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This article first examines whether brand exposure elicits automatic behavioral effects as does exposure to social primes. Results support the translation of these effects: participants primed with Apple logos behave more creatively than IBM primed and controls; Disney-primed participants behave more honestly than E!-primed participants and controls. Second, this article investigates the hypothesis that exposure to goal-relevant brands (i.e., those that represent a positively valenced characteristic) elicits behavior that is goal directed in nature. Three experiments demonstrate that the primed behavior showed typical goal-directed qualities, including increased performance postdelay, decreased performance postprogress, and moderation by motivation. (c) 2008 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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... Through a different path, Dijksterhuis et al.presented pairs of positive and self-related words subliminally and found they increased individual perceptions of self-esteem. Fitzsimons et al.and Wang et al.studied how subliminal priming may affect individuals' creativity during brainstorming, and found that visually priming the logo of well-known creative brands (e.g., Apple) made participants feel and reason more creatively and boosted the diversity of ideas during the brainstorming task. ...
... Through a different path, Dijksterhuis et al.  presented pairs of positive and self-related words subliminally and found they increased individual perceptions of self-esteem. Fitzsimons et al.  and Wang et al.  studied how subliminal priming may affect individuals' creativity during brainstorming, and found that visually priming the logo of well-known creative brands (e.g., Apple) made participants feel and reason more creatively and boosted the diversity of ideas during the brainstorming task. ...
With 50% of people spending over 6 h per day surfing the web, web browsers offer a promising platform for the delivery of behavior change interventions. One technique might be subliminal priming of behavioral concepts (e.g., walking). This paper presents Subly, an open-source plugin for Google’s Chrome browser that primes behavioral concepts through slight emphasis on words and phrases as people browse the Internet. Such priming interventions might be employed across several domains, such as breaking sedentary activity, promoting safe use of the Internet among minors, promoting civil discourse and breaking undesirable online habits such excessive use of social media. We present two studies with Subly: one that identifies the threshold of subliminal perception and one that demonstrates the efficacy of Subly in a picture-selection task. We conclude with opportunities and ethical considerations arising from the future use of Subly to achieve behavior change.
... Brand names can act as primes by increasing a brand's accessibility which may affect the probability that it is retrieved and considered for choice (Nedungadi, 1990). Brand names could activate brand identityconsistent traits and concepts, thus influencing behaviors (Brasel & Gips, 2011;Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008;Hudson, Huang, Roth, & Madden, 2016;Park & John, 2014;Wänke, 2016). Since brands are seen as extensions of self and have personalities, they tend to provide psychological value to customers by depicting their personality and identity related motivations (Aaker, 1997;Belk, 2013;Fitzsimons et al., 2008). ...
... Brand names could activate brand identityconsistent traits and concepts, thus influencing behaviors (Brasel & Gips, 2011;Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008;Hudson, Huang, Roth, & Madden, 2016;Park & John, 2014;Wänke, 2016). Since brands are seen as extensions of self and have personalities, they tend to provide psychological value to customers by depicting their personality and identity related motivations (Aaker, 1997;Belk, 2013;Fitzsimons et al., 2008). Customers often relate to brands that reflect self-enhancement (want to build connection with brand and the self) and selfverification goals (want to be like others who use the brand) (MacInnis & Folkes, 2017). ...
Companies are increasingly searching for ways to better engage consumers through social media. In this paper, we explore the impact of using different levels of brand names (corporate vs. product) in social media posts on customer engagement and purchase intentions for services. Building on services branding and brand self-identity literature, we argue that the use of corporate brand names in a services context will increase message likes and purchase intention and that corporate customer brand identification drives these effects. We test this assertion with both field and experimental studies. A field study, using actual services' Facebook brand posts, provides support for this hypothesis, finding that the use of corporate brand names increases message likes while the use of product brand names reduces them. Four follow-up experiments replicate these results, identify boundary conditions, and provide process evidence that the effect is mediated by customer brand identification. Implications are discussed.
... less) causally uncertain about a relationship problem, and then allowed them to actually think more abstractly (goal fulfillment) or more concretely (goal failure) in order to examine the effect of goal completion on participants' preferences. Researchers have distinguished between motivational and non-motivational phenomena using a variety of goal activation principles, one of them being that motivation dimin- ishes once a goal has been satisfied ( Bargh et al., 2001;Ferguson & Bargh, 2004;Fitzsimons et al., 2008;Förster et al., 2007;Gollwitzer & Moskowitz, 1996;Laran & Janiszewski, 2009;Martin & Tesser, 2009). ...
... People also persist through obstacles to satisfy a thinking goal. Therefore, the present research complements prior re- search on various types of motivated cognition (Festinger, 1957;Fitzsimons et al., 2008;Gollwitzer & Bayer, 1999;Kruglanski & Webster, 1996;Kunda, 1990;Lerner, 1980;Murray & Holmes, 1997) by adding insight into what consequences they might have as active and fulfilled goals. ...
This protocol is based on the task interruption and resumption paradigm, the premise of which is that active goals lead to persistent behavior and thus a higher resumption rate after a period of delay or interruption. The task interruption and resumption protocol described in this research is tailored to test the activation of cognitive goals (e.g., a goal to think more abstractly). Cognitive goals may be pursued even during the interruption period; thus, to prevent this, the protocol involves cognitive distraction. The protocol consists of several stages. Specifically, the initial stage includes the goal activation process, where the treatment (versus control) condition receives a manipulation to activate the cognitive goal being tested by the researcher. In the next stage, participants are presented with the introduction of a task that is perceived to either satisfy or not satisfy the cognitive goal of interest. Importantly, this task is interrupted a few seconds after it begins. The task interruption forces a delay period and introduces a cognitive distraction to prevent the automatic pursuit and fulfillment of the cognitive goal. After the interruption period, participants are given a choice between resuming the interrupted task and abandoning the interrupted task to complete an alternative task instead. Among participants whose cognitive goals had been activated at the earlier stage, the task resumption rate should be higher if the task was perceived as an opportunity to satisfy (versus not satisfy) the goal. Such a finding would provide empirical evidence that the cognitive goal has been activated and pursued. In previous research, this protocol has been used to test whether causal uncertainty activates an abstract thinking goal. Adapting the protocol to test the activation of other cognitive goals is also discussed.
... universally known organic foods) has been shown to be able to make people more creative. In a study by Fitzsimons, Chartrand, and Fitzsimons (2008), Apple- primed study participants performed better in their appointed tasks than IBM-primed participants. In the food realm, when con- sumers' nonconscious status motives were activated, they started to signal their status through the size of food portions; exposure to a power prime got them to choose bigger food portions (Dubois, Rucker, & Galinsky, 2012). ...
... Exposure to well-known brands (cf. organic food), for instance, can work as a prime cue leading to goal-directed behavior ( Fitzsimons et al., 2008). In the beverage context, it has been shown that after consuming a can of placebo energy drink, blood pressure increased significantly among the study partici- pants with high performance motivation, but not among those with low performance motivation (Irmak, Block, & Fitzsimons, 2005). ...
As the current research suggests that there are links between prosocial acts and status signaling (including sustainable consumer choices), we empirically study (with three experiments) whether food consumers go green to be seen. First, we examine how activating a motive for status influences prosocial organic food preferences. Then, we examine how the social visibility of the choice (private vs. public) affects these preferences. We found that when consumers' desire for status was elicited, they preferred organic food products significantly over their nonorganic counterparts; making the choice situation visible created the same effect. Finally, we go beyond consumers' evaluative and behavioral domains that have typically been addressed to investigate whether this (nonconscious) "going green to be seen" effect is also evident at the level of more physiologically-driven food responses. Indeed, status motives and reputational concerns created an improved senso-emotional experience of organic food. Specifically, when consumers were led to believe that they have to share their organic food taste experiences with others, an elevation could be detected not only in the pleasantness ratings but also in how joyful and hopeful they felt after eating a food sample. We claim that the reason for this is that a tendency to favor organic foods can be viewed as a costly signaling trait, leading to flaunting about one's prosocial tendencies. According to these findings, highlighting socially disapproved consumption motives, such as reputation management, may be an effective way to increase the relatively low sales of organic foods and thereby promote sustainable consumer behavior.
... Stretching out way beyond the confines of multisensory packaging design, consumer psychology is replete with such 'surprising' findings. For instance, consumers have been shown to prefer brand names starting with their own name letter (Brendl, Chattopadhyay, Pelham, & Carvallo, 2005), buy more French wine when French, instead of German music is played in the supermarket (North, Hargreaves, & McKendrick, 1999), become more creative after being exposed to the Apple, rather than the IBM logo (Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008), and drink more Liptonice after having been exposed subliminally to the Liptonice brand (Karremans, Stroebe, & Claus, 2006). These examples are at odds with the notion of consumers as rational, thoughtful decision makers, and instead stress the overwhelming influence of incidental contextual factors on consumer behaviour. ...
