanisms of cholesterol and plant sterols absorption and the whole-body pool of sterols are discussed in this chapter. There is controversy about treatment with statins inducing further increase in plasma non-cholesterol sterols raising concerns about the safety of supplementation of plant sterols to such drugs. In addition, increase in plant sterols has also been reported upon consumption of plant sterol-enriched foods, regardless of other treatments. Rare mutations on ABCG5/G8 transporters affecting cholesterol/non-cholesterol extrusion, causing sitosterolemia with xanthomas and premature atheroslerotic disease are now known, and cholesterol/plant sterols absorption inhibitor, ezetimibe, emerges as the drug that reduces phytosterolemia and promotes xanthoma regression. On the other hand, common polymorphisms affecting the NPC1L1 transporter can interfere with the action of ezetimibe. Gene-diet interactions participate in this intricate network modulating the expression of genetic variants on specific phenotypes and can also affect the individual response to the hypolipidemic treatment. These very interesting aspects promoted a great deal of research in the field.
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The cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols was first discovered in the early 1950s. However, it is only recently that plant sterols have become clinically important, when advances in food-technology have made it possible to combine sterols with a variety of food products including margarines, yogurts, fruit juices and cereal bars. We review the clinical trial evidence of lipid-lowering efficacy of plant sterols and discuss their implications in routine clinical practice. To generate the evidence we searched the Pubmed database for English language literature, using relevant keywords and medical subject heading (MeSH) terms, and extracted the findings from recently published studies and meta-analyses on this topic. Our findings suggest that the short-term use of food supplements rich in plant sterols is a safe and effective strategy; to maximize the benefits of dietary and lifestyle therapy, either with or without statin therapy, among majority of dyslipidemic patients with need for additional lipid-lowering.
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Wholegrain intake is inversely related to weight gain over time, but little information is available on the role of pulses in weight control. To compare weight loss, metabolic outcomes, and nutrient intakes in obese people assigned to a diet rich in pulses and wholegrains or a control diet. Randomized controlled study of 18 months with 113 volunteers (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). Diets were based on guidelines published by the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand. The intervention group was advised to consume 2 serves of pulses and 4 serves of wholegrain foods per day as substitutions for more refined carbohydrates. Fiber intakes were higher, intakes of several vitamins and minerals were better maintained, and dietary glycemic index was lower in the intervention compared with the control group. Mean (standard error [SE]) weight loss at 6 months was 6.0 (0.7) kg and 6.3 (0.6) kg in the control and intervention groups, respectively, and was not different between groups (p > 0.05). Blood pressure, triglycerides, and glycemic load were lowered in both groups compared with baseline. Waist circumference was decreased at 18 months in the intervention compared with the control group (-2.8 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.4, -5.1). Incorporation of pulses and wholegrain foods into a weight loss program resulted in a greater reduction in waist circumference compared with the group consuming a control diet, although no difference in weight loss was noted between groups. Retention of several nutrients was better with the pulse and wholegrain diet.
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Isoflavones are a subgroup of phytoestrogens, natural plant substances with structure similar to 17-beta-estradiol and capable of binding to estrogen receptors (ERs). Isoflavones possess higher affinity to ERbeta than to ERalpha and may have a potency to activate both genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling pathways. In addition, isoflavones interact with the metabolism of steroid hormones. Therefore, the actions of isoflavones are rather complex and may be related to large number of factors, which are not satisfactorily identified yet. Recently, isoflavones have come into focus of interest due to several reports about their positive effect on human health, in particular prevention of hormone-dependent cancers, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, adverse menopausal manifestations and age-related cognitive decline. Isoflavones may bring new insights into the mechanisms of physiological regulations and increase the possibilities of medical interventions.
