Article

Complaining to the Masses: The Role of Protest Framing in Customer-Created Complaint Web Sites

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Abstract

Consumers who once might have voiced their dissatisfaction with a firm to a few friends and acquaintances are now constructing Web sites to tell the world about their dissatisfaction. Protest-framing theory reveals the interlocking rhetorical tactics (injustice, identity, and agency framing) consumers use to mobilize mass audiences against a firm, contributing important insights to our understanding of negative word of mouth. Moreover, an analysis of protest sites reveals that consumers "frame" their corporate betrayal to the public to demonstrate their power to influence others and gain revenge. As a result, a community of discontent may arise in which both individual and social identities appear to be constructed and affirmed. (c) 2006 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..

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... accentuates) the effect of brand control on influencer avoidance. This contrasts with the findings of previous studies (Aggarwal, 2004;Ward & Ostrom, 2006), which state that retribution is more severe when influencers enjoy a strong (vs. weak) relationship with their followers. ...
... 226 Followers who have a strong relationship with influencers are more likely to react negatively if they perceive the influencers to have committed a transgression of their relational norms (Aggarwal, 2004). This is so because followers who maintain a strong relationship (as opposed to the followers who have a weak relationship) believe that the influencers owe them the truth and, thus, feel betrayed when they are found to have intentionally committed a moral transgression (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). Stated differently, Gen Z consumers with strong relationships with influencers experience betrayal when they perceive the influencer has violated their trust by being dishonest in sharing their opinions and by intentionally ceding control to the hegemony of brands; therefore, such Gen Z consumers are more likely to exhibit avoidance behavior. ...
... relationshipscenario. The findings also contradicted the extant literature, which stated that followers/consumers would feel a greater sense of betrayal when they had enjoyed a strong relationship with the influencer (e.g., Aggarwal, 2004;Ward & Ostrom, 2006) focused primarily on products and services. In contrast, our research examines the effects of brand control on influencer and brand avoidance, as well as the boundary conditions under which brand control elicits negative reactions from Gen Z. ...
Article
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Consumer avoidance of brands and influencers is a widespread phenomenon, especially among Generation Z (Gen Z); however, influencer marketing literature lacks clarity about when and why Gen Z engages in such avoidance. Our experimental investigation, across four studies, reveals that Gen Z considers brands' control over influencers to be morally irresponsible and, thus, avoids both. We introduce a novel construct, influencer avoidance, and examine its drivers. Study 1 indicates that perceived brand control engenders avoidance; moderation evidence shows that macro (vs. micro) influencers accentuate (attenuate) the influence of brand control on avoidance. Study 2 shows that Gen Z enjoying a strong versus weak relationship with influencers results in lower (higher) avoidance towards influencers and endorsed brands. Study 3 demonstrates that negative moral emotions mediate the relationship between perceived brand control and avoidance behavior. Study 4 generalizes the findings by analyzing a different influencer and endorsed brand and including a prominent advertisement disclosure. By investigating the drivers and mechanisms of Gen Z's avoidance behavior, our research contributes to research on the theory of moral responsibility, Gen Z's influencer avoidance behavior, and anti‐consumption literature. This offers key insights into how to prevent acts of consumer retribution towards influencers and brands.
... Simply put, when a company claims to be environmentally friendly but does not match its words with its actions, we assume that it is practising a false form of green marketing, or 'greenwashing'. Greenwashing Perception (GP) is consumer response to the extent to which green advertising messages are consistent with actual corporate environmental responsibility [33]. In layman's terms, greenwashing perception is a consumer's psychological determination of whether a company is misrepresenting itself and hiding its true environmental message [33]. ...
... Greenwashing Perception (GP) is consumer response to the extent to which green advertising messages are consistent with actual corporate environmental responsibility [33]. In layman's terms, greenwashing perception is a consumer's psychological determination of whether a company is misrepresenting itself and hiding its true environmental message [33]. ...
... Greenwashing perception (GP) is consumers' perception and judgment of the authenticity and reliability of a company's environmental practices. We used the metrics of Nyilasy et al. and Chen to measure greenwashing perception using five questions [33,59], namely: "The company omits or hides important information to make green claims sound better than they are", "The company is misleadingly literal about its environmental attributes", "The company is visually or graphically misleading about its environmental attributes", "The company's green claims are vague or unprovable ", "The company exaggerates the reality of its green features". ...
Article
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When consumers perceive that companies are engaging in greenwashing, this often has many negative impacts on the company, industry, and society. Based on the psychological contract theory, this study constructs a moderated mediation model in an attempt to demonstrate that consumers’ greenwashing perception influences their green purchasing intentions and, more importantly, that this influence is mediated by consumers’ perceived betrayal and moderated by their sense of environmental responsibility. An online questionnaire was used to distribute 220 questionnaires and regression analysis was conducted using SPSS24.0 and Amos24.0 to test the hypothesis. The results show that consumers’ greenwashing perception negatively influences consumers’ green purchasing intentions, that perceived betrayal plays a partially mediating role in this influence relationship, and that environmental responsibility reinforces the negative influence of greenwashing perception on green purchasing intentions. This paper enriches the study of the mechanisms of individual consumer psychological effects after consumers perceive corporate greenwashing behaviour, which is of great value to both corporate performance and the sustainable development of the social environment.
... In contrast, customers publicly complain when they are driven by a desire to alert other consumers and tarnish a company's reputation in front of an audience (Grégoire et al., 2018). For them, getting a recovery is not the main goal guiding their actions (Ward & Ostrom, 2006), although such a recovery could be viewed as a nice supplement. To address these issues, we conduct three main experiments, and one additional experiment is reported in Web Appendix. ...
... In this case, a recovery has a significant impact on their perceived justice restoration, which substantially decreases their negative affect about the situation. In contrast, public complainers try to restore justice on their own by exposing the company online (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). In their case, they have fewer expectations about receiving a recovery, and this has a smaller impact on their justice restoration and negative affect. ...
... Given that public complainers are mainly motivated by warning observers, we investigate the effect that public exposure (low vs. high) has on the perceived justice restoration of these individuals. Here, observers are defined as other customers who are present on online platforms and who witness the interactions between complainers and firms (Bacile et al., 2018;Hogreve et al., 2019), and public exposure thus refers to the support (e.g., likes and shares) received by a public complaint (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). In Study 2, we argue that public complainers experience a significant increase in justice restoration when their complaints have been viewed and supported by a sufficiently large number of observers. ...
Article
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The current research questions if service recovery has differential effects on complainers depending on the way that they initially complain, being privately (e.g., emails, phone call) or publicly (e.g., social media, blogs). Using four studies, the current research offers several core contributions. First, building on justice theory, our findings show that a recovery is especially effective at appeasing private complainers’ negative affect, while this same recovery has less impact for public complainers. Second, we show that for public complainers, the role of a recovery will be different depending on the level of public exposure. When public complaints are viewed by just a few observers on social media (i.e., low exposure), such complainers assess their own actions of justice restoration as being ineffective. Third, we find that our previous findings are robust no matter if the customer is a complainer or an observer.
... Dissatisfied customers tend to complain (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). Thus, we examined customers' intention to spread negative word of mouth (NWOM) as a reaction to a returns policy change and a precursor to customers' switching intentions. ...
... When a retailer deviates from customers' previous assumptions and expectations, it may prompt negative emotional responses (Greifeneder, Bless, & Pham, 2011;Zavyalova, Pfarrer, Reger, & Shapiro, 2012). Research supports that a customer who perceives a psychological contract violation will be more likely to spread NWOM (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). As described above, organizational justice theory may help explain the severity of that dissatisfaction based upon the perceived violations of one or more procedural justice rules (Consiglio et al., 2018;Greenberg, 1990). ...
... Dissatisfied customers tend to complain through interpersonal communication that disparages the offending organization or product (Laczniak et al., 2001;Richins, 1983;Ward & Ostrom, 2006). NWOM may be the customer's attempt to restore lost situational control (Consiglio et al., 2018;Greenberg, 1990). ...