Packaging design is not only an indispensable marketing tool but also an important vehicle for shaping sensory evaluations and for nudging healthy food choices. However, insights specifying how the ‘look and feel’ properties of product packaging design influence evaluations and sensory impressions such as taste and smell are lacking, thus thwarting informed decision-making regarding the selection of the most appropriate design elements. The aim of the present chapter is therefore to demonstrate how an embodied perspective can account for effects of design variables on consumer evaluations. Specifically, the influence of design variables relating to (1) packaging shape, (2) graphic layout and composition, and (3) tactile packaging properties is discussed in light of recent studies based on the embodied cognition framework. In doing so, moderators of design influences pertaining to the consumer and the environmental context are discussed. Furthermore, as packaging designs always comprise a multitude of design factors, we elaborate on their interplay and on how (mis)matches between expectations generated by packaging design and sensory impressions on experiencing the product can influence information processing and evaluation. Finally, we discuss avenues for future product development, research, and design for behaviour change initiatives.
... Previous research suggests that both routes are pos- sible. Evidence for the motivational route comes from research showing that exposure to a brand may automatically prime goals and motivate goal-directed behaviors (Fitzsimons, Chartrand, and Fitzsimons 2008). Although we con- strue our findings in terms of activation of different aspects of the self-concept, the underlying part-of-self mechanism could be viewed as conferring commitment to a particular identity. ...
Research has shown that possessions have the power to change consumers’ self-construal and activate different aspects of the self. Building on this literature, the authors suggest that the salience of product ownership not only activates the product-related self but also simultaneously deactivates product-unrelated selves, resulting in impaired performance on tasks unrelated to the activated self. In five experiments, we first elicit feelings of ownership over a product (e.g., a calculator) to activate a product-related identity (e.g., the math self). Participants then engage in a task that is labeled as being a product-related task (e.g., a math task) or a product-unrelated task (e.g., a visual task). Although the task is the same, participants in the ownership condition perform worse on a task labeled as product-unrelated than those in the baseline condition do. Support for the underlying identity activation process comes from the finding that performance impairment is more likely to hold under conditions of low self-concept clarity, in which identity is malleable. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this finding.
... Several recent studies  have explored the effects of priming on consumer behavior and brand impression. The authors of the present article came across contrasting results. ...
The influence of subliminal priming (behavior outside of awareness) in humans is an interesting phenomenon and its understanding is crucial as it can impact behavior, choices, and actions. Given this, research about the impact of priming continues to be an area of investigative interest, and this paper provides a technical overview of research design strengths and issues in subliminal priming research. Efficient experiments and protocols, as well as associated electroencephalographic and eye movement data analyses, are discussed in detail. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of different priming experiments that have measured affective (emotional) and cognitive responses. Finally, very recent approaches and findings are described to summarize and emphasize state-of-the-art methods and potential future directions in research marketing and other commercial applications.
... Recent research has investigated the potential of subliminal cues triggering the creative process. For instance, Fitzsimons et al.  found that flashing quickly a brand identified as creative (e.g. Apple logo) motivated users to behave creativily and resulted in a higher number of creative responses. ...
Creative writing requires the manipulation of language in demanding ways, as individuals attempt to uniquely express themselves. As a result, during creative writing people often experience the writer's block: a stress reaction that affects their ability to write. Addressing this problem, creativity support tools have been incorporating story prompts to instigate the creative process. However, such strategies distract the user from the writing task and impose cognitive load to get over the block. In this paper, we investigate subliminal priming as a novel technique to support creative writing. We developed a text-editor that provides conscious and unconscious textual hints during a writing task and explored its impact on user's self-experienced creativity. Results showed that participants in the subliminal condition experienced more loss of self-consciousness when compared to the control condition. Self-report data revealed higher loss of self-consciousness in the subliminal condition while the analysis of eye-tracking data and verbal-accounts revealed a stronger influence on people's thoughts during the supraliminal condition. We report our findings and conclude with insights for future research.
... Further, consistent with the idea that people are less likely to use products as self-standards when they are not mindful of ownership, when people did not feel headset ownership nor were cognizant of not owning the device, the headset's traits did not affect self-judgment. Notably, assimilation patterns can be driven by other accounts, including inference ( Kardes, Posavac, & Cronley, 2004) and goal activation ( Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008) and do not require egocentric categorization to ensue. Our findings simply imply that cases where people feel product ownership may foster, whereas cases where people feel lack of ownership may inhibit or even reverse, other assimilative effects. ...
Egocentric categorization theory proposes that thinking of a product as owned (vs. unowned) influences consumer response to the product by systematically changing the way consumers mentally represent that product. Consumers who become owners of an item mentally classify it in the category of self, whereas those who remain non-owners mentally classify the item outside of that category. Categorization principles suggest that the way people perceive and respond to items they classify in a category differs from the way they perceive and respond to items they classify as external to that category. Therefore, thinking of a product as owned (vs. unowned) should lead people to make different judgments and decisions about the same product in ways that align with categorization principles. This chapter provides a brief overview of egocentric categorization theory (or ECT), position its contribution relatively to two pertinent theories, specifically Social Categorization and Possession Attachment, and explores ECT’s implications for ownership in product judgment and consumer choice. The chapter then highlights empirical evidence for the role of psychological ownership in ECT, and outlines how ECT principles can be used to amend adverse selection problems through induction of psychological ownership.
... Another stream of research that has emerged in recent years exam- ines how incidental cues or primes in the environment can affect cognitive processes that impact creativity. Fitzsimons, Chartrand, and Fitzsimons (2008), for instance, questioned whether consum- ers would respond to brand exposure in a similar fashion to how they react to social primes, and found that by simply priming an Apple logo, as compared to an IBM logo, consumers behaved more creatively. Similarly, merely making the concept of resource scar- city salient, in general, leads consumers to generate more creative uses for their existing products. ...
Our understanding of creativity has come a long way from when it was considered to be a mystical power. Indeed, creativity has grown into a defined cognitive process that can be influenced by a diverse range of internal and external factors. This article begins with a brief discussion of the history of creativity as a psychological construct and then outlines more recent work in the area, particularly focusing on how our understanding of creativity has been expanded in the last decade. In doing so, we explicate four defining factors that have been shown to play a critical role in shaping consumer creativity: cognitive ability, motivation, social‐personality, and environment. The article concludes with a discussion of three topics that we believe hold promise for future research efforts in the area.
... The whole body of research related to the SIDE model (Reicher et al., 1995;Spears & Lea, 1992 tends to contradict our experts' intuitive view. Finally, their view that the environment has little influence on creativity process is contrary to research results regarding the influence of contextual cues through behavioral priming and/or semantic priming (e.g., G. M. Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & G. J. Fitzsimons, 2008;Rietzschel, Nijstad, & Stroebe, 2007). ...
Following the growing body of scientific literature dedicated to the effects of virtual tools and environments on creative processes, we were interested in examining how professional creativity facilitators perceive these technologies and the extent to which they might support their dissemination. To this end, we conducted a workshop with 19 professional facilitators in which they could experience creativity in a virtual environment. Their ratings of the potential impact of such tools on session facilitation, on sociocognitive processes of creativity and on group motivation were collected twice: before and after the virtual session. The results show that their perception of the potential benefits of virtual environments decreased after the test. They mentioned many limitations of the technology with regard to usual facilitation process. Moreover, their expert perception of the creative process sometimes appeared contradictory to scientific results obtained in the domain. We discuss these results and provide design perspectives to make virtual technologies more acceptable and usable for creativity facilitators, in order to allow more population to benefit from their positive effects on group creativity.
... This suggests that although women generally have benefitted in terms of mating opportunities and reproductive success by showing signs of beauty and health (Buss, 1994), mate attraction motives should be more salient for women who are restrained eaters, and should therefore have a stronger influence on their food consumption compared with women who devote less time and thought to food. In other words, because women who are very conscious of what they are eating should have more accessible attitudes related to health, physical fitness, and appealing appearances, the activation of such attitudes through external stimuli (such as attractive men) should have a more pronounced attitude-congruent impact on their sub- sequent food consumption (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1977;Bargh & Chartrand, 1999;Fazio & Williams, 1986;Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008;Glasman & Albarracín, 2006). Hence, I hypothesize: ...
... Lastly, future studies on GIFTs may emulate the multi-level structural equation method and investigate how a level three variable (e.g., culture or organizational structure) may transform GIFTs. Organizational culture may be a source of alignment or discrepancy for IFTs at the group and individual levels ( Fitzsimons et al., 2008;Sy, 2010). In addition, GIFTs that are endorsed by companies with traditional hierarchical structures may differ from those with flat or horizontal structures. ...