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Studies evaluating the effect of legume consumption on cholesterol have focused on soybeans, however non-soy legumes, such as a variety of beans, peas, and some seeds, are commonly consumed in Western countries. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of non-soy legume consumption on blood lipids. Studies were retrieved by searching MEDLINE (from January 1966 through July 2009), EMBASE (from January 1980 to July 2009), and the Cochrane Collaboration's Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials using the following terms as medical subject headings and keywords: fabaceae not soybeans not isoflavones and diet or dietary fiber and cholesterol or hypercholesterolemia or triglycerides or cardiovascular diseases. Bibliographies of all retrieved articles were also searched. From 140 relevant reports, 10 randomized clinical trials were selected which compared a non-soy legume diet to control, had a minimum duration of 3 weeks, and reported blood lipid changes during intervention and control. Data on sample size, participant characteristics, study design, intervention methods, duration, and treatment results were independently abstracted by 2 investigators using a standardized protocol. Data from 10 trials representing 268 participants were examined using a random-effects model. Pooled mean net change in total cholesterol for those treated with a legume diet compared to control was -11.8 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -16.1 to -7.5); mean net change in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was -8.0mg/dL (95% CI, -11.4 to -4.6). These results indicate that a diet rich in legumes other than soy decreases total and LDL cholesterol.
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There is growing evidence that cereals and legumes play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. Early epidemiologic studies of these associations focused on intake of dietary fiber rather than intake of grains or legumes. Generally, these studies indicated an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary artery disease; this observation has been replicated in recent cohort studies. Studies that focused on grain or cereal intake are fewer in number; these tend to support an inverse association between intake of whole grains and coronary artery disease. Studies on the association of dietary fiber with colon and other cancers have generally shown inverse relations, but whether these relations are attributable to cereals, other fiber sources, or other factors is less clear. Although legumes have been shown to lower blood cholesterol concentrations, epidemiologic studies are few and inconclusive regarding the association of legumes with risk of coronary artery disease. It has been hypothesized that legumes, in particular soybeans, reduce the risk of some cancers, but epidemiologic studies are equivocal in this regard. Overall, there is substantial epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber and whole grains are associated with decreased risk of coronary artery disease and some cancers, whereas the role of legumes in these diseases appears promising but as yet inconclusive.
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Phytochemicals are a naturally occurring group of chemicals in plants and plant-derived foods. Presence of phytochemical components such as phytohemagglutinins, tannins, phytic acid, saponins, protease inhibitors, oligosaccharides and phytoestrogens in food legumes has both health benefits and adverse effects. These have been associated with numerous health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular and renal disease risks, health care treatments including anti-aging, enhancement of brain function, lower glycemic index for persons with diabetes, increased satiation and cancer prevention. Health benefits resulting from ingestion of oligosaccharides which have been developed in the past few years to use as physiologically functional foods consist of proliferation of bifidobacteria and reduction of detrimental bacteria, diminution of toxic metabolites, anti-cancer effect and protection of liver function. These biologically active compounds in food legumes also have immense potential in biomedical application. On the other hand, phytochemicals have adverse effects as they limit the digestibility of proteins and carbohydrates or reduce the bioavailability of certain nutrients, interfere with normal growth, reproduction and flatulence production. Moreover, phytoestrogens have been linked with infertility problems. The synergistic or antagonistic effects of mixtures of these phytochemicals from food legumes, their interaction with other components of the diet and the mechanism of their action have remained a challenge with regard to understanding the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. Current researches in phytochemicals are exploring various potentials and utilization in foods and drugs which could be used as frontline defences against numerous life threatening diseases including HIV/AIDS. Because of the potential health benefits of phytochemicals in food legumes, it is probably inappropriate to refer to these substances as natural toxins. The time has come for us to re-evaluate their presence in our diet. Their mitigating effects and the mechanism of their action need to be further addressed if we are to understand the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. Keywords: Adverse Effects; Food Legumes; Health Benefits; Phytochemicals; Natural Toxins
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Studies on legume seed proteins span over more than a century, starting with the pioneering work of Osborne and co-workers [1, 2]. However, soybean has been for many decades the only leguminous crop on which significant research has been undertaken. Besides its traditional oriental uses, an extremely wide area of use has been developed for this crop in animal feeds, human foods and other industrial applications. The intensive research programmes, especially developed in Japan and in the USA, largely contributed to the interests of most countries world-wide for this crop.
