Automatic Effects of Brand Exposure on Motivated Behavior: How Apple Makes You "Think Different"

ArticleinJournal of Consumer Research 35(1):21-35 · June 2008with 746 Reads
DOI: 10.1086/527269 · Source: RePEc
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Abstract
This article first examines whether brand exposure elicits automatic behavioral effects as does exposure to social primes. Results support the translation of these effects: participants primed with Apple logos behave more creatively than IBM primed and controls; Disney-primed participants behave more honestly than E!-primed participants and controls. Second, this article investigates the hypothesis that exposure to goal-relevant brands (i.e., those that represent a positively valenced characteristic) elicits behavior that is goal directed in nature. Three experiments demonstrate that the primed behavior showed typical goal-directed qualities, including increased performance postdelay, decreased performance postprogress, and moderation by motivation. (c) 2008 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..

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    This research merges insights from the communications literature with that on the self-brand connection to examine a novel question: how does speaking versus writing about a liked brand influence the communicator's own later reactions to that brand? Our conceptualization argues that because oral communication involves a greater focus on social interaction with the communication recipient than does written communication, oral communicators are more likely to express self-related thoughts than are writers, thereby increasing their self-brand connection (SBC). We also assess the implications of this conceptualization, including the identification of theoretically derived boundary conditions for the speech/writing difference, and the downstream effects of heightened SBC. Results from five studies provide support for our predictions, informing both the basic literature on communications, and the body of work on consumer word of mouth. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Although much research has investigated why and how impulsive individuals indulge, little research has explored the conditions under which non-impulsive consumers do. This research examines the effects of the salience of the notion "rare," or low frequency, on the tendency to indulge. The authors find that when the notion of rarity is salient, non-impulsive consumers' tendency to indulge increases, but it does not affect indulgence tendencies of impulsive consumers. This effect occurs because, for non-impulsives, the actual act of indulging is a relatively rare occurrence-it is something that happens with low frequency. This means that they have formed a strong association between the concepts of rarity and indulgence. Thus, for these individuals, making the concept of rarity salient activates the concept of indulgence. Nine studies provide evidence for this association and its downstream consequences. Contributions emerge for the literatures on impulsivity and self-control. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Sports sponsorship is a core element of brand communication and one of the most effective and demanded tools in marketing. In the context of football, jersey sponsorship agreements dramatically increased over the last decade in terms of deal volume. Another current brand communication trend is the brand strategy of placing brands into entertainment media, especially in video games, so called in-game advertising (IGA). Against that background, the current study addresses the short-term effects of IGA on consumer’s implicit and explicit brand knowledge after the sponsor brand has been exposed in a video game. The findings of the laboratory research showed that the IGA exposure of sponsor brands, which was simulated in the current study as a virtual consumer-brand interaction within a playfully football game, was primarily effective to enhance brand-related associations on an implicit level, but not on an explicit level.
  • Article
    Research to date is just beginning to examine the nature and impact of portrayals of physical activity on children’s attitudes in the marketing literature. The following two-part study therefore examines gender differences in the content and effects of food advertising depicting physical activities among children. Study one presents a content analysis of food advertisements shown during children’s television programming, revealing that healthy foods are associated with females while healthy activities are associated predominantly with males. Study two then examines children’s responses to an advertisement for an unhealthy food that portrays both male and female characters engaged in physical activities. Gender differences appeared to be the result of males’ greater belief that a junk food can aid in one’s physical abilities, leading them to hold greater intentions to engage in physical activity as compared to females and males who viewed an ad without physical activity.
  • Chapter
    High expectations in neuroeconomics raised the hope of marketers that their (daily business) problems could be solved easily. In fact, neuroeconomics has provided considerable insights for marketing science and business practice concerning consumer decision making over the last two decades. However, tapping into customer’s black box of unconscious and automatic processes, so-called implicit processes, does not require the mandatory usage of advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI. In order to obtain a specific brand positioning in customer’s head, brand communication is an effective means for the marketing of ideas to gain a promoted cortical representation probability and, consequently, an enhanced perceptual and behavioral impact. The marketing of ideas itself is closely related to the concept of brand associations. Those types of associations can be assessed by implicit association measures from psychology (e.g., Implicit Association Test) comparatively accurately but are less properly measured with neuroimaging due to physiological and scientific fallibility. Against this background, the current work introduces a practical neuroscience-related brand communication framework incorporating explicit and implicit brand-related associations to provide guidance for serious marketing-related communication purposes. Moreover, the performance of the introduced conceptual model is tested. In detail, the presented case study demonstrated sufficient performance to detect associative branding change via a (short) communication contact. Specifically, the combined application of implicit, concretely an advanced latency-based tool, and explicit measures, concretely a conventional self-report, provides an integrated assessment of brand-related marketing efforts in general and brand communication activities in particular.