Over four decades, research has demonstrated Pygmalion and Galatea effects (positive expectations leading to high performance) across various settings. In contrast, research on the parallel notion of Golem effects (negative expectations leading to low performance) has been largely overlooked. This study is the first to examine the relationship between group-level Implicit Followership Theories (GIFTs) and naturally occurring Golem effects. Integrating the literature on Implicit Followership Theories, self-fulfilling prophecies, and social identity, we propose that negative GIFTs can serve as proxies of expectations for followers that trigger Golem effects in workgroups. Data from 202 followers and 101 leaders provide support for our hypothesized multi-level model, revealing a top-down relationship between negative GIFTs and follower performance through their self-efficacy and effort. Findings highlight the importance of GIFTs in the Golem process, showing that followers’ cognitions and behaviors are shaped by the group’s prototypical attributes. Suggestions for future research are offered, including interpersonal Golem effects, negative GIFTs and negative outcomes, and influence of organizational culture.
... There could be three alternative explanations for the observed effect. First, the results could have been due to a priming effect (see Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008) rather than mere ownership. The presence of the learning materials in the with-ownership condition might have primed the participants to feel more knowledgeable. ...
Past research on the mere ownership effect has shown that when people own an object, they perceive the owned objects more favorably than the comparable non-owned objects. The present research extends this idea, showing that when people own an object functional to the self, they perceive an increase in their self-efficacy. Three studies were conducted to demonstrate this new form of the mere ownership effect. In Study 1, participants reported an increase in their knowledge level by the mere ownership of reading materials (a reading package in Study 1a, and lecture notes in Study 1b). In Study 2, participants reported an increase in their resilience to sleepiness by merely owning a piece of chocolate that purportedly had a sleepiness-combating function. In Study 3, participants who merely owned a flower essence that is claimed to boost creativity reported having higher creativity efficacy. The findings provided insights on how associations with objects alter one's self-perception.
... Previous research suggests that both routes are possible. Evidence for the motivational route comes from research showing that exposure to a brand may automatically prime goals and motivate goal-directed behaviors (Fitzsimons, Chartrand, and Fitzsimons 2008). While we construe our findings in terms of activation of different aspects of the self-concept, the underlying part-of-self mechanism could also be viewed as conferring commitment to a particular identity. ...
... Hence, future research may wish to examine if other design dimensions affect consumption behavior in similar ways as product aesthetics. For instance, recent research shows that the visual appearance of products may systematically evoke certain brand personality impressions (Orth & Malkewitz, 2008) and that such impressions may exert an effect on behavior (Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008). Of particular relevance to our research, the color blue -which we used to manipulate the appeal of the writing booklets in study 4 -may trigger perceptions of a competent brand personality (Labrecque & Milne, 2012). ...
Product aesthetics is a powerful means for achieving competitive advantage. Yet most studies to date have focused on the role of aesthetics in shaping pre-purchase preferences and have failed to consider how product aesthetics affects post-purchase processes and consumers' usage behavior. This research focuses on the relationship between aesthetics and usage behavior in the context of durable products. Studies 1A to 1C provide evidence of a positive effect of product aesthetics on usage intensity using market data from the car and the fashion industries. Study 2 corroborates these findings and shows that the more intensive use of highly aesthetic products may lead to the acquisition of product-specific usage skills that form the basis for a cognitive lock-in. Hence, consumers are less likely to switch away from products with appealing designs, an effect that is labeled as the ‘aesthetic fidelity’ effect. Study 3 addresses an alternative explanation for the ‘aesthetic fidelity effect’ based on mood
and motivation but finds that the ‘aesthetic fidelity’ effect is indeed determined by usage intensity. Finally, Study 4 identifies a boundary condition of the positive effect of product aesthetics on product usage, showing that it is limited to durable products. In sum, this research demonstrates that the effects of product aesthetics extend beyond the pre-consumption stage and have an enduring impact on people's consumption experiences.
... We argue that in sharing economy platforms such as Airbnb, the consumer's trust is influenced by the seller's personal photo. The seller's photo is a salient environmental cue that may act in a P2P market similarly to environmental cues (e.g., brand name) in business-to-customer markets and can automatically influence consumer behavior (Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008). In fact, the human face is one of the most salient environmental sources of social information (Zebrowitz, Voinescu, & Collins, 1996). ...
'Sharing economy' platforms such as Airbnb have recently flourished in the tourism industry. The prominent appearance of sellers’ photos on these platforms motivated our study. We suggest that the presence of these photos can have a significant impact on guests’ decision making. Specifically, we contend that guests infer the host’s trustworthiness from these photos, and that their choice is affected by this inference. In an empirical analysis of Airbnb’s data and a controlled experiment, we found that the more trustworthy the host is perceived to be from her photo, the higher the price of the listing and the probability of its being chosen. We also find that a host's reputation, communicated by her online review scores, has no effect on listing price or likelihood of consumer booking. We further demonstrate that if review scores are varied experimentally, they affect guests’ decisions, but the role of the host’s photo remains significant.
... Our findings also complement extant work demonstrating that brands can impact product effi- cacy by affecting consumers' self-efficacy (e.g., Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008;Garvey, Germann, & Bolton, 2016;Park & John, 2014). Our work identifies an additional mechanism-branded goods that are perceived to be counterfeits can engender moral disgust, which can interfere with product usage and thus degrade product efficacy. ...
We argue that moral disgust towards counterfeiting can degrade both the efficacy of products perceived to be counterfeits and that of genuine products resembling them. Five studies support our propositions and highlight the infectious nature of counterfeiting: Perceiving a product as a counterfeit made disgust more mentally accessible, and led participants to disinfect the item more and reduce how long they remained in physical contact with it (Study 1). Participants who perceived a mouse as a counterfeit, performed less well in a computer game using the mouse and expressed greater moral disgust, which mediated lowered performance (Study 2). Exposure to a supposedly counterfeit fountain pen in an unrelated prior task, infected participants’ performance using a genuine ballpoint pen resembling the ‘counterfeit;’ individual differences in moral attitudes moderated the effect (Study 3). Exposure to a supposedly counterfeit mouse, infected performance with a genuine mouse of the same brand; moral disgust mediated this effect (Study 4). Finally, moral disgust mediated lowered efficacy of a supposed counterfeit and that of a genuine item resembling the ‘counterfeit’ (Study 5).
... There could be three alternative explanations for the observed effect. First, the results could have been due to a priming effect (see Fitzsimons, Chartrand, & Fitzsimons, 2008) rather than mere ownership. The presence of the learning materials in the with-ownership condition might have primed the participants to feel more knowledgeable. ...
Past research on the mere ownership effect has shown that when people own an object, they perceive the owned objects more favorably than the comparable non‐owned objects. The present research extends this idea, showing that when people own an object functional to the self, they perceive an increase in their self‐efficacy. Three studies were conducted to demonstrate this new form of the mere ownership effect. In Study 1, participants reported an increase in their knowledge level by the mere ownership of reading materials (a reading package in Study 1a, and lecture notes in Study 1b). In Study 2, participants reported an increase in their resilience to sleepiness by merely owning a piece of chocolate that purportedly had a sleepiness‐combating function. In Study 3, participants who merely owned a flower essence that is claimed to boost creativity reported having higher creativity efficacy. The findings provided insights on how associations with objects alter one's self‐perception.
O crescimento dos índices de obesidade infantil no mundo, nas últimas três décadas, instigou à busca por respostas que apontassem as causas de tal fenômeno. Dentre outros fatores, a publicidade de alimentos não saudáveis, aliado a maior exposição das crianças à mídia e a ausência dos pais do ambiente doméstico têm sido apontados como determinantes para o quadro. Esse impacto da publicidade de alimentos com baixo teor nutricional na saúde das crianças merece análise a partir da doutrina da proteção integral da criança, a fim de ser apurada a possibilidade de restrição desse tipo de publicidade. A ideia de criança, como sujeito de direitos e merecedora de proteção especial, teve sua gênese no direito internacional no fim da década de 50, sendo consolidada pela Convenção Internacional dos Direitos da Criança de 1989. No Brasil, a Constituição Federal de 1988, por meio do art. 227, adotou a doutrina da proteção integral da criança, designando a tarefa à família, ao Estado e à sociedade. A norma do art. 227 da Constituição Federal trata-se de direito fundamental, uma vez que garantido à criança o direito à dignidade. Por outro lado, o texto constitucional assegura a liberdade de expressão comercial aos anunciantes, sendo este também um direito fundamental. Evidenciado o conflito entre direitos fundamentais, importa verificar a forma apontada pelo sistema constitucional para dirimir a questão.
Given the importance of branding on one hand, and pervasive nature of impulsive buying on the other, efforts were made to explore the possible impact of brand personalities on impulsive buying behaviour. For this, two studies were conducted. In the first study on 522 respondents, analysis using structural equation modelling revealed significant positive impact of “aggressive” and “activity” brand personality dimensions on impulsive buying behaviour. In the follow-up study on 1028 respondents across four different product categories, similar results were obtained with brand personality dimension of aggressiveness found to be significant impacting impulsive buying behaviour across all four product categories, while the brand personality dimension of “activity” was found to have significant positive impact in three out of the four product categories. Additionally, the results also revealed acceptable reliability and validity of brand personality measurement scale by Geuens et al. (Int J Res Mark 26(2):97–107, 2009). Findings from these studies provide a new perspective to brand management, and marketers equipped with this additional insight about the ability of “aggressive” and “active” brands to instigate impulsive purchase will have an opportunity to assess and utilise the short-term worth of brands as well.