Article
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Research regarding the pros and cons of returns policy changes is limited. We use psychological contract theory and organizational justice theory to explore the effect of a returns policy change on customer intentions to spread negative word of mouth, switch to a different retailer’s website, and switch to the retailer’s physical store. We follow a mixed-method sequential method. In Study 1, an experiment tests our theoretically developed hypotheses. In Study 2, qualitative data provides additional insight into our findings. Results indicate that the type of returns policy change was significantly related to customer intent to spread negative word of mouth. Further, the intensity of a retailer’s communication to convey returns policy changes plays an important moderating role and a moderated mediation role regarding customer intentions. Contextually, the research provides important theoretical and managerial insights into factors to consider when implementing returns policy changes.
... in the marketplace, such as rebellion (Ward & Ostrom, 2006), withdrawal from the business relationship (Helm et al., 2015), and decreased repurchase intention (Chylinski & Chu, 2010). However, it remains unclear how cynicism manifests in response to different service failures and what strategies firms should use to minimize it. ...
... Although scholars have not converged on a single unifying definition of cynicism, most consumer research conceptualizes cynicism as a situation-driven negative attitude toward firms, characterized by strong distrust in firms' motives and actions (Chylinski & Chu, 2010;van Dolen et al., 2012;Ward & Ostrom, 2006), which are thought to be self-serving and manipulative (Biswas & Kapil, 2017;Chylinski & Chu, 2010;Helm et al., 2015;Ketron, 2016). In other words, cynical consumers believe that firms care more about maximizing their own profits rather than delivering a fair exchange and resolving any emerging service issues. ...
... Negative inferred motive is defined as a belief that firms are motivated only by their own interest (Joireman et al., 2013), whereas cynicism is a broader moralized attitude that reflects firms' actions as deceptive (Chowdhury & Fernando, 2014;Ketron, 2016;O'Leary, 2003;Turner & Valentine, 2001). Because cynicism involves strong distrust and belief in self-serving motives, it is frequently associated with hostility toward the other party, rebellion, and revenge (Turner & Valentine, 2001;Ward & Ostrom, 2006), which is not the case for negative inferred motive. Therefore, although conceptually related to both skepticism and negative inferred motive, consumer cynicism is a distinct overlooked construct with potential negative consequences for providers. ...
Article
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Despite growing corporate commitments to being customer‐centric, many customers perceive firms as self‐driven and caring only about their own business interests. This sentiment is projected in consumer cynicism, or negative consumer attitudes based on the disbelief in the sincerity of firms' motives and actions. We argue that consumer cynicism emerges in response to negative marketplace situations, such as service and product failures. Across four scenario‐based experiments and one video‐based experiment, our research examines cynicism as a key mediator, transmitting the effect of double deviation (i.e., a failure in delivery and in subsequent recovery) on negative electronic word‐of‐mouth and repurchase intention. We further demonstrate that consumer cynicism can be minimized when the provider uses cocreated recovery (i.e., engages consumers in recovery) even if the recovery fails and when the provider offers a strong empathetic apology (either before or after recovery failure). Our research contributes to consumer and service recovery research by highlighting an important but overlooked role of consumer cynicism in the context of double deviation. We also offer managerial insights into cocreation and empathetic apologies as cost‐effective recovery strategies to minimize cynicism.
... Nevertheless, consumers write negative reviews to get sympathetic responses (McGraw et al., 2015). Consumers share their bad service experience in online review sites in search of justice, and a way of feeling justice is served is getting a sympathetic response (Ward and Ostrom, 2006). ...
... Although empathetic responses may include an apology, their focus is more on understanding the feelings of the consumer, not the apology itself (Escalas and Stern, 2003). This article thus posits that a sympathetic response will be more effective than an empathetic response given that consumers write complaints to receive a sympathetic response (McGraw et al., 2015;Ward and Ostrom, 2006), and a sympathetic response is perceived to be more apologetic than an empathetic one (Eisenberg and Miller, 1987b). Furthermore, for a brand to expressthrough an empathetic responsethat it "feels what the consumer feels" when they have been the source of injustice, may not be an effective strategy. ...
Article
Purpose Negative online consumer reviews represent different forms of injustice. The effect of different types of injustice experienced in a service encounter on a brand is unknown. This study aims to investigate the effect and cause of different forms of injustice on brand love. It also explores which type of responses are more effective to mitigate their damaging effect. Design/methodology/approach One text mining, using SAS enterprise miner, and three experimental studies were conducted. ANOVA and mediation and moderation analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Findings Negative reviews specific to procedural injustice are more damaging than reviews specific to distributive or interactional injustice experienced in a service encounter. The underlying reason behind this differential effect is that perceived procedural injustice influences consumers more to punish the brand, resulting in a greater negative effect on brand love. To counter the damage, a sympathetic, rather than empathetic, brand response is more effective. Originality/value This study contributes to justice theory and brand love literature by providing evidence that procedural injustice triggers the highest level of willingness to punish and thus the lowest level of brand love. Consequently, willingness to punish, rather than emotion, is found to be the underlying reason behind procedural injustice having the strongest negative effect on brand love.
... It can be stated that consumer cynicism is an overlooked concept as only a handful of studies seems to have tried to reveal its relations with perceived product/service quality (Utkutug 2021), perceived social and environmental responsibility (Utkutug 2021), rebellion consumer behaviors (Turner and Valentine 2001;Ward and Ostrom 2006), withdrawal behaviors (Helm et al. 2015), and decreased repurchase behaviors (Chylinski and Chu 2010). How consumer cynicism influences perceived ethicality, perceived corporate social responsibility, and affective commitment all remain as topics that have not been addressed yet. ...
... Within the context of consumer cynicism, the social exchange process can begin when a corporate brand conducts unethical business activities. As direct reciprocity theory suggests, consumers with cynical attitudes directly show rebellious consumer behaviors (Turner and Valentine 2001;Ward and Ostrom 2006) or withdrawal behaviors (Helm et al. 2015), or decreased repurchase behaviors (Chylinski and Chu 2010) toward unethical brands. Hence, it is assumed that H1: Consumer cynicism has a negative effect on perceived ethicality toward cosmetics brands among young women. ...
Article
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Owing to a significant decline in consumer trust, the power of arousing affective commitment to brands through perceived brand ethicality and corporate social responsibility (CSR) has now become an advantageous marketing strategy; however, there is little known whether cynics and materialists show similar responses toward such marketing efforts. This study analyzes the mediating effect of consumers’ perceived ethicality in the relationship between consumer cynicism/material values and affective commitment by comparing the perception of CSR efforts as weak or strong in the context of cosmetics brands among young women. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was utilized to test the data related to 271 participants obtained by purposive, convenient, and snowball sampling methods. The results reveal that cynicism has a serious negative effect on perceived ethicality that mediates affective commitment, whereas, materialism has a relatively stronger positive impact on perceived ethicality that triggers intensive affective commitment. In addition, perceiving CSR action as weak or strong is found not to change the established affective commitment among cynics, while leading materialists to develop strong emotional bonds through brand ethicality perceived exaggeratedly. Furthermore, cynics are found predisposed to making brand-related judgments on a rational basis, while materialists mostly address such issues on an emotional basis.
... As online complaining becomes more pervasive, both researchers and managers seek a better understanding of the motivations of online complainers. Although some authors (e.g., Ward & Ostrom, 2006) identify the protection of others as a motive, most tend to associate public complaining with a desire for revenge, defined as "the felt urge to punish and get even with a firm for what it has done" (Grégoire, Ghadami, et al., 2018, p. 1054. We propose moving beyond such conventional motivations to investigate a counterintuitive process in which consumers choose a benevolent approach to public complaining and seek to help brands improve by voicing their dissatisfaction on brands' social networks. ...
... First, rather than exploring all motivations associated with the educational calling process, we focus on motivations related to the brand relationship (benevolent or malevolent). Other motivations might be relevant, such as altruistic efforts to protect other consumers (Ward & Ostrom, 2006) versus egoistic desires to gain popularity and influence (Mathwick & Mosteller, 2017). Second, we purposely focus on social media, because dissatisfied consumers who use these communication channels, to tag brands or post comments directly on their pages, likely are aware that they are both appealing to brands and addressing large audiences. ...