  • Chapter
    Brian Young revisits the idea of consumption and extends it with a process based definition. The process of consumption starts with an idea, a desire or intention which, with preparation is consummated by shopping. Then acquired with value added by ownership and possession. Disposal is an essential part of the process as well. Consumption is located in a process of production and ‘prosumption’, locked into value chains. Consumption is a collective performance and consumers can be located on historical and cross-cultural dimensions in a global economy.
  • Article
    This research examines how incidentally induced consumer curiosity influences subsequent indulgent decisions. Prior research has primarily focused on the effect of curiosity on information seeking in the present domain. The current research goes further to propose that the curiosity effect can spill over to prompt consumers to prefer indulgent options in other, unrelated domains (e.g., food, money). This situation is likely to occur because curiosity motivates individuals to seek the missing information as the specific information reward in the current domain. Such desire to obtain the information reward primes a reward-seeking goal, which in turn leads to increased preferences for indulgent options in subsequent, unrelated domains. Furthermore, the impact of curiosity on indulgent options possesses goal-priming properties as identified by the literature. That is, the effect should (1) persist after a time delay, and (2) diminish when the reward-seeking goal is satiated by the obtainment of a reward before the indulgent task. We conduct a series of studies to provide support for our hypotheses. This research contributes to both curiosity and indulgence decision literature and offers important practical implications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Chapter
    These relatively new areas of human information processing are tackled using the most recent research findings and the research is carefully selected to help our understanding of the workings of the human mind when faced with choices and brands. Brian Young describes how our thinking is intimately related to our action and how this challenges the dualistic notion that mind and body are separate entities. The relevance of this research to the marketer cannot be underestimated as it also suggests that environmental design should be informed not just by rational considerations of layout and optimal choice points but by how thoughts, feelings and intentions are primed in different environmental ecologies.
  • Article
    Although a considerable amount of research in personality psychology has been done to conceptualize human personality, identify the Big Five dimensions, and explore the meaning of each dimension, no parallel research has been conducted in consumer behavior on brand personality. Consequently, an understanding of the symbolic use of brands has been limited in the consumer behavior literature. In this research, the author develops a theoretical framework of the the brand personality construct by determining the number and nature of dimensions of brand personality (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication, and Ruggedness). To measure the five brand personality dimensions, a reliable, valid, and generalizable measurement scale is created. Finally, theoretical and practical implications regarding the symbolic use of brands are discussed.
  • Article
    Although a considerable amount of research in personality psychology has been done to conceptualize human personality, identify the ''Big Five'' dimensions, and explore the meaning of each dimension, no parallel research has been conducted in consumer behavior on brand personality, Consequently, an understanding of the symbolic use of brands has been limited in the consumer behavior literature. In this research, the author develops a theoretical framework of the brand personality construct by determining the number and nature of dimensions of brand personality (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication, and Ruggedness). Tc, measure the five brand personality dimensions, a reliable, valid, and generalizable measurement scale is created. Finally, theoretical and practical implications regarding the symbolic use of brands are discussed.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Creativity is an underresearched topic in consumer behavior, yet integral in many instances of consumer problem solving. Two experiments were conducted to investigate antecedents and consequences of creativity in a consumption context. The results indicate that both situational factors (i.e., time constraints, situational involvement) and person factors (i.e., locus of control, metaphoric thinking ability) affect creative consumption and that some of these variables have interactive influences. The results also show that acting creatively enhances positive affect.