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Dietary fiber consists of the structural and storage polysaccharides and lignin in plants that are not digested in the human stomach and small intestine. A wealth of information supports the American Dietetic Association position that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Recommended intakes, 20-35 g/day for healthy adults and age plus 5 g/day for children, are not being met, because intakes of good sources of dietary fiber, fruits, vegetables, whole and high-fiber grain products, and legumes are low. Consumption of dietary fibers that are viscous lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of fibers part of the dietary plans to treat cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by microflora in the large intestine promote normal laxation and are integral components of diet plans to treat constipation and prevent the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. A diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits. It is unclear why several recently published clinical trials with dietary fiber intervention failed to show a reduction in colon polyps. Nonetheless, a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer. A fiber-rich meal is processed more slowly, which promotes earlier satiety, and is frequently less calorically dense and lower in fat and added sugars. All of these characteristics are features of a dietary pattern to treat and prevent obesity. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for the critically ill and the very old have not been clearly delineated; both may need nonfood sources of fiber. Many factors confound observations of gastrointestinal function in the critically ill, and the kinds of fiber that would promote normal small and large intestinal function are usually not in a form suitable for the critically ill. Maintenance of body weight in the inactive older adult is accomplished in part by decreasing food intake. Even with a fiber-rich diet, a supplement may be needed to bring fiber intakes into a range adequate to prevent constipation. By increasing variety in the daily food pattern, the dietetics professional can help most healthy children and adults achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes.
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Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1) to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC); (2) to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3) to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.
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We have reviewed the literature regarding the food sources, potency, population intakes, and known biological effects of phytoestrogens in humans using MEDLINE data base from the years 1975-1996. Over 600 articles pertinent to the metabolism of phytoestrogens, including female reproduction (in particular menstruation and menopause), cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer were assessed including relevant case control or cohort studies, as well as randomized trials and review articles. Epidemiological studies regarding human data were included, as well as human cell line and animal studies when there were no relevant human data available. We conclude that phytoestrogens exhibit physiological effects in humans. Mild estrogenic changes occur in postmenopausal women. Benefits are seen regarding hypercholesterolaemia. Epidemiological, animal, and in vitro data encourage further assessment of the role of phytoestrogens in cancer prevention.
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Achieving adequate dietary fiber intake ADA recommends that health professionals: promote food intake patterns consistent with the Food Guide Pyramid (39) that make use of a wide variety of plant foods to achieve adequate fiber intakes in healthy children and adults. Include at least 2 to 3 servings of whole grains as part of the daily 6 to 11 servings of grains (40), 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, and legumes at least once or twice a week recognize that diets containing excess bulk may not contain sufficient energy to support normal growth in children recognize that 1 to 2 servings daily of higher fiber foods (eg, legumes, whole grains, cereal brans) or concentrated fiber sources may be necessary to achieve adequate intakes in those persons whose energy needs are low relative to body mass, such as the elderly, hospitalized or ill patients, or those in long-term- care facilities; consider the use of concentrated sources of dietary fiber(9) to treat chronic constipation when a limited variety of food is consumed or the amount of food consumed is inadequate: incorporate new sources of dietary fiber into diet plans for specific diseases only when benefit claims are documented and the overall diet is consistent with the medical nutrition therapy appropriate for the disease: recognize that viscous concentrated fiber sources with documented health benefits do have demonstrated blood cholesterol-lowering effects and can be part of lifestyle that includes a heart-healthy diet and exercise: use a diet pattern for persons with diabetes mellitus that is moderate in fat and contains a wide variety of fiber- containing foods to lower abnormal elevations in postprandial blood glucose levels and promote body weight normalization: use enteral feedings containing dietary fiber to promote normal enterocyte function, but recognize that clinical benefits may be modest.