Article
When consumers use social media to complain, they threaten to undermine brands’ images and online reputations. Academics and managers usually regard such public complaining as harmful or as expressions of a desire to hurt brands. Instead, an alternative, benevolent, and educational consumer motivation for complaining on brands’ social media might exist. By specifying the nature of this educational calling to complain and the contextual variables that favor its emergence, the current research outlines the process by which well-intentioned consumers seek to help brands improve, even if it means publicly pointing fingers. Four experiments show that both desire for revenge and desire for reconciliation affect public complaining; strong ties and single deviation contexts favor the benevolent process of online complaining; and benevolent complainants are more amenable to process recovery communication that does not necessarily include compensation.
... Diğer taraftan tatmin edilmemiş bir yaşanmışlık durumundan dolayı ortaya çıkan olumsuz duygular ise, stres atmak niyetiyle öfkenin açığa çıkarılmasına neden olabilmektedir (Stiles, 1987). Diğer bir ifadeyle tüketim deneyimlerinden mutlu olmayan tüketiciler başkalarını ikna etme, firma kusurunu boykot etme, intikam arama eğilimi ya da firmayı cezalandırma niyetiyle olumsuz elektronik ağızdan ağıza iletişime başvurmaktadırlar (Sundaram vd., 1998;Ward ve Ostrom, 2006). Bu sebeple, açığa vurma olumsuz elektronik ağızdan ağıza iletişim için en yaygın motivasyon faktörlerinden biri olarak kabul edilmiştir (Alicke vd., 1992). ...
... İlgili literatürde görüleceği üzere yapılan çalışmalarda tüketicilerin firmanın tepeden baktığı diğer tüketicileri caydırmak için faaliyetlerde bulundukları görülmüştür. Ayrıca yapılan bu çalışmalarda firmayı cezalandırmak isteyen tüketicilerin, bedel arama ve misilleme/karşılık arama niyeti ile de olumsuz ağızdan ağıza iletişim yaptıkları da görülmüştür (Ward ve Ostrom, 2006;Cheung vd., 2007). ...
Thesis
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Marketing literature reveals that there are various sources of motivation that prompts consumers to electronic word-of-mouth communication. Related studies show that main sources of motivation are economic incentives, self enhancement, advice seeking, helping the company, venting positive emotions, power application. Yet, the influence of personal motives has thus far been largely ignored in the literature. By the same token, most of the related studies focus on positive electronic word-of-mouth communication; only few studies address negative electronic word-ofmouth communication. This study aims to fill this gap by examining the impact of personal motives on negative electronic word-of-mouth communication. This study consists of two parts. First part provides an overview of related literature and key concepts that are commonly used in the study. Using SPSS 18.0, second part analyzes the research data which is gathered from a survey conducted with 228 consumers. The analysis finds a significant correlation between negative electronic word-of-mouth communication and the personal motives such as warning other consumers, the benefits of social interaction and anxiety reduction. Whereas, no correlation is found between negative electronic word-of-mouth communication and personal motives such as concern of other, venting negative emotions and revenge.
... Conversely, IRBs pertain to private actions that are difficult to control. Specifically, customers may complain through online platforms to warn the public about the misconduct of a company (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). Despite later research utilizing this stream of literature to explore the subsequent effects of DRBs and IRBs (Grégoire et al., 2018), it remains unclear whether the two types of revenge behaviors result from different mechanisms. ...
... Online public complaining is defined as the action of using thirdparty online platforms to alert the public about a firm's misbehaviors (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). Different from vindictive complaining, online public complaining is more elaborative and aims to engender a negative "buzz" about offensive service providers (Obeidat et al., 2018). ...
Article
[The full text is available on request] Although previous studies have elucidated emotional and cognitive routes toward customer revenge, they have mainly paid attention to customers’ perceptions about service failures and vendors. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying how customers justify their revenge behaviors has not been theorized or examined. To advance this line of research, our research draws on neutralization theory to interpret how customers rationalize their revenge behaviors. Furthermore, we distinguish the influences of emotional and rational paths on direct and indirect revenge behaviors across different failure contexts. Two studies were conducted to test our proposed hypotheses. The results demonstrate that dissatisfactory services facilitate customers’ revenge behaviors through the use of neutralization techniques. In addition, compared to neutralization techniques, anger has a more salient effect on direct revenge behaviors, while neutralization techniques dominate anger toward indirect revenge behaviors. Moreover, such differential impacts become more salient in process vs. outcome failures. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... brands to be concerned about the impact that the negative information may have on a much wider audience-the multitude of other consumers who observe the public complaint (Ward and Ostrom 2006)-increasing the potential for a firestorm (Hansen, Kupfer, and Hennig-Thurau 2018). As such, marketing researchers have explored several important topics to help brands better understand the possible effects of online complaining, negative commentary, and actions they should consider to mitigate adverse outcomes. ...
... Other common perceived intentions mentioned by our participants were to alert the company of an issue (e.g., "I think their intent was to inform the company of the size issue so that the company fix the problem") and seek a personal resolution from the brand (e.g., "The commenter's initial intent was to warn other buyers, but the editorial nature of the last part makes me think she is also looking for compensation"). These findings align with previous research on negative online WOM and complaint literature (Herhausen et al. 2019;Ward and Ostrom 2006). ...
Article
Social media allows brands a place to reinforce their identities and build positive interactions with their customers. Despite all the benefits social media offers to brands, it is also is a place where consumers can post negative comments (unintended consequence #1) with the intention to cause harm (value-destruction). But could these value destruction attempts backfire, resulting in value-creation for the brand (unintended consequence #2)? Study 1 (qualitative online content analysis) uses 237 real consumer comments on brand posts to explore the initial unintended consequence—the phenomenon of consumers posting negative comments on innocuous brand posts and identifies four categorizations based on two distinct comment types (personal vs. brand) and tones (lecturing vs. mocking). Building on Study 1, Study 2a investigates how observing consumers view the four different comment categorizations identified in Study 1 and explores whether they vary in terms of their justification (i.e., justified vs. not). Study 2b identifies which categorizations impact observing consumers’ perceptions of a comment as “complaining” or “trolling”. Lastly, Study 3 utilizes an experiment to test unintended consequence #2—we find that “trolling” negative comments on innocuous brand posts can increase observing consumers’ likelihood to engage with the brand.
... Discursive frames operate at the diagnostic (what the problem is or who is to blame for it), prognostic (what are the proposed solutions and action plans) and motivational levels (how to mobilise people and resources towards the desired goals), often using moral duty and a sense of urgency to promote change (Benford & Snow, 2000). Consequently, discursive frames allow social movements to define social issues as social problems, providing the targets, justifications, means and incentives for individuals and groups to identify with their cause (Snow et al., 2014) and to mobilise them into action towards social change (Daellenbach & Parkinson, 2017;Ward & Ostrom, 2006). For instance, Elzen et al. (2011) describe the efforts of a social movement to change the pig husbandry industry and show how an element in the sociocultural context -the increasing public pressure for animal welfare -helped social movements in their advocacy efforts for better animal treatment. ...
... This means, for example, that extant research often falls short of fully exploring how the sociocultural context establishes what is culturally resonant in a market at a certain point in time; or how the availability of specific cultural resources may help social movements to create discursive frames which can resonate within the wider sociocultural context, potentially impacting the outcomes of social movements' actions, while also fostering or hindering market change. Accordingly, and inspired by extant research in sociology and in management (Benford & Snow, 2000;Daellenbach & Parkinson, 2017;Snow et al., 2014;Ward & Ostrom, 2006) on the use of discursive frames by social movements, we develop the notions of anchoring and shaping, which allow us to consolidate findings from current literature and present a more thorough and systematic analysis of the effects of sociocultural contexts on social movements and on brands. ...
Article
The actions of brands, consumers, and social movements are inextricably linked to the sociocultural context. However, researchers have often under-theorised the impact of sociocultural contexts on market actors. Following a systematic literature review and a longitudinal case study of the 2014 FIFA World Cup based on interviews with social movement leaders and archival data from traditional media and social media, we argue that sociocultural contexts are not always stable and may shape (i.e. provide social norms and ideologies for) and anchor (i.e. offer mobilisable resources for) the actions of social movements and brands. We establish the notions of Convergent Sociocultural Shaping and Convergent Sociocultural Anchoring – and their antitheses – to illustrate different scenarios in connection to the impact of sociocultural contexts on activism and brands.