Underdogs are expected to lose. Yet, many underdogs—from the Biblical David to today’s Harry Potter—emerge victorious. What do underdogs who win against seemingly impossible odds have in common? One answer may be creativity: they find creative ways to reach their goals. To determine how creativity figures into the success of underdogs, we randomly assigned participants in this study to either of two groups: one that reads a story about an underdog and one that reads a story about a top dog. After reading their respective stories, the participants completed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. As we predicted, participants who had read about an underdog had higher creativity scores and produced a wider range of ideas than those who had read about a top dog. Those results suggested that their contemplation of successful underdogs had stimulated the participants’ creativity. The implication is that the underdog experience may itself predispose individuals to finding creative solutions.
In total, the top five brands on Facebook have more than 500 million fans through the “like” Facebook button feature and yet research shows that about only 1% engage with the top brands on Facebook. This suggests that individuals have other underlying reasons for liking brands' Facebook pages. To address the question of the latent motivations for liking brands on Facebook, a conceptual model proposing that individuals liked Facebook brands to achieve specific virtual identities was developed and tested. The results demonstrate the significance of brand personality in determining consumer behavior. Self-congruity was also revealed to be an important moderator in the relationships theorized between brand personality and consumers' online behavior. Theoretical and practical implications are outlined and discussed.
We welcome Williams and Poehlman's (this issue) effort to better conceptualize consciousness in consumer research. In this comment, our goal is to complement their ideas based on models and methods from cognitive and consumer neuroscience. We extend their suggestions in two important ways. First, we offer an extended framework based on a taxonomy of consciousness from visual neuroscience that suggests a continuum rather than a dichotomy between unconscious and conscious processes. This continuum is determined by the role of perception and attention and the communication between different functional systems in the brain. We then clarify and make suggestions about how different methods from the neurobiology toolbox can be used (or not) as measures of mediating and moderating variables underlying consciousness in consumer behavior.
Can spicy gustatory sensations increase variety-seeking in subsequent unrelated choices—and if so, how? The present research explores these questions. Based on the metaphor “variety is the spice of life,” and drawing on research on metaphors and embodied cognition, the authors propose that spicy gustatory sensations may activate a desire to be interesting that leads to greater variety in subsequent unrelated choices. Specifically, the first study demonstrates that tasting spicy vs. mild potato chips results in greater variety-seeking in candy bars—but only when there is a time delay between the gustatory sensation and the variety-seeking choice task, suggesting an underlying motivational process. Further, the effect of spicy gustatory sensations on variety-seeking strengthens as the time delay increases, consistent with a motivational account. The second study provides evidence for a metaphor-based explanation of the effect by demonstrating that while there is no difference in variety-seeking among consumers who have tasted a spicy candy and those merely primed with the metaphor “variety is the spice of life,” variety-seeking is lower among consumers who have tasted a mild candy. This study also rules out taste-related factors as an alternative explanation.
This study examines the role of brand personality in organizational crisis communication within the context of social media. Content analysis methods are employed to analyze brands' official Facebook posts pre- and post-crisis for a period of 7 months. Relationship maintenance strategies are examined through the lens of two sincere brands (Chick-fil-A and Susan G. Komen for the Cure) and two exciting brands (Netflix and Facebook). Findings demonstrate that organizations communicate with the public about a crisis differently depending on their products' brand personalities, both pre- and post-crisis. Findings indicated that sincere brands were more active in the management of crises by increasing networking strategy and decreasing positivity strategy. In contrast, exciting brands were relatively passive in crisis response communications, sustaining instead such pre-crisis strategies as openness. At the conclusion of this study, implications and future research are discussed.
Cause-related marketing (CM) is the creation of a mutually beneficial relationship between a company and a nonprofit organization, with the dual objectives of boosting profit for the company and promoting the cause of the nonprofit. The present research demonstrates that mere exposure to CM evokes in consumers a desire to be prosocial and reduces the likelihood of self-indulgent choices. However, the act of purchasing CM products may provide consumers with a “warm glow” feeling from being prosocial. This feeling of a warm glow licenses subsequent self-indulgent behaviors, especially when the product with a cause is hedonic (vs. utilitarian) in nature. We further find that when the warm glow feeling is misattributed to something else (e.g., weather), the licensing effect is reduced. By distinguishing between the pre- and post-purchase effects of cause-related products, this research offers practical insights to managers on how to design and execute CM strategies.
The induction of emotion in the absence of conscious awareness of the stimulus evoking such emotion has long been a subject of great interest. Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interactions. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of subliminal presentation of emotional faces on mood. Students of Guilan University participated in this quasi-experimental study. Students completed demographic questionnaire, and questionnaire of Negative and positive Affect Scale. Then they were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n=8). In the intervention groups subliminal presentation of emotional faces were carried out. Results showed that subliminally presented happy faces decreased negative mood and increased positive mood. The opposite effect was observed for subliminally presented sad faces. It can be concluded that subliminal perception of faces may be effective in experimentally induced mood change and therefore these results may be used by practitioners and clinicians to treat mood disorders in students.
Kaufentscheidungen von Markenprodukten unterliegen nicht nur der rationalen Abwägung von Argumenten. Vielmehr beeinflusst die automatische Zuwendung von Aufmerksamkeit und die Auslösung von Impulsen, deren Einflüsse Konsumenten nicht bewusst zugänglich sind, Kaufentscheidungen in einem wichtigen Ausmaß. Es ist daher notwendig, Marken auf einer impliziten Ebene zu positionieren und die Wirkung auf der impliziten Ebene zu erfassen und zu kontrollieren. Im Kapitel werden neurowissenschaftliche und reaktionszeitbasierte Methoden sowie die Aufzeichnung von Blickbewegungen als Instrumente der Erfassung impliziter Markenwirkungen vorgestellt.
Logos as a visual cue can help firms communicate their unique identities and capture consumers’ attention. Despite the importance and prevalent use of logos, the logo literature remains fragmented. Hence, this article attempts to provide an overarching research framework based on an extensive and comprehensive review of the existing logo literature. Specifically, we review 124 studies published in business journals over the past 30 years, and classify them into six major research topics: 1) theoretical foundations, 2) logo design/redesign, 3) basic logo elements, 4) additional logo elements, 5) outcomes of logo use, and 6) practical applications of logo use. Finally, we suggest future research directions for academics and provide practitioners with guidelines that help manage logos for their businesses.
The estimation of choice models that explicitly incorporate economic agents’ goal-related information has yet to receive focused attention from practitioners. Despite recent advances on spatial analysis in stated preference studies, there is still no evidence on how spatial effects interact with goal pursuit. In this study we propose a modelling framework to analyse how goal pursuit influences choices and query whether pursuit of important goals makes individuals less distance-sensitive. We estimate a hybrid choice model with latent variables to investigate the role of goals and distance on preferences for recreational site attributes. We use data from a choice experiment involving selection among different sites in Dolomiti Bellunesi National Park (Italy). Our results show that goal pursuit has a significant effect on site choice probability and that distance disutility is decreased when individuals visit recreational sites due to pursuit of important goals. This result indicates that willingness to pay inferences concerning spatially distributed activities depend crucially on the spatial distribution of motivations for participation.
Marken sind nicht nur Produktetiketten, sondern dienen uns auch als Projektions- und Identifikationsobjekte. In dieser Funktion beeinflussen sie auch unser Erleben und Verhalten in markenkonformer Art und Weise. Das hat nicht nur individuelle, sondern auch gesellschaftliche Konsequenzen. Wenn nämlich viele Menschen die gleichen Marken verwenden, dann wird sich auch das Verhalten der Markenkonsumenten angleichen. In diesem Sinne können Marken als Steuerungsinstrument zur Erzeugung homogener Identitäten einerseits, andererseits aber auch zur Etablierung sozialer Unterschiede betrachtet werden. Es wird argumentiert, dass dieser Prozess ohne explizite gesellschaftliche Legitimation abläuft und aus diesem Grund auch undemokratisch ist. Mehr noch: Markenkonsum und damit markenkonformes Erleben und Verhalten führen letztendlich zum Verlust unserer Mündigkeit.
According to existing research, ad persuasiveness decreases as advertising skepticism (i.e., the tendency to disbelieve advertising claims) increases. What remains unclear, however, is whether or not this effect extends to brand extension appeals. We suggest that the effect may vary according to brand extension similarity. Three studies test this assertion while providing process evidence and boundary conditions for the proposed effect. According to the findings, consumers automatically transfer associations from parent brands to highly similar extensions or automatically block these associations in the case of highly dissimilar extensions—reducing the impact of advertising skepticism on ad persuasiveness. At moderate levels, however, extension similarity is less predictive of the transfer process, increasing the negative effect of advertising skepticism on persuasion. Consistent with this account, the results identify brand transfer (i.e., the ability of the parent brand to make the extension) as the underlying mechanism explaining the advertising skepticism effect for moderately similar brand extension appeals. Furthermore, the results show how marketers can reduce these effects, and increase extension success, by emphasizing extension attributes that are shared with the parent brand. Collectively, these results provide a unique theoretical view, improving our understanding of advertising skepticism and the drivers of brand extension success.