  • Article
    The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i. e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
  • Article
    Results of four studies demonstrate that perceptions of how different a brand is from other brands in the product category affect perceptions of the brand's position within the category. Specifically, perceptions that a brand is strongly discrepant result in a subtyped (or niche) position, whereas perceptions that a brand is moderately discrepant result in a differentiated position within the general category. Perceptions of discrepancy are affected both by the extent of discrepancy on an attribute and whether the discrepant information is concentrated in a single ad for the brand or dispersed across multiple ads for the product. The effects associated with a subtyped position, in comparison with a differentiated position, are identified (study 1) and are found to increase with time (study 2). The subtyped versus differentiated distinction for a strongly versus moderately discrepant brand is validated with a sorting task (study 3). This distinction is shown to hold in the context of multiple discrepant brands that differ in their extent of discrepancy (study 4). Implications of the findings for a theoretical understanding of subtyping versus differentiation and for the application of positioning strategies in the marketplace are discussed.
  • Book
    automated social cognitive processes categorize, evaluate, and impute the meanings of behavior and other social information, and this input is then ready for use by conscious and controlled judgment and decision processes / review . . . the literature on automaticity in social cognition] / discuss the research in terms of its relevance for the] issues of awareness, intentionality, efficiency, and control (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(chapter)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The principal objective of this study was to develop an exploratory investigation of the dimensions of brand personality in Mexico. Furthermore, the brand personality dimensions were compared to study the differences between males and females. An estimated 400 undergraduate students participated. They were given a questionnaire to measure brand personality divided into two sessions (six brands of think products in one session and six brands of feel products in another session). However, not all the students attended class on both days, so some completed only one of the two sessions. In the end, 313 participants completed the questionnaire on the six brands of think products and 320 completed the questionnaire on the six brands of feel products. A total of seven factors were extracted from the brand personality scale: Success, Hipness/Vivacity, Sophistication, Sincerity, Domesticity/Emotionality, Ruggedness and Professionalism. The women rated the brands higher for Success and Hipness/Vivacity, while the men rated the brands higher for Domesticity/Emotionality, Ruggedness and Professionalism. The author discusses the implications of the research for marketing practice and the meaning of these brand personality dimensions in the Mexican cultural context.
  • Article
    Research in social psychology suggests that motives such as self-bolstering and impression management can lead people to engage in deliberate misrepresentationsduring interpersonal communications. This articleextends our understandingof such behaviorto a new domain;that of consumer communications. Drawing on research on lying behavior and symbolic consumption,we suggest that misrepresentationabout productsand possessionsis particularly likely to occurwhen these productsor possessionsare used to create a positiveself-imagein the contextof socialinteraction. Experiments 1 and 2 simulatea social interactionwherein misrep-resentation about the purchase price of a product helps participants to manage impressions. A third experiment extends these findings by testing for wealth-related misrepresentation in the context of an interaction wherein participantsactually communicate their family's wealth to a recipient. Consistentwith predictionsderivedfrom existingresearchon symbolicconsumption, all 3 experimentsprovidesupportfor the criticalimportanceof recipientstatuson the likelihood of misrepresentation. The first 2 experimentsadditionallyexamine the role of individualdiffer-ences and brand differences. Results on these dimensionsare also supportiveof our underlying theoretical premise regarding the antecedents of lying behavior.
  • Article
    This chapter discusses the functional relation between perception and behavior. It presents a general perspective on perception and action along with elaborating the direct relation between perception and behavior and specifically on one consequence of this relation—namely, the imitation. The chapter describes the core concepts of social perception. Furthermore, the chapter examines all three forms of social perception that lead directly to corresponding overt behavioral tendencies. The cognitive approach that has dominated psychology for over 30 years has changed psychology's perspective on perception. Certainly, perception is essential for us to comprehend our environment but that does not mean that this understanding is an end in itself. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the perception-behavior link from a functional perspective. In specific, perception provides an understanding of the world. Social perception refers to the activation of a perceptual representation, which generally has a direct effect on social behavior. Perceptual inputs are translated automatically into corresponding behavioral outputs.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The goal-gradient hypothesis denotes the classic finding from behaviorism that animals expend more effort as they approach a reward. Building on this hypothesis, the authors generate new propositions for the human psychology of rewards. They test these propositions using field experiments, secondary customer data, paper-and-pencil problems, and Tobit and logit models. The key findings indicate that (1) participants in a real café reward program purchase coffee more frequently the closer they are to earning a free coffee; (2) Internet users who rate songs in return for reward certificates visit the rating Web site more often, rate more songs per visit, and persist longer in the rating effort as they approach the reward goal; (3) the illusion of progress toward the goal induces purchase acceleration (e.g., customers who receive a 12-stamp coffee card with 2 preexisting "bonus" stamps complete the 10 required purchases faster than customers who receive a "regular" 10-stamp card); and (4) a stronger tendency to accelerate toward the goal predicts greater retention and faster reengagement in the program. The conceptualization and empirical findings are captured by a parsimonious goal-distance model, in which effort investment is a function of the proportion of original distance remaining to the goal. In addition, using statistical and experimental controls, the authors rule out alternative explanations for the observed goal gradients. They discuss the theoretical significance of their findings and the managerial implications for incentive systems, promotions, and customer retention.