... This view holds brands as intentional agents capable of acting independently and triggering cognitive and emotional responses from consumers (e.g., Puzakova and Kwak, 2017;Giovanis and Athanasopoulou, 2017;Kervyn et al, 2012a, Kervyn et al, 2012b. Scholars caution about the damage to consumer-brand relationships when consumers sense negative intentionality of the brand (Ward and Ostrom, 2006) such as intentional hypocrisy of brand sponsors (Jung et al., 2021), or intentional service failures (Saavedra et al., 2021). In sharp contrast, our qualitative data indicate heightened intentionality of consumers not brands; a notion that has invited no scrutiny in current branding literature. ...
Article
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The paper reports findings from a two-stage study of consumer–brand relationships conducted between April 2021 and June 2021, at a time the COVID-19 pandemic had forced consumers to live through social distancing mandates and school/office closures. Initial exploration via focus groups began in April 2021 for the purpose of generating grounded theory, hypotheses, and measurement scales relevant to their experiences of brand consumption during this period. The second study tested the grounded hypotheses based on a nationwide sample of consumers in June 2021. The study finds evidence of three distinct brand-related behaviors in response to the COVID-19-induced stresses; i.e., heightened intentionality about brand choices, heightened concern for brand sponsors’ ethical behaviors toward their employees, and engagement in brand evangelism behaviors.
... Protest behaviors, often performed in groups and involving organized third-party intermediaries with supporting people (Grappi et al., 2013), are expressions of anger, revenge or venting behavior. Such behaviors take the form of social actions against the misbehavior of firms, with the aim of these firms ceasing such misbehavior (Ward and Ostrom, 2006). Brand avoidance describes consumers deliberately choosing to reduce any form of interaction with a certain brand (Gr egoire et al., 2009) when an alternative brand exists (Rindell, 2013). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate how negative emotions toward brands, especially brand hate, impact anti-brand consumption behavior, including brand avoidance and further brand switching, through the intervening mediators of negative word-of-mouth (nWOM) and protest behavior as well as within contingencies. Design/methodology/approach Existing scales are adapted, and the field study is conducted in Malang, Indonesia. Based on purposive sampling, 275 respondents in three different malls complete a questionnaire related to Sari Roti, a national brand suffering from a boycott. In all, 250 qualified questionnaires are eventually used for data analysis using partial least square. Findings This research supports the effect of brand hate on nWOM, which then influences protest behavior, subsequently driving consumers to avoid a particular brand and opt for an alternative. nWOM was also found to have a direct effect on brand avoidance. For moderating effects, brand social responsibility and social media usage were found to negatively and positively affect the brand hate–nWOM relationship, respectively. Originality/value The limited extant literature only addresses a simple direct–effect relationship between negative emotions and anti-brand consequences. Drawing on the positioning lens and the dis-identification view, this research provides deep insight through theorizing a sequential, four-stage framework regarding the effect of brand hate on brand avoidance and brand switching. This framework is also explored under contingencies, further advancing an understanding of this dynamic subject matter.
... Despite this well-documented trend, corporates do not always act ethically, and they even engage in unethical behaviours (Marmat et al., 2020;Septianto et al., 2020). Customers react to such transgressions with moral anger (Antonetti, 2016;Antonetti and Maklan, 2016a), and engage in one or more negative responses; e.g., consumer boycotts (Braunsberger and Buckler, 2011), online protests (van den Broek et al., 2017), offline protests (Antonetti and Maklan, 2017), negative WOM (Amatulli et al., 2020), and complaining (Nyer and Gopinath, 2005;Ward and Ostrom, 2006). ...
Preprint
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In the mobile service market, which is characterised by intense competition and increasing alternatives availability, firms' unethical behaviours are becoming a decisive factor in formulating customers' reactions. This study aims to investigate the influence of unethical marketing behaviour of services providers on customer punitive intentions. It also endeavours to uncover the moderating role of switching intention in the research model. Data were collected from 453 customers of mobile service providers in Egypt. Path analysis is employed to test the research hypotheses using WarpPLS 7.0. The findings reveal that the perceived unethical marketing behaviours in 4Ps (i.e., product, price, place and promotion) positively influence customer punitive intentions. With respect to the moderating role of switching intention, it enhances the influence that unethical marketing behaviour has on customer punitive intentions. The paper provides managerial implications for services corporates and suggestions for future research. 2 K.A. Ragab et al. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Ragab, K.A., Elsetouhi, A. and Abdulraheem, D.E. (xxxx) 'The effect of unethical marketing behaviour on customer punitive intentions in the context of services industry: the moderating role of switching intention', Int.
... Belarmino and Koh (2018) evaluate both from an equity perspective, suggesting that WOM can be a means to balance inequitable relationships, either through providing more outputs for an excellent experience or to negate a negative relationship. The former, emotional regulation, includes motives such as sharing arousing information (Berger and Milkman, 2012), venting or taking revenge (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004;Ward and Ostrom, 2006) and eliminating anxiety (Fu et al., 2015). For instance, individuals are more likely to spread WOM in more emotionally charged situations, such as when a firm is undergoing a crisis or individuals experience greater anxiety surrounding decision-making (Heath et al., 2001). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to address these questions. Word-of-mouth (WOM) is increasingly important in business-to-business (B2B) decision-making. Yet, research on this topic is rather limited, and often borrows from business-to-consumer (B2C) WOM literature. The question remains as to whether these assumptions realistically occur in B2B WOM. Specifically, this study explores the following questions: What value does B2B WOM have? Why do social media influencers in B2B engage in WOM? What type(s) of social media influencers spread WOM in B2B? Design/methodology/approach To address these questions, this study adopts a qualitative research strategy. This study focuses on industry analysts in information technology markets who often influence the buying decisions of customers through their expertise and recommendations of technology solutions. Based on interviews with these influencers, this study explicates B2B WOM, an area the authors know much less of in comparison to B2C WOM. Findings This study reveals differences in who spreads WOM within B2B, their roles, key features of their content and how they spread WOM. Second, this study demonstrates the types of actors spreading WOM in B2B in relation to the type of WOM and how it actually influences B2B markets. Originality/value This study broadens the current definition of WOM and, specifically, showcases WOM not only as amplifying messages but as a means to co-create the market itself with vendors and clients. This research offers several contributions to the B2B WOM literature and influencer practice.
... Research on exchange relationships suggests that these perceptions of betrayal, in turn, motivate consumers to restore fairness (e.g., by punishing or causing inconveniences to the firm; Grégoire and Fisher 2008;Grégoire et al. 2009;Ward and Ostrom 2006). Against this background, we expect that consumers respond less favorably to internal (vs. ...
Thesis
Over the last decades, ongoing advancements in information technology (i.e., Internet and mobile devices) have expanded a firm’s ability to communicate and interact with consumers and hence, create the potential of building sustainable relationships. Tailoring offerings through (1) consumer-initiated customization and (2) firm-initiated personalization is considered a key driver of long-term consumer relationships. As technologies continue to evolve, the opportunities for tailored marketing expand and enable new technology-driven business models that help to leverage customization and personalization and strengthen customer relationships in the era of the digital economy. Across three independent essays, the purpose of this dissertation is to answer the overarching research question of how innovative technology-driven business models versus traditional business models in the domains of customization and personalization influence consumer behavior. Thereby, this dissertation contributes to an understanding of challenges and opportunities of innovative customization and personalization business models with the ultimate goal of enabling their successful diffusion in the marketplace. Specifically, in Essay 1 and Essay 2, I investigate an innovative business model located in the realm of customization, that is, internal product upgrades (i.e., offering fee-based access to originally built-in, but deliberately restricted, optional features). Using a conceptual approach, Essay 1 provides a framework for understanding how internal product upgrades will likely influence consumers’ responses. As such, it outlines evolving challenges and opportunities of internal product upgrades and derives questions for future research. In Essay 2, I use an empirical approach to examine pitfalls of internal product upgrades in the product usage phase. Drawing on research on normative expectations and perceived ownership, this essay reveals that consumers respond less favorably to internal (vs. external) product upgrades and investigates managerially relevant boundary conditions. Finally, Essay 3 creates novel insights into a business model in the domain of personalization. This essay examines how the increasingly prevalent data disclosure practice of firms engaging in a network with other firms to exchange consumer data, which we denote as Business Network Data Exchange (BNDE), influences consumers’ privacy-related decision-making. In particular, this essay shows that consumers are less likely to disclose personal data in BNDE (vs. traditional dyadic) data exchange settings and that immediate affective reactions are crucial in explaining consumers’ privacy-related decision-making. Within this dissertation, I make substantial contributions at a more general level to literature on customization and personalization by comparing innovative business models to established ones. At the individual essay level, I extend existing research in the domains of product feature modifications, norm violations, and privacy-related decision making. Moreover, this dissertation provides actionable implications for managers who are facing the decision to transform their established business model into an innovative technology-driven one.