Practitioners need to understand how households will engage with connected-home technologies or risk the failure of these innovations. Current theory does not offer sufficient explanation for how households will engage; hence, this paper aims to address an important gap by examining how households set “rules of engagement” for connected-home technologies in the context of electricity use and monitoring.
A review of the extant psychology, technology and engagement literature is conducted and yields two research questions for exploration. The research questions are addressed via 43 in-depth household interviews. Analysis includes thematic analysis and computerized text analysis.
The results include a typology of technology engagement (the “PIP typology”) and discuss three main roles for technology in assisting households: intern, assistant and manager. Key contributions are as follows: consumers in household settings may experience “compromised engagement” where the perceived middle option is selected even if no-one selected that option originally; households open to using connected-home technologies are often taking advantage of their ability to “delegate” engagement to technology, and because consumers humanize technology, they also expect technology to follow social roles and boundaries.
Future research may examine the PIP typology quantitatively and/or in different contexts and would benefit from a longitudinal study to examine how household technology engagement evolves. Four research propositions are provided, which may form the basis for future research.
Recommendations for practitioners are presented regarding the benefits of keeping consumers at the heart of connected-home technology goods and services. Specific design principles are provided.
This paper fulfills the need to understand how households will engage with connected-home technologies and the roles this technology may fulfill in the complex household service system.
In an era of constant connectedness—from Twitter tweets to the 24-hour news cycle—the need for marketers to be nimble and responsive to the needs of consumers and ever-evolving markets is greater than ever before. Indeed, being able to be “in the moment” and to react instantaneously demands a different kind of training and education than the slower paced, carefully constructed, and casually timed marketing campaigns of yesterday. Improvisational comedy and its tenets—agreement (“Yes, and.. ”); be you (and know that you are enough); make bold, unexpected choices—require a comparable, in-the-moment mind-set that encourages group collaboration, positive self-efficacy, and the ability to generate creative ideas without hesitation. Two studies show that improvisational training has positive consequences for group collaboration, self-efficacy, and divergent thinking, skills essential for modern marketing roles. First, an exploratory study of the general population reveals preliminary links between improvisation familiarity and the aforementioned marketing skills, as well as between a brief improv manipulation and divergent thinking. Second, a follow-up study using actual students in a 10-week improvisation course confirms causal relationships between long-term improv training and group collaboration, self-efficacy, and divergent thinking. Effect sizes are large and endure even 4 months following the improv training.
In diesem Kapitel wird das Konzept der Store Brand hergeleitet und das K-V-A- Rahmenmodell für die Entwicklung starker Store Brands eingeführt. Zudem wird der zugehörige Management-Prozess strukturiert. Bezüge zu den Entwicklungsphasen einer Store Brand werden erörtert.
Sports sponsorship is a core element of brand communication and one of the most effective and demanded tools in marketing. In the context of football, jersey sponsorship agreements dramatically increased over the last decade in terms of deal volume. Another current brand communication trend is the brand strategy of placing brands into entertainment media, especially in video games, so called in-game advertising (IGA). Against that background, the current study addresses the short-term effects of IGA on consumer’s implicit and explicit brand knowledge after the sponsor brand has been exposed in a video game. The findings of the laboratory research showed that the IGA exposure of sponsor brands, which was simulated in the current study as a virtual consumer-brand interaction within a playfully football game, was primarily effective to enhance brand-related associations on an implicit level, but not on an explicit level.
Research to date is just beginning to examine the nature and impact of portrayals of physical activity on children’s attitudes in the marketing literature. The following two-part study therefore examines gender differences in the content and effects of food advertising depicting physical activities among children. Study one presents a content analysis of food advertisements shown during children’s television programming, revealing that healthy foods are associated with females while healthy activities are associated predominantly with males. Study two then examines children’s responses to an advertisement for an unhealthy food that portrays both male and female characters engaged in physical activities. Gender differences appeared to be the result of males’ greater belief that a junk food can aid in one’s physical abilities, leading them to hold greater intentions to engage in physical activity as compared to females and males who viewed an ad without physical activity.
High expectations in neuroeconomics raised the hope of marketers that their (daily business) problems could be solved easily. In fact, neuroeconomics has provided considerable insights for marketing science and business practice concerning consumer decision making over the last two decades. However, tapping into customer’s black box of unconscious and automatic processes, so-called implicit processes, does not require the mandatory usage of advanced neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI. In order to obtain a specific brand positioning in customer’s head, brand communication is an effective means for the marketing of ideas to gain a promoted cortical representation probability and, consequently, an enhanced perceptual and behavioral impact. The marketing of ideas itself is closely related to the concept of brand associations. Those types of associations can be assessed by implicit association measures from psychology (e.g., Implicit Association Test) comparatively accurately but are less properly measured with neuroimaging due to physiological and scientific fallibility. Against this background, the current work introduces a practical neuroscience-related brand communication framework incorporating explicit and implicit brand-related associations to provide guidance for serious marketing-related communication purposes. Moreover, the performance of the introduced conceptual model is tested. In detail, the presented case study demonstrated sufficient performance to detect associative branding change via a (short) communication contact. Specifically, the combined application of implicit, concretely an advanced latency-based tool, and explicit measures, concretely a conventional self-report, provides an integrated assessment of brand-related marketing efforts in general and brand communication activities in particular.
Brian Young revisits the idea of consumption and extends it with a process based definition. The process of consumption starts with an idea, a desire or intention which, with preparation is consummated by shopping. Then acquired with value added by ownership and possession. Disposal is an essential part of the process as well. Consumption is located in a process of production and ‘prosumption’, locked into value chains. Consumption is a collective performance and consumers can be located on historical and cross-cultural dimensions in a global economy.
These relatively new areas of human information processing are tackled using the most recent research findings and the research is carefully selected to help our understanding of the workings of the human mind when faced with choices and brands. Brian Young describes how our thinking is intimately related to our action and how this challenges the dualistic notion that mind and body are separate entities. The relevance of this research to the marketer cannot be underestimated as it also suggests that environmental design should be informed not just by rational considerations of layout and optimal choice points but by how thoughts, feelings and intentions are primed in different environmental ecologies.
Although a considerable amount of research in personality psychology has been done to conceptualize human personality, identify the Big Five dimensions, and explore the meaning of each dimension, no parallel research has been conducted in consumer behavior on brand personality. Consequently, an understanding of the symbolic use of brands has been limited in the consumer behavior literature. In this research, the author develops a theoretical framework of the the brand personality construct by determining the number and nature of dimensions of brand personality (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication, and Ruggedness). To measure the five brand personality dimensions, a reliable, valid, and generalizable measurement scale is created. Finally, theoretical and practical implications regarding the symbolic use of brands are discussed.
Although a considerable amount of research in personality psychology has been done to conceptualize human personality, identify the ''Big Five'' dimensions, and explore the meaning of each dimension, no parallel research has been conducted in consumer behavior on brand personality, Consequently, an understanding of the symbolic use of brands has been limited in the consumer behavior literature. In this research, the author develops a theoretical framework of the brand personality construct by determining the number and nature of dimensions of brand personality (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Sophistication, and Ruggedness). Tc, measure the five brand personality dimensions, a reliable, valid, and generalizable measurement scale is created. Finally, theoretical and practical implications regarding the symbolic use of brands are discussed.
Creativity is an underresearched topic in consumer behavior, yet integral in many instances of consumer problem solving. Two experiments were conducted to investigate antecedents and consequences of creativity in a consumption context. The results indicate that both situational factors (i.e., time constraints, situational involvement) and person factors (i.e., locus of control, metaphoric thinking ability) affect creative consumption and that some of these variables have interactive influences. The results also show that acting creatively enhances positive affect.