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Altos valores de atividade inibitória de tripsina residual encontrados para feijões submetidos a tratamento térmico indicaram que estes poderiam ser decorrentes de artifícios da metodologia utilizada e não de inibição específica. Dessa forma, realizou-se uma avaliação crítica dos métodos em uso e de possíveis interferentes, visando determinar se justificariam a variabilidade de resultados e tentando estabelecer o modo mais adequado de determinar a atividade inibitória residual de feijões. Os resultados mostraram que o meio de extração dos inibidores, o pH da reação e as condições de preparo da amostra são responsáveis por alterações significativas dos valores de atividade inibitória encontrados, necessitando cuidadosa padronização. Este é o primeiro relato sobre a influência da liofilização da amostra sobre a atividade inibitória de tripsina residual de feijões cozidosTrypsin inhibitory activity of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): critical evaluation of methods for determination. High values of residual trypsin inhibitory activity found for heat-treated beans indicated the occurrence of artifices due to the methodology. A critical evaluation of the methods in use and of possible interferents was performed trying to determine the most adequate way of measuring residual trypsin inhibitory activity. Results showed that extraction conditions, pH of reaction and sample preparation are responsible for significant alterations of the values found, requiring careful standardization. This is the first report about the influence of lyophilization upon residual trypsin inhibitory activity of cooked beans
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Over production of free radicals result in oxidative stress that deregulates the cellular and metabolic functions. Phytochemicals with antioxidant property are of great interest due to their beneficial effects on human health as they offer protection against metabolic dysfunction, gastro-duodenal pathogenesis, premature aging, inflammation, rheumatoid ar-thritis, atherosclerosis, cancer, neuro-degenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbates, lipoic acids, polyphenols and enzymes like super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase are strong natural antioxidants with free radical scavenging activity. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes and beverages are the main sources of polyphenols. Flavonoids possess ideal structural characteristics, which are responsible for their phar-macological properties and are also powerful metal chelators. The future of dietary antioxidants hold a great promise to ensure a better disease free lifestyle for the mankind by scavenging free radicals and consequently preventing mutagenic changes and associated disorders.
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Phytate anion, total phosphorus (P), phytate-P, inorganic and residual P contents were determined in different varieties of cowpeas, lima beans and soybeans. The dry seeds were subjected to different processing methods which included cooking, autoclaving, soaking and germination. Germination and soaking were most effective in decreasing phytate contents while cooking and autoclaving only slightly altered total P, phytate and phytate-P contents in all varieties. Germination increased inorganic P contents but effected the highest percentage loss in residual organic P. Soybean contained considerable amounts of phytate anion and despite the reduction through processing, phytate content still exceeded the amount present in all varieties of raw lima beans.
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The antioxidant properties of some commonly consumed [cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)] and underutilized [pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and African yam bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa)] legumes were assessed with regard to their Vitamin C, total phenol, and phytate content, as well as antioxidant activity as typified by their reducing power and free radical scavenging ability. The Vitamin C content of the cowpeas ranged from 0.5 to 0.9mg/100g, while that of underutilized legumes were 0.9mg/100g for pigeon pea and 0.8mg/100g for African yam beans. The phenol content of the cowpeas were 0.3–1.0mg/g, African yam bean had 0.7mg/g total phenols, while pigeon pea contained 0.4 (white) and 1.2mg/g (brown) total phenol content, respectively. The phytate content of all the legumes [cowpea (2.0–2.9%), pigeon pea (2.0–2.4%), African yam beans (2.4%)] analyzed were generally high, while the reducing power and free radical scavenging ability for all the legumes were very low except in African yam beans (23.6%), cowpea brown (29.9%), and pigeon pea brown (54.5%) that had a relatively high free radical scavenging ability. Therefore, one of the commonly consumed cowpea V. unguiculata (brown) and underutilized legumes C. cajan (brown) and S. sternocarpa could be considered as a functional food due to their relatively higher antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging ability and redox potential) which could be as a result of their relative higher total phenol content.