... In contrast, we theorize that external product upgrades will not elicit similar perceptions of betrayal as the external feature is a separate item that is not already part of the consumer's purchased product (Bertini et al., 2009;Erat & Bhaskaran, 2012;Liu et al., 2018). Research on exchange relationships suggests that these perceptions of betrayal, in turn, motivate consumers to restore fairness (e.g., by punishing or causing inconveniences to the firm; Grégoire & Fisher, 2008;Grégoire et al., 2009;Ward & Ostrom, 2006). Against this background, we expect that consumers respond less favorably to internal (vs. ...
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Physical products (e.g., cars, smartphones) increasingly evolve into dynamic service platforms that allow for customization through fee-based activation of restricted add-on features throughout their lifecycle. The authors refer to this emerging phenomenon as “internal product upgrades”. Drawing on normative expectations literature, this research examines pitfalls of internal product upgrades that marketers need to understand. Six experimental studies in two different contexts (consumer-electronics, automotive) reveal that consumers respond less favorably to internal (vs. external) product upgrades. The analyses show that customer-perceived betrayal, which results from increased feature ownership perceptions, drives the effects. Moreover, this research identifies three boundary conditions: it shows that the negative effects are attenuated when (1) the company (vs. consumer) executes the upgrading, and (2) consumers upgrade an intangible (vs. tangible) feature. Finally, consumers react less negatively when (3) the base product is less relevant to their self-identity.
... Inactive obstruction incorporates types of thriftiness (Connolly & Prothero, 2003;Lastovicka et al., 1999), brand evasion (Banister & Hogg, 2004;Lee et al., 2009), deliberate rearrangements (Leonard- Barton, 1981;Zavestoski, 2002), and willful dispossession (Cherrier & Murray, 2007). Dynamic obstruction incorporate communicating disappointment (Ward & Ostrom, 2006), culture-sticking (Klein & Ettensoe, 1999), boycotting (Sen et al., 2001), partnership centered counter (Barclay et al., 2005), social presentation (Maxwell, 2003), genuineness festivities (Kozinets, 2002), transformative celebrations (Kates, 2003), and hostile to mark activism (Kozinets & Handelman 2004). Hostile to mark activists look for radical monetary, political, and social changes in connection to brands. ...
... One set of studies indicated that high relationship quality may buffer the negative effects of corporate negative events on consumer attitudes and behaviors (Haj-Salem & Chebat, 2014;Su & Huang, 2018). Another set indicates that consumers with higher relationship quality are more likely to express negative emotion and behavior when learning about corporate negative events (He et al., 2018;Ward & Ostrom, 2006). The role of tourist-destination relationship quality in shaping negative events and consumer responses remains unclear (He et al., 2018;Lee et al., 2021). ...
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This study presented and tested a conceptual model that examined how a negative event at a tourism destination influenced perceived betrayal and boycott among tourists. A mixed method approach with three studies was adopted to verify the proposed hypotheses. In Study 1, using Weibo microblogging platform data, we evaluated the impacts of a negative event on tourists' perception of betrayal and intentions to participate in a tourism boycott. In Study 2, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the relationships among the negative event, perceptions of betrayal, and propensity for a tourism boycott. In Study 3, an additional experimental study revealed that relationship quality would moderate the influences of negative events on perceptions of betrayal and intention to join a boycott. The findings of this study offer theoretical and managerial implications for destination management organizations’ responses to negative events.
... Besides social interaction and economic incentives, altruistic motives play an important role (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004;Ho and Dempsey, 2010;Preece et al., 2004;Jensen Schau and Gilly, 2003). In fact, altruism, i.e. warning others of a problem or issue with a product or service provider, is one of the three drivers for posting NWOM messages (Ward and Ostrom, 2006). The second driver is empowerment which means that posting sets posters in a more powerful position with regard to the product/service provider (Bronner and Hoog, 2011;Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004;Muntinga et al., 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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Nowadays, most consumers consult review platforms or engage in word-of-mouth communication be- fore making a purchase decision. If negative statements concerning a firm or its products occur, the main question is how to adequately react to such negative messages that can be characterised by a rational and emotional dimension. This paper investigates how these dimensions interact between a negative message and the firm’s response which acts as its counterpart. In addition, the sender of the reply to the negative message was considered as a factor influencing the purchase intention. Results show that arguments play an important role when responding to negative messages. While good argu- ments enhance the probability that the purchase intention increases, bad arguments reduce this proba- bility significantly. Furthermore, the strategy of how to respond to negative statements depends on the preceding message itself and its composition. Only in the case of a very expressive initial message, the expressiveness of the firm’s message has a higher impact on the purchase intention than argument qual- ity. In this case it is also advisable to use a brand advocate as the sender of the reply. In general, a lower expressiveness is better for the purchase intention than a higher one.
... As much as humiliation may overlap with other emotions, such as anger and shame, it has often more significant consequences to mental health (Elshout et al., 2016) and potentially has long lasting negative consequences for that relationship in question (Fitness, 2001). It seems, therefore, unlikely that the victim of a public injustice would do anything but seek revenge (Luchies et al., 2017) in order to regain social status in the public eye (Elshout et al., 2016) and calling up a public outrage through the support from fellow confidantes (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). We are interested in the effects of private versus public betrayals when it comes to prosocial behavior (since it seems to directly oppose revenge) with this current research. ...
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The current work seeks to contribute as a continuation of evolutionary-based studies investigating the effects of social transgressions on human behavior. Our evolved capacity for social connections is predicated on reciprocal trust within a relationship. In ancestral conditions, violating that trust could have adverse implications on a betrayer, as well as the victim who was betrayed. By looking beyond forgiveness or social estrangements, this study focuses on our willingness to help the offender after a betrayal has taken place. Our main predictions were that future altruism would more likely be offered by the victim if the harm-doer was kin, if the betrayal did not occur publicly, and if the betrayal was relatively minor. To test these hypotheses, we randomly presented 449 participants with betrayal scenarios that varied in relatedness (kin or non-kin), publicity (public or private), and severity of betrayal (major or minor). We found that only the severity of the betrayal and whether the betrayal was public or private had a significant effect on social reciprocity intended helping behavior. Additionally, certain dispositional predictors of the Light and Dark Triad played a significant role on whether the victim would extend a helping hand after being betrayed by the same person.
... Hennig-Thurau et al. (2010) opined that the opportunity for consumers to voice their complaints to a broader public poses new challenges for merchants. This supports the assertion of Ward and Ostrom (2006) that due to the rise of web 2.0, complaining has changed from a private phenomenon into a public phenomenon. ...
Article
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The main intention of this study was to determine the drivers of customer switching behaviour in the Nigerian road transport industry using firms in the South East. The researchers adopted the cross-sectional survey research method in this study. The questionnaire served as the major instrument for primary data collection. The study focused on the customers of eight road transport firms (ABC, Peace Mass, God is Good Motors ITC, Abia Line, ESTMASS, TRACAS, and EboMass) in the South East of Nigeria. The sample size for the study was 371 customers of the selected transport firms. Thus, three key drivers of customer loyalty were considered in this study including physical facilities, complaint handling system and e-service availability. The study found positive correlation between all the variables and customer switching intention.