The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i. e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
Results of four studies demonstrate that perceptions of how different a brand is from other brands in the product category affect perceptions of the brand's position within the category. Specifically, perceptions that a brand is strongly discrepant result in a subtyped (or niche) position, whereas perceptions that a brand is moderately discrepant result in a differentiated position within the general category. Perceptions of discrepancy are affected both by the extent of discrepancy on an attribute and whether the discrepant information is concentrated in a single ad for the brand or dispersed across multiple ads for the product. The effects associated with a subtyped position, in comparison with a differentiated position, are identified (study 1) and are found to increase with time (study 2). The subtyped versus differentiated distinction for a strongly versus moderately discrepant brand is validated with a sorting task (study 3). This distinction is shown to hold in the context of multiple discrepant brands that differ in their extent of discrepancy (study 4). Implications of the findings for a theoretical understanding of subtyping versus differentiation and for the application of positioning strategies in the marketplace are discussed.
automated social cognitive processes categorize, evaluate, and impute the meanings of behavior and other social information, and this input is then ready for use by conscious and controlled judgment and decision processes / review . . . the literature on automaticity in social cognition] / discuss the research in terms of its relevance for the] issues of awareness, intentionality, efficiency, and control (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(chapter)
The principal objective of this study was to develop an exploratory investigation of the dimensions of brand personality in Mexico. Furthermore, the brand personality dimensions were compared to study the differences between males and females. An estimated 400 undergraduate students participated. They were given a questionnaire to measure brand personality divided into two sessions (six brands of think products in one session and six brands of feel products in another session). However, not all the students attended class on both days, so some completed only one of the two sessions. In the end, 313 participants completed the questionnaire on the six brands of think products and 320 completed the questionnaire on the six brands of feel products. A total of seven factors were extracted from the brand personality scale: Success, Hipness/Vivacity, Sophistication, Sincerity, Domesticity/Emotionality, Ruggedness and Professionalism. The women rated the brands higher for Success and Hipness/Vivacity, while the men rated the brands higher for Domesticity/Emotionality, Ruggedness and Professionalism. The author discusses the implications of the research for marketing practice and the meaning of these brand personality dimensions in the Mexican cultural context.
Research in social psychology suggests that motives such as self-bolstering and impression management can lead people to engage in deliberate misrepresentationsduring interpersonal communications. This articleextends our understandingof such behaviorto a new domain;that of consumer communications. Drawing on research on lying behavior and symbolic consumption,we suggest that misrepresentationabout productsand possessionsis particularly likely to occurwhen these productsor possessionsare used to create a positiveself-imagein the contextof socialinteraction. Experiments 1 and 2 simulatea social interactionwherein misrep-resentation about the purchase price of a product helps participants to manage impressions. A third experiment extends these findings by testing for wealth-related misrepresentation in the context of an interaction wherein participantsactually communicate their family's wealth to a recipient. Consistentwith predictionsderivedfrom existingresearchon symbolicconsumption, all 3 experimentsprovidesupportfor the criticalimportanceof recipientstatuson the likelihood of misrepresentation. The first 2 experimentsadditionallyexamine the role of individualdiffer-ences and brand differences. Results on these dimensionsare also supportiveof our underlying theoretical premise regarding the antecedents of lying behavior.
This chapter discusses the functional relation between perception and behavior. It presents a general perspective on perception and action along with elaborating the direct relation between perception and behavior and specifically on one consequence of this relation—namely, the imitation. The chapter describes the core concepts of social perception. Furthermore, the chapter examines all three forms of social perception that lead directly to corresponding overt behavioral tendencies. The cognitive approach that has dominated psychology for over 30 years has changed psychology's perspective on perception. Certainly, perception is essential for us to comprehend our environment but that does not mean that this understanding is an end in itself. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the perception-behavior link from a functional perspective. In specific, perception provides an understanding of the world. Social perception refers to the activation of a perceptual representation, which generally has a direct effect on social behavior. Perceptual inputs are translated automatically into corresponding behavioral outputs.
The goal-gradient hypothesis denotes the classic finding from behaviorism that animals expend more effort as they approach a reward. Building on this hypothesis, the authors generate new propositions for the human psychology of rewards. They test these propositions using field experiments, secondary customer data, paper-and-pencil problems, and Tobit and logit models. The key findings indicate that (1) participants in a real café reward program purchase coffee more frequently the closer they are to earning a free coffee; (2) Internet users who rate songs in return for reward certificates visit the rating Web site more often, rate more songs per visit, and persist longer in the rating effort as they approach the reward goal; (3) the illusion of progress toward the goal induces purchase acceleration (e.g., customers who receive a 12-stamp coffee card with 2 preexisting "bonus" stamps complete the 10 required purchases faster than customers who receive a "regular" 10-stamp card); and (4) a stronger tendency to accelerate toward the goal predicts greater retention and faster reengagement in the program. The conceptualization and empirical findings are captured by a parsimonious goal-distance model, in which effort investment is a function of the proportion of original distance remaining to the goal. In addition, using statistical and experimental controls, the authors rule out alternative explanations for the observed goal gradients. They discuss the theoretical significance of their findings and the managerial implications for incentive systems, promotions, and customer retention.
Automatic stereotype activation can be overcome intentionally and after an extensive training. However, intentions have to be tailored to a certain social category. It is hypothesized that activating the mindset “think different” by priming creativity prevents stereotypes and associations in general from becoming automatically activated. In two experiments a creative, a thoughtful or no mindset was activated. Afterwards, the activation of associations was measured using a lexical decision task with semantic priming. As predicted, the automatic activation of stereotypes (Study 1) and other associations (Study 2) was found in the control conditions but not in a creative mindset. These results suggest that people possess a mindset that allows for overcoming automatic stereotype activation without being tailored to a specific category.
The accessibility of a category in memory has been shown to influence the selection and interpretation of social information. The present experiment examined the possibility that information relevant to a trait category (hostility) presented outside of conscious awareness can temporarily increase that category's accessibility. 108 male undergraduates initially performed a vigilance task in which they were exposed unknowingly to single words. Either 0, 20, or 80% of those words were semantically related to hostility. In an unrelated 2nd task, 20 Ss read a behavioral description of a stimulus person (SP) that was ambiguous regarding hostility and then rated the SP on several trait dimensions. The amount of processing Ss gave to the hostile information and the negativity of their ratings of the SP both were reliably and positively related to the proportion of hostile words to which they were exposed. Several control conditions confirmed that the words were not consciously perceived. It is concluded that social stimuli of which people are not consciously aware can influence conscious judgments. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The developing consensus that much of the psychologically interesting variance in behavior will be found in the interaction between the person and the situation suggests the need for a common language of description for both persons and situations. Accordingly, it is proposed that a situation be characterized by a set of template–behavior pairs, which is a set of personality descriptions (Q sorts) of hypothetical "ideal" persons, each one associated with a particular behavior. The Q-sort description of a particular individual is then matched against each template, and he or she is predicted to display the behavior associated with the most similar template. The heuristic and predictive utility of this template matching technique is demonstrated in 3 classical experimental settings: (a) the delay-of-gratification situation, (b) the mixed-motive game, and (c) the forced-compliance experiment. This technique can also be used to assess the ecological validity of laboratory experiments and to test competing theories of psychological phenomena. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Addresses fundamental self-regulatory issues by considering the basic ways in which goals can differ from each other not only in terms of their motivational contents but also in terms of their significant cognitive properties. To integrate these differing goal qualities under a general perspective, this chapter adopts a systematic approach in assuming that an individual's goals and means can be viewed as a network of cognitive associations endowed with specific structural properties. The authors begin by portraying the fundamental characteristics of goal systems: how goals inter-connect with other goals and with their attainment means and what significant configurations result from these associations. In doing so, they outline a number of characteristics of goal-systems such as their potential for implicit activation, their contextual dependence, and the transfer of properties that may occur between their components. This chapter then considers the consequences of goal systems for various self-regulatory phenomena including goal commitment, choice, substitution, and intrinsic motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The concurrent-memory-load technique identifies attention demands with interactions between reaction-time-task parameters and the size of the load. Three experiments with a total of 18 undergraduates are reported in which a multiple-choice reaction time task involving 2, 4, and 8 stimulus–response (S–R) alternatives was performed alone and in the retention interval of a short-term memory task involving ordered recall of 8 digits. In Exp I assignment of stimulus letters to response buttons (S–R mapping) was consistent for 6 days but varied on the 7th. Memory load and number of alternatives interacted early in practice, but the interaction diminished over days, and the effects were additive on Day 6. When the S–R mapping changed on Day 7, the interaction returned. In Exp II, S–R mapping varied daily for 6 days, and the interaction remained stable throughout practice. In Exp III, S–R mapping was consistent for 6 days and varied on the 7th, but the memory task was not introduced until Days 6 and 7. The interaction between memory load and number of alternatives was stronger on Day 7, after the mapping had changed, than it was on Day 6, after practice with consistent mapping. (69 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