  • Article
    Automatic stereotype activation can be overcome intentionally and after an extensive training. However, intentions have to be tailored to a certain social category. It is hypothesized that activating the mindset “think different” by priming creativity prevents stereotypes and associations in general from becoming automatically activated. In two experiments a creative, a thoughtful or no mindset was activated. Afterwards, the activation of associations was measured using a lexical decision task with semantic priming. As predicted, the automatic activation of stereotypes (Study 1) and other associations (Study 2) was found in the control conditions but not in a creative mindset. These results suggest that people possess a mindset that allows for overcoming automatic stereotype activation without being tailored to a specific category.
  • Book
    Excerpts available on Google Books (see link below). For more information, go to publisher's website : http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780805822335/
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The accessibility of a category in memory has been shown to influence the selection and interpretation of social information. The present experiment examined the possibility that information relevant to a trait category (hostility) presented outside of conscious awareness can temporarily increase that category's accessibility. 108 male undergraduates initially performed a vigilance task in which they were exposed unknowingly to single words. Either 0, 20, or 80% of those words were semantically related to hostility. In an unrelated 2nd task, 20 Ss read a behavioral description of a stimulus person (SP) that was ambiguous regarding hostility and then rated the SP on several trait dimensions. The amount of processing Ss gave to the hostile information and the negativity of their ratings of the SP both were reliably and positively related to the proportion of hostile words to which they were exposed. Several control conditions confirmed that the words were not consciously perceived. It is concluded that social stimuli of which people are not consciously aware can influence conscious judgments. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    The developing consensus that much of the psychologically interesting variance in behavior will be found in the interaction between the person and the situation suggests the need for a common language of description for both persons and situations. Accordingly, it is proposed that a situation be characterized by a set of template–behavior pairs, which is a set of personality descriptions (Q sorts) of hypothetical "ideal" persons, each one associated with a particular behavior. The Q-sort description of a particular individual is then matched against each template, and he or she is predicted to display the behavior associated with the most similar template. The heuristic and predictive utility of this template matching technique is demonstrated in 3 classical experimental settings: (a) the delay-of-gratification situation, (b) the mixed-motive game, and (c) the forced-compliance experiment. This technique can also be used to assess the ecological validity of laboratory experiments and to test competing theories of psychological phenomena. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Addresses fundamental self-regulatory issues by considering the basic ways in which goals can differ from each other not only in terms of their motivational contents but also in terms of their significant cognitive properties. To integrate these differing goal qualities under a general perspective, this chapter adopts a systematic approach in assuming that an individual's goals and means can be viewed as a network of cognitive associations endowed with specific structural properties. The authors begin by portraying the fundamental characteristics of goal systems: how goals inter-connect with other goals and with their attainment means and what significant configurations result from these associations. In doing so, they outline a number of characteristics of goal-systems such as their potential for implicit activation, their contextual dependence, and the transfer of properties that may occur between their components. This chapter then considers the consequences of goal systems for various self-regulatory phenomena including goal commitment, choice, substitution, and intrinsic motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    The concurrent-memory-load technique identifies attention demands with interactions between reaction-time-task parameters and the size of the load. Three experiments with a total of 18 undergraduates are reported in which a multiple-choice reaction time task involving 2, 4, and 8 stimulus–response (S–R) alternatives was performed alone and in the retention interval of a short-term memory task involving ordered recall of 8 digits. In Exp I assignment of stimulus letters to response buttons (S–R mapping) was consistent for 6 days but varied on the 7th. Memory load and number of alternatives interacted early in practice, but the interaction diminished over days, and the effects were additive on Day 6. When the S–R mapping changed on Day 7, the interaction returned. In Exp II, S–R mapping varied daily for 6 days, and the interaction remained stable throughout practice. In Exp III, S–R mapping was consistent for 6 days and varied on the 7th, but the memory task was not introduced until Days 6 and 7. The interaction between memory load and number of alternatives was stronger on Day 7, after the mapping had changed, than it was on Day 6, after practice with consistent mapping. (69 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    According to the auto-motive model (J. A. Bargh, 1990), intentions and goals are represented mentally and, as representations, should be capable of nonconscious activation by the environmental context (i.e., "priming"). To test this hypothesis, the authors replicated 2 well-known experiments that had demonstrated differential effects of varying the information-processing goal (impression formation or memorization) on processing the identical behavioral information. However, instead of giving participants the goals via explicit instructions, as had been done in the original studies. the authors primed the impression formation or memorization goal. In both cases, the original pattern of results was reproduced. The findings thus support the hypothesis that the effect of activated goals is the same whether the activation is nonconscious or through an act of will. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A 2-process theory of human information processing is proposed and applied to detection, search, and attention phenomena. Automatic processing is activation of a learned sequence of elements in long-term memory that is initiated by appropriate inputs and then proceeds automatically--without S control, without stressing the capacity limitations of the system, and without necessarily demanding attention. Controlled processing is a temporary activation of a sequence of elements that can be set up quickly and easily but requires attention, is capacity-limited (usually serial in nature), and is controlled by the S. A series of studies, with approximately 8 Ss, using both reaction time and accuracy measures is presented, which traces these concepts in the form of automatic detection and controlled search through the areas of detection, search, and attention. Results in these areas are shown to arise from common mechanisms. Automatic detection is shown to develop following consistent mapping of stimuli to responses over trials. Controlled search was utilized in varied-mapping paradigms, and in the present studies, it took the form of serial, terminating search. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    The authors propose that superstars are most likely to affect self-views when they are considered relevant. Relevant superstars provoke self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seems attainable but self-deflation when it seems unattainable. Participants' self-views were affected only when the star's domain of excellence was self-relevant. Relevant stars provoked self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seemed attainable in that participants either still had enough time to achieve comparable success or believed their own abilities could improve over time. Open-ended responses provided rich evidence of inspiration in these circumstances. Relevant stars provoked, if anything, self-deflation when their success seemed unattainable in that participants either had already missed the chance to achieve comparable success or viewed their abilities as fixed and so unlikely to improve. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    The author argues that the drive stimulus which acts adequately for the random seeking reactions of a hungry organism is insufficient alone to produce the integration of complex behavior sequences such as are involved in maze learning. In addition the presence of the reward causes anticipatory goal reactions to accompany the sequence leading to the full overt goal reaction. The kinesthetic stimulation resulting from these persistent anticipatory actions produces a second stimulus which persists along with the drive stimulus and depends upon it. Certain facts are thereby made understandable, such as the facts that withholding the usual reward causes disintegration of one particular habit sequence without preventing the pursuit of alternative sequences based on the same drive, and the fact that the substitution of one reward for another in the same situation causes disintegration. The author believes that anticipatory goal reactions are the physical substance of purposive ideas and the basis of what is known as ideo-motor action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    [.rt error 1] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Tested alternative models for explaining priming effects on categorization and contrasted their predictions concerning the relative advantage of frequent vs recent priming as a function of interstimulus delay. 63 undergraduates were asked to categorize an ambiguous stimulus description that could be characterized in either a positive or a negative manner. Prior to its presentation, Ss were unobtrusively exposed to both positive and negative primes related to the description. For half of the Ss, the positive primes appeared more frequently, but the negative prime appeared most recently; for the remaining Ss, the negative primes appeared more frequently, but the positive prime appeared most recently. Between the final prime and stimulus presentation, there was a delay of either 15 or 120 sec. Ss tended to categorize the stimulus description in terms of the recently primed construct after the brief interstimulus delay, but they tended to categorize the description in terms of the frequently primed construct after the long interstimulus delay. Results are consistent with a proposed synapse model of priming effects. Other possible models that make different assumptions about the level of activation, the decay function, and their ability to account for the findings are discussed. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Reviews evidence which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Ss are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware of the existence of the response, and (c) unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do so on the basis of any true introspection. Instead, their reports are based on a priori, implicit causal theories, or judgments about the extent to which a particular stimulus is a plausible cause of a given response. This suggests that though people may not be able to observe directly their cognitive processes, they will sometimes be able to report accurately about them. Accurate reports will occur when influential stimuli are salient and are plausible causes of the responses they produce, and will not occur when stimuli are not salient or are not plausible causes. (86 ref)