... Customer sense of betrayal occurred when people perceive their expectations in purchasing and consumption are not met or when they assume brands telling a lie to them, taking advantage of them (Caldwell et al., 2009), cheating, trying to exploit, breaking promises, and disclosing confidential information (Elangovan & Shapiro, 1998). It was also the customer's negative feelings when they perceived a firm intentionally violates the fairness norm or standard necessary in the context of the typical relationship (Finkel et al., 2002;Ward & Ostrom, 2006). Therefore, Grégoire and Fisher (2008) stated that customer sense of betrayal is considered an emotional reaction which illustrates why loyal customers confront brands and become their most critical opponents. ...
Article
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The current study develops a research model and explores the correlation between customer sense of online betrayal, brand hate, and anti-brand activism. The outrage customers’ anti-brand behaviors consist of negative online word of mouth, online public complaining, and online boycott. Data from an online survey of 383 online shoppers were used to test seven proposed hypotheses. The partial least square–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was adopted to assess the measurement and structural model. The findings showed that the sense of online betrayal positively and significantly affects brand hate and anti-brand behaviors. In addition, brand hate is also the leading cause of customers’ anti-brand actions. The present study highlights the mediation role of brand hate in eliciting revenge from consumers subjected to online betrayal. This study also gives some recommendations to customers to stop the misconduct behaviors of online betrayals, such as spreading their betrayal cases to friends and relatives via social media, then asking for supports and help from governmental and legal agencies and participating in boycotts; raising boycott movements against the betraying brand should be considered as the most extreme punishment.
... The movement of complaint behaviour from traditional channels (such as complaint hotlines, conventional mail and email) to social media has introduced an infinite number of VPOs to what was once viewed as the "lonely experience" of complaining (Ward and Ostrom, 2006). The presence of supportive VPOs has been shown to give the complainant greater perceived power, as collective public outrage is sometimes considered a motivational force for positive corporate change, in that, "[w]ithout outrage, companies are far less likely to clean up their acts" (Champoux et al., 2012, p. 22). ...
Article
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Purpose Online consumer complaint behaviour that is observable to other consumers provides the firm with an opportunity to demonstrate transparency and service quality to the public eye. The purpose of this paper is to assist practitioners with a strategy to increase perceived accommodativeness in complaint management on social media and reduce the social risk associated with online consumer complaint behaviour using a social exchange theory perspective. Design/methodology/approach Six online experiments with 1,350 US Facebook users were conducted to investigate the effect of supportive and non-supportive virtually present others, and employee intervention on a consumer’s choice to complain, likelihood to make an observable complaint (on the Facebook page) and likelihood to make a non-observable complaint (via Facebook Messenger). The mediating role of perceived accommodativeness and subsequent social risk is also examined. Findings Supportive comments made to the complainant by virtually present others were found to influence participants’ decision to complain, heighten participants’ likelihood to complain about the Facebook page and reduce their likelihood to complain via Facebook Messenger. This effect was reversed in the presence of non-supportive virtually present others and was explained by perceived social risk. Further, a participant’s likelihood to complain about the Facebook page was increased when an employee intervention was directed at a non-supportive comment made to a complainant, by a virtually present other. This effect was explained by the perceived accommodativeness of the employee interaction. Research limitations/implications The findings advance research on online consumer complaint behaviour by investigating how employee intervention can be used to increase the likelihood of an observable complaint. This research is limited in that it does not incorporate individual characteristics, such as introversion/extroversion and propensity to respond to peer pressure, which may affect participant responses. Practical implications This research shows that perceptions of social risk are most effectively reduced by employee intervention directed at a non-supportive comment (made to a complainant) of a virtually present other. Consumer complaint management strategies aimed at minimising perceptions of social risk and encouraging observable online complaint behaviour are proposed. Originality/value This research extends the consumer complaint behaviour taxonomy by introducing the term “observable complaining”, that is, visible complaints made on a Facebook page, and broadens understanding of the organisation’s role in managing non-supportive virtually present others to assuage perceptions of social risk in potential complainants.
... Another coping strategy that tourists can use is to warn others of the unpleasant experience through negative WOM [68]. This negative WOM turns out to be harmful advertising, given its power to dissuade individuals from selecting a particular destination [69]. Consumers can focus on a number of different coping strategies as a reaction to the experience that can influence the achievement of the goal [70]. ...
Article
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Drawing from the theory of self-regulation and a model of goal-directed behaviour, this study examines the determinants (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, desire, negative WOM coping strategies, and avoidance coping strategies) of visitors’ intentions to engage in cultural tourism within Sicily. Based on a sample of 469 visitors, the results revealed that 12 of the 14 proposed hypothesised direct effects were significant in explaining behavioural intentions to choose a cultural holiday. As for indirect effects, negative WOM coping strategies served as a more salient mediator in the model, as opposed to avoidance coping strategies.
... The focus of this study was limited to positive engagements on social media by improving page content through improved positive attitudes. Negative content, which may be based on fact (bad experience with the brand) or other unknown malicious intent (Ward and Ostrom 2006), is considered a potential threat that can sabotage the consumer's overall perception of brands (Bambauer-Sachse and Mangold 2011). Future research may further explore the negative customer engagement in social media and how it can be strategically managed and converted into an opportunity for brand building. ...
Article
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Driving consumer brand engagement is essential for firms. With continual disruptions in traditional consumer brand communications and increased demand upon consumer attention and noise, firms utilize increased engagement to drive brand loyalty and resonance. However, mechanisms by which consumers engage with brands, particularly through social media, are less clear. This study sheds light on customer engagement by proposing a model that tests determinants influencing customers' engagement with a brand page as well as its contribution to future purchases and overall brand evaluation. This research supports that brand page post characteristics and content perceived by customers have positive impacts on attitudes and engagement. This research further validates and applies consumer brand engagement in the context of social media brand pages with multiple brands. I also raise the need for managers to treat attitudes toward the post and attitudes toward the brand differently.
... • Generating negative publicity using the media (Grégoire & Fisher, 2008). • Creating complaint websites (Ward & Ostrom, 2006). ...
Article
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Consumer subversion refers to consumer acts that are intended to impede the ability of marketers to develop and implement a marketing strategy, including market segmentation, target marketing, and the formulation of a marketing mix. Consumer subversion has featured across many bodies of marketing literature, yet it has not been explicitly defined and studied. This paper identifies and organizes examples of consumer subversion from marketing literature. It delineates how consumer subversion is related to, yet different from, related terms, such as anti-consumption, consumer revenge and retaliation, dysfunctional and deviant consumer behavior, and consumer movements. Consumer subversion can be proactive or reactive, and can be targeted at specific firms or towards the marketing function in general. Such acts range from individual exit or using ad blockers to extreme hostility via revenge or sabotage. This study derives a classification of consumer subverters, discusses the psychological “need to win” linked to consumer subversion, and presents a research agenda organized around consumers who subvert, firms that are subverted, and antecedents and consequences of subversion.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to experimentally examine stakeholder punishments in response to poor CSR performance communicated through either internal or external channels. Across two experiments, we find that receiving negative CSR information communicated through internal channels (CSR reports) or external channels (news articles) causes individuals to punish a firm (less investment, lower employment interest, buy less, post negative comments on social media). Furthermore, we find sensitivity to a conflict of information from internal and external channels, which increased Calls to Action on social media. This is a concern for firms because such social media posts can elicit further punishments from stakeholders and inflict reputational costs on the firm. The findings of our studies suggest that firms should accurately report CSR performance, especially if external channels are likely to communicate negative CSR information regarding the firm because such conflicting information can elicit a strong online backlash.