According to the auto-motive model (J. A. Bargh, 1990), intentions and goals are represented mentally and, as representations, should be capable of nonconscious activation by the environmental context (i.e., "priming"). To test this hypothesis, the authors replicated 2 well-known experiments that had demonstrated differential effects of varying the information-processing goal (impression formation or memorization) on processing the identical behavioral information. However, instead of giving participants the goals via explicit instructions, as had been done in the original studies. the authors primed the impression formation or memorization goal. In both cases, the original pattern of results was reproduced. The findings thus support the hypothesis that the effect of activated goals is the same whether the activation is nonconscious or through an act of will. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A 2-process theory of human information processing is proposed and applied to detection, search, and attention phenomena. Automatic processing is activation of a learned sequence of elements in long-term memory that is initiated by appropriate inputs and then proceeds automatically--without S control, without stressing the capacity limitations of the system, and without necessarily demanding attention. Controlled processing is a temporary activation of a sequence of elements that can be set up quickly and easily but requires attention, is capacity-limited (usually serial in nature), and is controlled by the S. A series of studies, with approximately 8 Ss, using both reaction time and accuracy measures is presented, which traces these concepts in the form of automatic detection and controlled search through the areas of detection, search, and attention. Results in these areas are shown to arise from common mechanisms. Automatic detection is shown to develop following consistent mapping of stimuli to responses over trials. Controlled search was utilized in varied-mapping paradigms, and in the present studies, it took the form of serial, terminating search. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The authors propose that superstars are most likely to affect self-views when they are considered relevant. Relevant superstars provoke self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seems attainable but self-deflation when it seems unattainable. Participants' self-views were affected only when the star's domain of excellence was self-relevant. Relevant stars provoked self-enhancement and inspiration when their success seemed attainable in that participants either still had enough time to achieve comparable success or believed their own abilities could improve over time. Open-ended responses provided rich evidence of inspiration in these circumstances. Relevant stars provoked, if anything, self-deflation when their success seemed unattainable in that participants either had already missed the chance to achieve comparable success or viewed their abilities as fixed and so unlikely to improve. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The author argues that the drive stimulus which acts adequately for the random seeking reactions of a hungry organism is insufficient alone to produce the integration of complex behavior sequences such as are involved in maze learning. In addition the presence of the reward causes anticipatory goal reactions to accompany the sequence leading to the full overt goal reaction. The kinesthetic stimulation resulting from these persistent anticipatory actions produces a second stimulus which persists along with the drive stimulus and depends upon it. Certain facts are thereby made understandable, such as the facts that withholding the usual reward causes disintegration of one particular habit sequence without preventing the pursuit of alternative sequences based on the same drive, and the fact that the substitution of one reward for another in the same situation causes disintegration. The author believes that anticipatory goal reactions are the physical substance of purposive ideas and the basis of what is known as ideo-motor action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Tested alternative models for explaining priming effects on categorization and contrasted their predictions concerning the relative advantage of frequent vs recent priming as a function of interstimulus delay. 63 undergraduates were asked to categorize an ambiguous stimulus description that could be characterized in either a positive or a negative manner. Prior to its presentation, Ss were unobtrusively exposed to both positive and negative primes related to the description. For half of the Ss, the positive primes appeared more frequently, but the negative prime appeared most recently; for the remaining Ss, the negative primes appeared more frequently, but the positive prime appeared most recently. Between the final prime and stimulus presentation, there was a delay of either 15 or 120 sec. Ss tended to categorize the stimulus description in terms of the recently primed construct after the brief interstimulus delay, but they tended to categorize the description in terms of the frequently primed construct after the long interstimulus delay. Results are consistent with a proposed synapse model of priming effects. Other possible models that make different assumptions about the level of activation, the decay function, and their ability to account for the findings are discussed. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews evidence which suggests that there may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes. Ss are sometimes (a) unaware of the existence of a stimulus that importantly influenced a response, (b) unaware of the existence of the response, and (c) unaware that the stimulus has affected the response. It is proposed that when people attempt to report on their cognitive processes, that is, on the processes mediating the effects of a stimulus on a response, they do not do so on the basis of any true introspection. Instead, their reports are based on a priori, implicit causal theories, or judgments about the extent to which a particular stimulus is a plausible cause of a given response. This suggests that though people may not be able to observe directly their cognitive processes, they will sometimes be able to report accurately about them. Accurate reports will occur when influential stimuli are salient and are plausible causes of the responses they produce, and will not occur when stimuli are not salient or are not plausible causes. (86 ref)
Creativity is an underresearched topic in consumer behavior, yet integral in many instances of consumer problem solving. Two experiments were conducted to in-vestigate antecedents and consequences of creativity in a consumption context. The results indicate that both situational factors (i.e., time constraints, situational involvement) and person factors (i.e., locus of control, metaphoric thinking ability) affect creative consumption and that some of these variables have interactive influences. The results also show that acting creatively enhances positive affect. T here is little scholarship on creativity in daily life (Lu-bart 1994). Preoccupation with monumental creative achievements (e.g., those of Einstein, Beethoven, etc.) has averted focus from creativity in the myriad of smaller acts taking place everyday at home, work, or leisure. Consider, for example, what did you do the last time you were missing a key ingredient, tool, or accessory? Creativity is essential to solving many common problems and meeting basic hu-man needs. Moreover, it is difficult to imagine a more wide-spread and more appropriate context than consumer behav-ior for studying day-to-day creativity. Nonetheless, creativity has remained a rare topic in con-sumer research. This is surprising since the undisputed suc-cess of many products—from Kleenex to mountain bikes— can be attributed to consumer creativity (von Hippel 1986). While marketers have been quick to apply consumer crea-tivity in developing new products, consumer researchers have hardly ventured into this aspect of consumption. Per-haps the lack of interest stems from dominant models in our who served as judges. Finally the authors thank the editor and reviewers. The McIntire School of Commerce provided financial support for the sec-ond study.
Although it is clear that nonconscious primes can affect behavioral decisions, the extent to which the prime-to-behavior link is mediated by intervening interpretative processes is still unknown. The present research examined the mediational role of “situational construals” by assessing the effects of cooperative versus competitive primes on participants’ construals of, and responses to, the prisoner’s dilemma. As predicted, this priming manipulation influenced participants’ construals of the game (assessed by the participants’ ratings of the appropriateness of different “names for the game” and their estimates of how random others would play), and their own expressed willingness to cooperate versus defect. Most crucially, a mediational analysis and a manipulation of the order in which these dependent variables were measured established that the prime-to-behavior link can be strengthened by an intervening task calling for explicit construal of the situation. The interplay of situational construal and implicit primes in producing deliberative behavior is discussed.
In six studies participants searched for a target stimulus among other stimuli. Lexical decision and Stroop measures of accessibility showed that accessibility of target-related words was enhanced prior to finding the target and reduced after finding it, relative to both a preceding stage, relative to a control, no-goal condition and relative to a condition in which the goal was not fulfilled. In addition, Studies 4, 5, and 6 showed that goal-related accessibility and post-fulfillment inhibition were proportional to the goal’s expectancy, the goal’s value, and their interaction. Together, these studies support the notion that goals enhance accessibility of the goal-related constructs, which is maintained as long as the goal is active, goal fulfillment inhibits accessibility of goal-related constructs, and these effects are proportional to the strength of the motivation.
Inspired by potential theoretical linkages between nonconscious priming work in psychology and the anthropological emphasis on the impact of material culture, five studies were conducted to investigate the role of implicitly presented material objects and automatic processes in interpersonal and organizational contexts. These studies showed that exposure to objects common to the domain of business (e.g., boardroom tables and briefcases) increased the cognitive accessibility of the construct of competition (Study 1), the likelihood that an ambiguous social interaction would be perceived as less cooperative (Study 2), and the amount of money that participants proposed to retain for themselves in the “Ultimatum Game” (Studies 3 and 4). A fifth study, in which the ambiguity of the governing social situation was manipulated, demonstrated that these types of effects are most likely to occur in contexts that are ambiguous and/or lacking in explicit normative demands. The importance of these situation-specific “material priming” effects (all of which occurred without the participants' awareness of the relevant influence) to judgment and behavioral choice in specific contexts, as well as to the fostering of less competitive organizational settings, is discussed.
Interest in the study of neural networks has grown remarkably in the last several years. This effort has been characterized in a variety of ways: as the study of brain-style computation, connectionist architectures, parallel distributed-processing systems, neuromorphic computation, artificial neural systems. The common theme to these efforts has been an interest in looking at the brain as a model of a parallel computational device very different from that of a traditional serial computer.
Two experiments, involving 436 preadolescent schoolchildren, investigated how the explicitness of promised reward affects creativity. In the first study, the nonspecific promise of reward increased the creativity of picture drawing if children had previously received divergent-thinking training (generating novel uses for physical objects). In the second study, promised reward increased the creativity of children's drawings if current task instructions clarified the necessity of creative performance. Promised reward evidently increases creativity if there is currently, or was previously, an explicit positive relationship between creativity and reward.
Our repertoire of social behavior may include the ability to grasp and take on the goals of others automatically - that is, without conscious intent. Two experiments tested and confirmed the hypothesis that priming social groups causes individuals to pursue the goals stereotypical for members of those groups. Study 1 found that participants provided more feedback to help another person optimizing a computer task after subliminal priming of social groups associated with a helping goal. Importantly, these goal priming effects were qualified by goal strength: participants helped more when the concept of helping more strongly preexisted as a goal or desired state in the participant's mind. Study 2 established that participants worked harder on an unrelated task instrumental in attaining the goal to make money after priming social groups related to this goal. Implications for stereotype activation and automatic goal pursuit are discussed.