  • Article
    Creativity is an underresearched topic in consumer behavior, yet integral in many instances of consumer problem solving. Two experiments were conducted to in-vestigate antecedents and consequences of creativity in a consumption context. The results indicate that both situational factors (i.e., time constraints, situational involvement) and person factors (i.e., locus of control, metaphoric thinking ability) affect creative consumption and that some of these variables have interactive influences. The results also show that acting creatively enhances positive affect. T here is little scholarship on creativity in daily life (Lu-bart 1994). Preoccupation with monumental creative achievements (e.g., those of Einstein, Beethoven, etc.) has averted focus from creativity in the myriad of smaller acts taking place everyday at home, work, or leisure. Consider, for example, what did you do the last time you were missing a key ingredient, tool, or accessory? Creativity is essential to solving many common problems and meeting basic hu-man needs. Moreover, it is difficult to imagine a more wide-spread and more appropriate context than consumer behav-ior for studying day-to-day creativity. Nonetheless, creativity has remained a rare topic in con-sumer research. This is surprising since the undisputed suc-cess of many products—from Kleenex to mountain bikes— can be attributed to consumer creativity (von Hippel 1986). While marketers have been quick to apply consumer crea-tivity in developing new products, consumer researchers have hardly ventured into this aspect of consumption. Per-haps the lack of interest stems from dominant models in our who served as judges. Finally the authors thank the editor and reviewers. The McIntire School of Commerce provided financial support for the sec-ond study.
  • Article
    Although it is clear that nonconscious primes can affect behavioral decisions, the extent to which the prime-to-behavior link is mediated by intervening interpretative processes is still unknown. The present research examined the mediational role of “situational construals” by assessing the effects of cooperative versus competitive primes on participants’ construals of, and responses to, the prisoner’s dilemma. As predicted, this priming manipulation influenced participants’ construals of the game (assessed by the participants’ ratings of the appropriateness of different “names for the game” and their estimates of how random others would play), and their own expressed willingness to cooperate versus defect. Most crucially, a mediational analysis and a manipulation of the order in which these dependent variables were measured established that the prime-to-behavior link can be strengthened by an intervening task calling for explicit construal of the situation. The interplay of situational construal and implicit primes in producing deliberative behavior is discussed.
  • Article
    In six studies participants searched for a target stimulus among other stimuli. Lexical decision and Stroop measures of accessibility showed that accessibility of target-related words was enhanced prior to finding the target and reduced after finding it, relative to both a preceding stage, relative to a control, no-goal condition and relative to a condition in which the goal was not fulfilled. In addition, Studies 4, 5, and 6 showed that goal-related accessibility and post-fulfillment inhibition were proportional to the goal’s expectancy, the goal’s value, and their interaction. Together, these studies support the notion that goals enhance accessibility of the goal-related constructs, which is maintained as long as the goal is active, goal fulfillment inhibits accessibility of goal-related constructs, and these effects are proportional to the strength of the motivation.
  • Inspired by potential theoretical linkages between nonconscious priming work in psychology and the anthropological emphasis on the impact of material culture, five studies were conducted to investigate the role of implicitly presented material objects and automatic processes in interpersonal and organizational contexts. These studies showed that exposure to objects common to the domain of business (e.g., boardroom tables and briefcases) increased the cognitive accessibility of the construct of competition (Study 1), the likelihood that an ambiguous social interaction would be perceived as less cooperative (Study 2), and the amount of money that participants proposed to retain for themselves in the “Ultimatum Game” (Studies 3 and 4). A fifth study, in which the ambiguity of the governing social situation was manipulated, demonstrated that these types of effects are most likely to occur in contexts that are ambiguous and/or lacking in explicit normative demands. The importance of these situation-specific “material priming” effects (all of which occurred without the participants' awareness of the relevant influence) to judgment and behavioral choice in specific contexts, as well as to the fostering of less competitive organizational settings, is discussed.