Thesis
Avec le changement de paradigme en marketing, la fidélité client est un des enjeux majeurs pour les académiques et praticiens du marketing relationnel. Avec des marchés de plus en plus concurrentiels et interconnectés, il est primordial pour une entreprise de fidéliser ses clients pour rester compétitif et profitable. Néanmoins, aucune entreprise ne peut retenir la totalité de ses clients, plus particulièrement dans le secteur des services dans lequel il est particulièrement difficile de fournir une qualité de service irréprochable en permanence. La majorité des causes de rupture est par ailleurs les échecs de service. C’est dans ce contexte que le management de la reconquête client s’est développé et a attiré l’attention de certains académiques et managers. Cette thèse de doctorat propose d’étudier les stratégies de reconquête des clients partis suite à un échec de service à travers quatre études empiriques. Compte tenu de la rareté des études dans le champ de la reconquête client, notre première étude consiste en une étude exploratoire qualitative. L’objectif est d’étudier les motivations des clients reconquis et leurs conséquences sur la qualité de la relation avec l’entreprise. Cette étude exploratoire ouvre des pistes de recherche que nous investiguons avec trois études quantitatives. La première consiste en une étude terrain auprès d’anciens clients d’une banque française (N = 648). Nos résultats montrent l’effet médiateur de la satisfaction relationnelle entre les causes de rupture et la reconsidération de l’entreprise, ainsi que le rôle modérateur du temps écoulé depuis la rupture. Plus particulièrement, nos résultats montrent que les clients partis pour le prix reconsidèrent plus l’entreprise comparativement aux clients partis suite à un échec de service, lorsque la rupture a eu lieu récemment (moins de deux ans). Notre deuxième étude quantitative consiste en un collecte via questionnaire pour étudier le rôle de la satisfaction à l’égard du concurrent dans le cadre du management de la reconquête (N = 303). Nos résultats montrent dans un premier temps l’influence négative de la satisfaction à l’égard de la concurrence sur la reconsidération de l’entreprise. Puis, nous montrons le rôle modérateur de cette variable sur le lien entre les causes de rupture et la reconsidération de l’entreprise. En effet, les clients partis suite à un échec de service sont plus difficiles à reconquérir comparativement à ceux partis pour des raisons liées au prix, et cette différence s’accroît avec la satisfaction vis-à-vis de la concurrence. Ces deux études nous permettent d’identifier les clients les plus difficiles à reconquérir : ceux partis il y a moins de deux ans suite à un échec de service et qui sont satisfaits du concurrent. Finalement, notre dernière étude consiste en une expérimentation via questionnaire (N = 362). Celle-ci nous permet d’étudier une nouvelle stratégie pour reconquérir ces clients les plus difficiles à récupérer. Nos résultats montrent que la communication post-échec est une stratégie de reconquête efficace pour reconquérir les clients partis suite à un échec de service, il y a moins de deux ans et étant satisfait de la concurrence.
Chapter
Complaint behavior in interactive channels has ceased to be a new phenomenon. Consumers are instead turning to new interactive tools to express dissatisfaction with companies that fail to meet their expectations due to the wide array of private (e.g., WhatsApp) and public (e.g., review platforms) channels presently available. While private complaint channels provide the advantage of dealing with the complaint out of the public eye, observers never become aware of the firm’s effectiveness. In contrast, while public complaint channels enable brands to demonstrate how much they care about customers, they also entail the risk of damaging the brand’s reputation if the resolution does not evolve smoothly and satisfactorily. Complainants will choose a channel to voice their demands depending on their goals (i.e., revenge vs. redress-seeking) and the benefits they associate with the respective channels. In this context, companies must decide which channels to rely on and the procedure to follow in the event of a complaint. As such, brands should not only pay attention to the types of responses that engender more favorable customer responses but also to prevention and brand-building strategies, as these have become especially salient in this interactive era and may support the implementation of an integral complaint handling strategy.KeywordsComplaint handlingPrivate complaint channelsPublic complaint channelsComplainants’ goalsBrand response strategies
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This study investigates the emerging concept of brand hate in a cross-cultural context. Based on prior studies, we develop and validate a two-dimensional scale of brand hate that includes feelings of aversion and deep resentment. Using qualitative studies and three quantitative surveys (n = 977), we develop Emic (country-specific) scales for France, the United Kingdom, and the United States and an Etic scale (common items). Results demonstrate that the scales’ psychometric properties support discriminant and predictive validities. In addition, results show that the hypothesized antecedents (i.e., trust erosion and perceived unethicality) and consequences (i.e., brand avoidance and protest/boycott) of hate are significantly linked with hate. The findings also reveal that the three countries vary in the Emic and Etic models. Brand practitioners can apply these scales to monitor the consumer–brand relationship, and they can ultimately prevent a negative downward spiral in this relationship.
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Purpose The purpose of this research is to investigate the concept of revenge against banks. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses based on collected survey data. A total of 625 questionnaires were collected from Lebanese customers. Findings Research findings identify multiple antecedents to consumers' desire for revenge against banks by encapsulating the cognitive, emotional, social, and personal patterns that influence the desire for revenge. The author found that the desire for revenge fuels direct behavioral reactions towards bank. Practical implications Consumer revenge remains underdeveloped in marketing research. This study provides managerial recommendations to assist bank response strategies in managing consumer revenge behaviors. Originality/value This study is one of very few that explores the concept of revenge against financial institutions, specifically by connecting the literature to the discovery of cognitive, affective, and social factors. This paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge by highlighting the role of personality traits in consumer revenge. This study’s research implications are built on unique findings in a developing country, while most extensive studies that boost negative public attitudes toward the banking industry are established in developed countries.
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Given the challenging nature of today’s business severe competitive environment, it is increasingly important for researchers and business practitioners to understand the e-complaint phenomenon. In this study, the authors investigate four different types of e-complaints: product, price, service and time related and examine the effect of bystanders on such e-complaints. Based on data accessed from two of New Zealand’s popular Internet Service Providers (ISPs), this study found that product related failures dominate customers’ e-complaint behaviors. In addition, bystander interventions positively affect e-complaints. The study concludes with a summary of the implications as well as recommendations for future research for businesses and academics. Our findings can be considered as an important insight into the effect of the bystander in the e-complaint behavior context.
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Purpose Status demotion in hierarchical loyalty programs (HLPs) has received considerable academic attention. However, little is known about whether status demotion engenders two widely recognised behavioural intentions: revenge and avoidance. This study aims to make up this gap by examining the effects of status demotion on customers’ revenge and avoidance intentions. The underlying mechanism and boundary conditions of these effects are also explored. Design/methodology/approach Two studies were conducted to test the hypotheses. Study 1 was conducted using a structured survey from 347 active HLP members/customers of Chinese airlines. Study 2 used an online experiment amongst 268 active HLP airline customers in Australia. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling and Hayes’ (2013) PROCESS macro were used for data analysis. Findings The results of Study 1 show that status demotion increases customers’ revenge and avoidance intentions simultaneously. Meanwhile, these effects are more significant for demoted customers with an external locus of causality than those with an internal locus of causality and demoted customers with higher entitlement tend to possess more revenge intentions than avoidance intentions. Study 2 further identified perceived inequity as a mechanism, which links status demotion to revenge and avoidance intentions of demoted customers. Research limitations/implications This study examines demoted customers’ revenge and avoidance intentions amongst Chinese and Australian airline travellers. Future research may focus on actual behaviour and test the current study’s model in cross-cultural and cross-industry settings. Practical implications Managers should deal with demotion decisions carefully as the failure to manage outraged customers may weaken customer-company relationships. Originality/value This study extends the existing literature on relationship marketing and HLPs by offering a better understanding of how and under what conditions status demotion elicits customers’ intentions for revenge and avoidance.
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The research was carried out to examine the relationship between brand hate, offline negative word-of-mouth, online complaining, and non-repurchase intention. The study also examined whether offline negative word-of-mouth and online complaining mediate the relationship between brand hate and non-repurchase intention. The universe of the research consists of consumers who shop using the online purchasing method and have a feeling of hate against any brand in Turkey. Since the universe covers a large area, data were collected using the “convenience sampling method” one of the non-random sampling methods. A total of 390 questionnaires were collected online between August 25 and September 10, 2021. Smart PLS 3 structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. Due to the nature of the measurement model, the covariance-based Smart PLSc method was used in the analysis stages of the Smart PLS statistical program. PLS-SEM consists of internal-external model analysis. In this regard, the evaluation is divided into two parts. In the first part, the external model or external model was evaluated with internal consistency reliability coefficients, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. In the second part, the internal model is evaluated for path analysis. According to the results of the structural equation model, it has been determined that brand hate has a significant effect on offline negative word-of-mouth, online complaining, and non-repurchase intention. In addition, it was determined that offline negative word-of-mouth and online complaining have a significant effect on non-repurchase intention. Within the scope of the study, it was tried to determine the mediating effect of offline negative word-of-mouth and online complaining between brand hate and non-repurchase intention. As a result of the analyzes carried out, a partial mediation effect of offline negative word-of-mouth and online complaining was determined between brand hate and non-repurchase intention.