Recent research demonstrates that goal pursuit can be instigated without conscious interventions when the mental accessibility of goal representations is enhanced by environmental cues. However, the mechanisms producing this non-conscious, motivational, goal-directed activity are not clearly addressed in the literature. In this chapter we present a framework within which the non-conscious activation of goal-directed behaviour can be understood. The framework departs from the idea that a goal is represented as a desired state and identifies three characteristics of this representation that render non-conscious goal pursuit more likely to occur: its mental accessibility, the discrepancy of the represented state with the actual state, and its association with positive affect. We present findings, largely established in our own labs, that demonstrate the crucial role of these three factors. We will close the chapter by showing how the framework can help to address some of the pressing issues in the research on non-conscious goal pursuit.
Priming or nonconscious activation of social knowledge structures has produced a plethora of rather amazing findings over the past 25 years: priming a single social concept such as aggressive can have multiple effects across a wide array of psychological systems, such as perception, motivation, behavior, and evaluation. But we may have reached childhood's end, so to speak, and need now to move on to research questions such as how these multiple effects of single primes occur (the generation problem); next, how these multiple simultaneous priming influences in the environment get distilled into nonconscious social action that has to happen serially, in real time (the reduction problem). It is suggested that models of complex conceptual structures (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980), language use in real-life conversational settings (Clark, 1996), and speech production (Dell, 1986) might hold the key for solving these two important 'second-generation' research problems.
Self-reports are a key source of information in consumer research. Unfortunately, self-reports are highly context dependent, and this problem is compounded when comparisons across cohorts or cultures are of interest. Age-related changes in cognitive functioning and cultural differences in cognition and communication influence the response process, resulting in differential context effects that may reverse the ordinal placement of cohorts or cultures on the measure of interest. Any observed difference between age groups or cultures may therefore reflect a meaningful difference in attitudes or behaviors, a difference in the response process, or an unknown mix of both. Copyright 2003 by the University of Chicago.
How do preferences change when consumers focus on the anticipated satisfaction with a purchase rather than choice? In a series of three studies, we show that preferences, both expressed and revealed, change depending on the degree to which anticipated satisfaction is evoked. These shifts in preferences arise because, compared to choice, anticipated satisfaction elicits a mental-imaging processing strategy that is both more effort intensive and qualitatively different. By providing direct evidence from thought protocols and by presenting evidence suggesting that these shifts in preferences vanish when mental imagery is discouraged or made more difficult, we show that the effect arises out of a processing strategy that requires effortful mental imagery of one or more of the options in the decision-making task. Finally, we demonstrate the uniqueness of the effect by showing that it cannot be generated with heightened processing or by an orientation that is directed toward the extent to which the options are liked. Copyright 2000 by the University of Chicago.
What do lay people believe about the psychology of advertising and persuasion? How similar are the beliefs of lay people to those of consumer researchers? In this study we explore the content of people's conceptions of how television advertising influences its audience. The findings suggest that lay people and researchers share many basic beliefs about the psychology of persuasion but also indicate some dissimilarities in these groups' persuasion knowledge. We discuss what the findings imply about the existence of cultural folk knowledge and its effect on persuasion. Copyright 1995 by the University of Chicago.
This work examines the process through which thrift versus prestige goals can nonconsciously affect decisions in a choice task. Drawing upon research on nonconscious goal pursuit, we present a theoretical framework detailing how consumer choices are affected by incidentally activated goals. We show that such primed goals have motivational properties consistent with goal pursuit but inconsistent with mere cognitive activation; the effects are greater with a longer time interval between the priming task and the choice and are less pronounced when the primed goal is satiated in a real, as opposed to a hypothetical, intervening choice task. Additionally, we show that subliminally evoked retail brand names can serve as the cues that activate purchasing goals. (c) 2008 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
Four experiments demonstrate that self-threatening social comparison information motivates consumers to lie. Factors related to self-threat, including relevance of the social comparison target (i.e., the importance of the comparison person), comparison discrepancy (i.e., the magnitude of the performance difference), comparison direction (i.e., whether one performs better or worse), nature of the information (i.e., whether the comparison is social or objective), and perceived attainability (i.e., the possibility of achieving the compared performance), influenced consumers' willingness to engage in deception. Results extend social comparison theory by demonstrating that comparisons that threaten public and private selves have implications for lying behaviors. (c) 2006 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
Consumer choices are often driven by multiple goals (e.g., career and family), each of which if viewed in isolation may appear to suggest conflicting choices. This article examines the effect of initial goal pursuit on consumers' interest in pursuing unrelated or even conflicting goals. Four studies were conducted to test whether perceived goal progress hinders the pursuit of the focal goal. These studies demonstrate that in the course of self-regulation progress along one goal liberates people to pursue inconsistent goals. Furthermore, merely planning to make goal progress in the future may facilitate incongruent choice of immediate action. (c) 2005 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
Across a variety of domains, consumers often choose to act as the designer of their own solution, sourcing the necessary components and assembling the parts to meet their specific goals. While thinking creatively is an integral part in the daily life of every consumer, surprisingly little research in marketing has examined the factors influencing such processes. In our research, we examine how input and time constraints influence the way in which consumers process information during a creative task and how those processes, in turn, influence the creativity of the solution. Paradoxically, we find that input constraints encourage more creative processing, provided the individual is not under significant time constraints. (c) 2005 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
Instructions reinforcement (team points), and practice were applied to four behaviorally defined creative behaviors of eight fourth- and fifth-grade students. All four aspects (number of different responses, fluency; number of verb forms, flexibility; number of words per response, elaboration; and statistical infrequency of response forms, originality) were demonstrated to be under experimental control. The procedures also raised students' scores on Torrance's tests of creativity. Application of the experimental procedures may well be practical for classroom teachers.
Two general types of information about a person are considered in this article: One pertains to specific behaviors a person has manifested, and the other refers to more abstract personality dispositions or behavioral tendencies. A theoretical model of person memory that incorporates both types of information is developed. The model accounts for a large number of factors that are known to affect the recall of social information, the making of interpersonal judgments, and the relation between what is recalled and the judgments that are made. A major strength of the model is its applicability to a wide range of person memory and judgment phenomena that are observed in several different experimental paradigms.
We define mental contamination as the process whereby a person has an unwanted response because of mental processing that is unconscious or uncontrollable. This type of bias is distinguishable from the failure to know or apply normative rules of inference and can be further divided into the unwanted consequences of automatic processing and source confusion, which is the confusion of 2 or more causes of a response. Mental contamination is difficult to avoid because it results from both fundamental properties of human cognition (e.g., a lack of awareness of mental processes) and faulty lay beliefs about the mind (e.g., incorrect theories about mental biases). People's lay beliefs determine the steps they take (or fail to take) to correct their judgments and thus are an important but neglected source of biased responses. Strategies for avoiding contamination, such as controlling one's exposure to biasing information, are discussed.
Previous research has shown that trait concepts and stereotype become active automatically in the presence of relevant behavior or stereotyped-group features. Through the use of the same priming procedures as in previous impression formation research, Experiment 1 showed that participants whose concept of rudeness was printed interrupted the experimenter more quickly and frequently than did participants primed with polite-related stimuli. In Experiment 2, participants for whom an elderly stereotype was primed walked more slowly down the hallway when leaving the experiment than did control participants, consistent with the content of that stereotype. In Experiment 3, participants for whom the African American stereotype was primed subliminally reacted with more hostility to a vexatious request of the experimenter. Implications of this automatic behavior priming effect for self-fulfilling prophecies are discussed, as is whether social behavior is necessarily mediated by conscious choice processes.
Recent research has demonstrated transference in social perception, defined in terms of memory and schema-triggered evaluation in relation to a new person (S. M. Andersen & A. B. Baum, 1994; S. M. Andersen & S. W. Cole, 1990; S. M. Andersen, N. S. Glassman, S. Chen, & S. W. Cole, 1995). The authors examined schema-triggered facial affect in transference, along with motivations and expectancies. In a nomothetic experimental design, participants encountered stimulus descriptors of a new target person that were derived either from their own idiographic descriptions of a positively toned or a negatively toned significant other or from a yoked control participant's descriptors. Equal numbers of positive and negative target descriptors were presented, regardless of the overall tone of the representation. The results verified the memory effect and schema-triggered evaluation in transference, on the basis of significant-other resemblance in the target person. Of importance, participants' nonverbal expression of facial affect when learning about the target person (i.e., at encoding) reflected the overall tone of their significant-other representation under the condition of significant-other resemblance, providing strong support for schema-triggered affect in transference, through the use of this unobtrusive, nonverbal measure. Parallel effects on interpersonal closeness motivation and expectancies for acceptance/rejection in transference also emerged.
The authors tested and confirmed the hypothesis that priming a stereotype or trait leads to complex overt behavior in line with this activated stereotype or trait. Specifically, 4 experiments established that priming the stereotype of professors or the trait intelligent enhanced participants' performance on a scale measuring general knowledge. Also, priming the stereotype of soccer hooligans or the trait stupid reduced participants' performance on a general knowledge scale. Results of the experiments revealed (a) that prolonged priming leads to more pronounced behavioral effects and (b) that there is no sign of decay of the effects for at least 15 min. The authors explain their results by claiming that perception had a direct and pervasive impact on overt behavior (cf. J.A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996). Implications for human social behavior are discussed.