  • Article
    Interest in the study of neural networks has grown remarkably in the last several years. This effort has been characterized in a variety of ways: as the study of brain-style computation, connectionist architectures, parallel distributed-processing systems, neuromorphic computation, artificial neural systems. The common theme to these efforts has been an interest in looking at the brain as a model of a parallel computational device very different from that of a traditional serial computer.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Two experiments, involving 436 preadolescent schoolchildren, investigated how the explicitness of promised reward affects creativity. In the first study, the nonspecific promise of reward increased the creativity of picture drawing if children had previously received divergent-thinking training (generating novel uses for physical objects). In the second study, promised reward increased the creativity of children's drawings if current task instructions clarified the necessity of creative performance. Promised reward evidently increases creativity if there is currently, or was previously, an explicit positive relationship between creativity and reward.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Our repertoire of social behavior may include the ability to grasp and take on the goals of others automatically - that is, without conscious intent. Two experiments tested and confirmed the hypothesis that priming social groups causes individuals to pursue the goals stereotypical for members of those groups. Study 1 found that participants provided more feedback to help another person optimizing a computer task after subliminal priming of social groups associated with a helping goal. Importantly, these goal priming effects were qualified by goal strength: participants helped more when the concept of helping more strongly preexisted as a goal or desired state in the participant's mind. Study 2 established that participants worked harder on an unrelated task instrumental in attaining the goal to make money after priming social groups related to this goal. Implications for stereotype activation and automatic goal pursuit are discussed.
  • Article
    Recent research demonstrates that goal pursuit can be instigated without conscious interventions when the mental accessibility of goal representations is enhanced by environmental cues. However, the mechanisms producing this non-conscious, motivational, goal-directed activity are not clearly addressed in the literature. In this chapter we present a framework within which the non-conscious activation of goal-directed behaviour can be understood. The framework departs from the idea that a goal is represented as a desired state and identifies three characteristics of this representation that render non-conscious goal pursuit more likely to occur: its mental accessibility, the discrepancy of the represented state with the actual state, and its association with positive affect. We present findings, largely established in our own labs, that demonstrate the crucial role of these three factors. We will close the chapter by showing how the framework can help to address some of the pressing issues in the research on non-conscious goal pursuit.
  • Article
    Priming or nonconscious activation of social knowledge structures has produced a plethora of rather amazing findings over the past 25 years: priming a single social concept such as aggressive can have multiple effects across a wide array of psychological systems, such as perception, motivation, behavior, and evaluation. But we may have reached childhood's end, so to speak, and need now to move on to research questions such as how these multiple effects of single primes occur (the generation problem); next, how these multiple simultaneous priming influences in the environment get distilled into nonconscious social action that has to happen serially, in real time (the reduction problem). It is suggested that models of complex conceptual structures (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980), language use in real-life conversational settings (Clark, 1996), and speech production (Dell, 1986) might hold the key for solving these two important 'second-generation' research problems.
  • Article
    Self-reports are a key source of information in consumer research. Unfortunately, self-reports are highly context dependent, and this problem is compounded when comparisons across cohorts or cultures are of interest. Age-related changes in cognitive functioning and cultural differences in cognition and communication influence the response process, resulting in differential context effects that may reverse the ordinal placement of cohorts or cultures on the measure of interest. Any observed difference between age groups or cultures may therefore reflect a meaningful difference in attitudes or behaviors, a difference in the response process, or an unknown mix of both. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
  • Article
    How do preferences change when consumers focus on the anticipated satisfaction with a purchase rather than choice? In a series of three studies, we show that preferences, both expressed and revealed, change depending on the degree to which anticipated satisfaction is evoked. These shifts in preferences arise because, compared to choice, anticipated satisfaction elicits a mental-imaging processing strategy that is both more effort intensive and qualitatively different. By providing direct evidence from thought protocols and by presenting evidence suggesting that these shifts in preferences vanish when mental imagery is discouraged or made more difficult, we show that the effect arises out of a processing strategy that requires effortful mental imagery of one or more of the options in the decision-making task. Finally, we demonstrate the uniqueness of the effect by showing that it cannot be generated with heightened processing or by an orientation that is directed toward the extent to which the options are liked. Copyright 2000 by the University of Chicago.
  • Article
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