Article
Mung bean substrate was enriched with phenolic antioxidants and levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (l-DOPA) through solid-state bioconversion (SSB) by Rhizopus oligosporus, with the goal to enhance health-linked functionality. The alpha-amylase inhibition linked to diabetes management and Helicobacter pylori inhibition linked to peptic ulcer management were investigated in bioprocessed extracts. The protein content and β-glucosidase activity of the substrate which are indicators of effective fungal colonization, increased with growth. The phenolic content increase with growth was linked to fungal β-glucosidase activity, indicating phenolic mobilization. The antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) inhibition method were high (65%) initially and increased to 90% on day 12, than maintained higher levels during the rest of growth. The antioxidant activity measured by β-carotene assay was high between days 4–8 when phenolic levels increased. Fungal-linked superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was high in late stages indicating quenching of reactive oxygen species. The l-DOPA content was low during early growth stage (0.6–0.7 mg/g DW) and gradually doubled to 1.2 mg/g DW in late stages. The α-amylase inhibition potential was moderately high during early stages (days 0–2) followed by higher inhibition during days 4–10 which correlate to higher phenolic content. The change in the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against H. pylori was high on day 4 and was associated with high antioxidant activity but not high phenolic content. Elevated inhibition on day 8 directly correlated with high total phenolics content suggesting the role of phenolic mobilization. The major implication from this research is that SSB is a good strategy to improve the phenolic content of mung beans for enhanced functionality with improved antioxidant activity that contributes to α-amylase inhibition relevant to potential diabetes management and H. pylori inhibition linked to peptic ulcer management.Industrial relevanceSolid State Bioconversion (SSB) of mung bean by R. oligosporus is a good strategy to enhance ingredient functionality due to mobilization of phenolic antioxidants. Such enhanced phenolic antioxidant activity potentially contributes to health-relevant functionality such as amylase inhibition for diabetes management and H. pylori inhibition for peptic ulcer management. Optimization of such SSB systems at industrial scale can help large-scale low cost production of such health-relevant ingredients.
Article
Grain legumes occupy an important place in human nutrition, especially in the dietary pattern of low-income groups of people in developing countries. Legumes, considered as poor man's meat, are generally good sources of slow release carbohydrates and are rich in proteins. Legumes are normally consumed after processing, which not only improves palatability of foods but also increases the bioavailability of nutrients, by inactivating trypsin and growth inhibitors and haemagglutinins. Starch, the major biopolymeric constituent of legumes, upon processing gets partially modified into resistant starch (RS). The latter, a man made functional dietary fibre, is a unique ingredient that can yield high quality foods, in addition to its significance on faecal bulk and butyrate production, which are the putative markers of colonic health of humans. The slow and reduced digestibility of legume starch has been attributed to its amylose, which is considerably branched and is of high molecular weight. Dietary fibre, which is a heterogeneous mixture of several types of polysaccharides, is rich in legumes, especially in their husk fractions and contributes to beneficial therapeutic health effects.
Article
Pulse crops are cool season, annually grown legume crops, which are harvested for their seeds. They are invaluable agricultural commodities which are produced and imported by many regions of the world. Pulse seeds are a valuable source of dietary protein, carbohydrates, fiber and an important source of essential vitamins and minerals. Their nutritional characteristics have been associated with a reduction in the incidence of various cancers, HDL cholesterol, type-2 diabetes and heart disease. Pulses also contain protein and non-protein antinutritional factors, which may cause deleterious effects on the host when the seeds or processed seeds are consumed raw. Conversely, recent studies have demonstrated that protein antinutritional compounds such as lectins, protease inhibitors and the non-antinutritional component, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor may have beneficial properties. Lectins have been associated with reducing certain forms of cancer, activating innate defense mechanisms and managing obesity. Protease inhibitors such as trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors have been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of certain cancers and demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory properties. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor has been associated with a reduction in hypertension.