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This paper examines the online spread of non-standard Dutch in an unexplored communicative setting, i.e. complaint management on corporate Facebook pages. Based on a self-compiled corpus of consumer-company interactions taken from 6 corporate Facebook pages, we investigate to what extent typical features of informal social media communication spill over into more sensitive contexts of complaint management. We do so by mapping the presence and frequency of 27 Flemish old vernacular and 13 new vernacular features (cf. ) in consumer-initiated posts, company replies and consumer-to-consumer interactions. The results show that some, though not all, new vernacular features occur relatively frequently in both consumer and company messages. Consumers predominantly use new vernacular features for expressive compensation, while companies appear to incorporate them in their webcare (especially emoji and English insertions) as functional operationalisations of conversational human voice () and to support their desired brand identity. In contrast, old vernacular features rarely occur in the dataset. This suggests a different status of old and new vernacular features, where the former are deemed less appropriate or more limited in terms of functionality in this communicative setting. Despite the often informal register of the consumer messages, Standard Dutch still seems the preferred or safer option for company-addressed posts while companies, too, cling to Standard Dutch as the benchmark for professional written communication in this online context.
Conference Paper
شناخت و پیش بینی رفتارهای مشتریان برای شرکتهای عصر حاضر از اهمیت خاصی بر خوردار است، زیرا که روشن است مشتری عامل اساسی و حیاتی بقا و رشد هر شرکت است. این پژوهش به بررسی عوامل تاثیرگذار بر بدبینی مشتری و شکلگیری رفتارهای منفی مشتریان الکترونیک میپردازد. اهداف پژوهش عبارتند از؛ بررسی میزان تأثیر عوامل فردی بر بدبینی مشتری، بررسی تأثیر عوامل سازمانی بر بدبینی مشتری؛ بررسی تأثیر عوامل محصول بر بدبینی مشتری؛ بررسی تأثیر بدبینی اجتماعی بر بدبینی مشتری؛ بررسی تأثیر بدبینی مشتری بر رفتارهای منفی و در نهایت بررسی تعدیلگری اعتماد به نفس مشتری در رابطه بین بدبینی مشتری و رفتارهای منفی مشتری بود. روش گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانهای و میدانی بوده است. این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و توصیفی پیمایشی است و جامعه آماری شامل مشتریان الکترونیک شرکت های پنبه ریز ، بیز و بادران بود. براساس جدول مورگان حداقل تعداد نمونه برابر 384 نفر بود؛ از این رو 398 نفر در این مطالعه مشارکت داشتند که پاسخهای آنها با استفاده از روش مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری و آزمون تعدیلگری در نرمافزارهای لیزرا و وارپ پیالاس مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری نشان میدهد که این عوامل بر بدبینی مشتری تأثیرگذارند. بدبینی مشتری بر بروز رفتارهای منفی علیه شرکت تأثیرگذار است. رابطه تعدیلگری اعتماد به نفس در رابطه بین بدبینی مشتری و رفتارهای منفی مورد تأیید قرار نگرفت.
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This study examined jaystaycationer behaviors to complement the overly optimistic discussions of staycations in the literature. Guided by constructivist grounded theory, 10 frontline hotel workers in Hong Kong were interviewed to identify jaystaycationer behaviors during the pandemic that deviate from generally accepted social norms. A theoretical framework comprising six causes, four jaystaycationer types (i.e. attention seeker, benefit seeker, rule breaker, and property abuser), and seven hotel worker emotional and practical responses, is proposed. These findings critically investigate whether staycation is a better form of vacation from the perspective of hotel workers, laying a theoretical foundation for more comprehensive discussions of staycations. It also discusses the managerial implications for developing staycations in a better way.
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Purpose As customers increasingly adopt social media as the primary channel to reach out to companies, voicing is becoming a public act. Adopting a social psychological perspective, this study aims to focus on the social dynamics that drive consumer voice on social media. Design/methodology/approach The research uses three studies. First, a list of metaperceptions about voicing behavior is compiled using the critical incident technique, and then the hypothesized effects are tested with two scenario-based experiments. Findings Metaperceptions mediate the relationship between social anxiety and the intention to voice on social media. Self-construal moderates the effect of metaperceptions, such that in the presence of a negative metaperception, the reluctance to post a direct complaint is attenuated under independent self-construal. Independent self-construal attenuates the positive effect of positive metaperception. An experimental comparison between social media and consumer review sites reveals that metaperceptions are only prevalent in social media and when the complainer construes him or herself as interdependent. Originality/value Since lodging a direct complaint to a service provider has been mainly conceived as a private behavior, the role of social dynamics in the context of voicing remains under-researched. Aiming to fill this gap, the present research empirically examines how the presence of a perceived audience affects voicing behavior.
Chapter
Today’s consumers often make their purchase decisions by relying on word-of-mouth (WOM) and electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) information, as prior research suggests that WOM/eWOM influences brand attitude (Herr et al. 1991), product evaluation (Bone,.Journal of Business Research 32:213–223, 1995), switching behavior (Wangenheim and Bayón 2004), and sales (Chevalier and Mayzlin,.Journal of Marketing Research 43:345–354, 2006; Duan et al.,.Journal of Retailing 84:233–242, 2008; You et al.,.Journal of Marketing 79:19–39, 2015). Many marketers thus focus on influencer marketing when promoting their products and services (Keller and Fay 2012).
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Previous research has extensively studied the determinants of customer loyalty and switching behavior but has given little attention to what happens after a customer has switched away from a service provider. In this article, the perhaps most important manifestation of such postswitching behavior—namely, postswitching negative word of mouth (PNWOM)—is investigated. Drawing from dissonance theory, hypotheses are developed and tested in an empirical study. Results from the telecommunications industry indicate that PNWOM is given frequently and that product involvement, market mavenism, perceived risk, satisfaction with the new provider, and the reason for switching the provider explain PNWOM. Implications for customer management are discussed.
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A study investigated the relationship between interpersonal relationships among members of different departments and individuals' perceptions of intergroup conflict within an organization. Although friendships across groups were not significantly related to perceptions of intergroup conflict, negative relationships were associated with higher perceived intergroup conflict. Perceptions of intergroup conflict were also significantly related to indirect relationships through friends, and an amplification effect was uncovered. Low intragroup cohesiveness was significantly related to higher perceptions of intergroup conflict.
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This article focuses on consumer movements that seek ideological and cultural change. Building from a basis in New Social Movement (NSM) theory, we study these movements among anti-advertising, anti-Nike, and anti-GE food activists. We find activists' collective identity linked to an evangelical identity related to U.S. activism's religious roots. Our findings elucidate the value of spiritual and religious identities to gaining commitment, warn of the perils of preaching to the unconverted, and highlight movements that seek to transform the ideology and culture of con-sumerism. Conceiving mainstream consumers as ideological opponents inverts conventional NSM theories that view them as activists' clients. S ocial movements are intentional collective efforts by activists to transform the social order (Buechler 2000). This article focuses on consumer movements, which are particular kinds of social movements that attempt to trans-form various elements of the social order surrounding con-sumption and marketing. As consumption has come to play an increasingly central role in contemporary society, con-sumer movements have arisen to challenge and transform aspects of it by propagating ideologies of consumption that radicalize mainstream views. As we seek to increase our understanding of the dynamics and complexities of consumer culture, we need theory that conceptualizes consumer movements and their ideological role. As we follow the historical trajectory of a culture of consumerism that seems in many accounts to be globally ascendant and apparently unstoppable, conceptualizing con-sumer movements that stand in opposition to it may be viewed as increasingly important. Sklair (1995, p. 507) terms the mutually reinforcing integration of consumer cul-ture and consumerist ideology the "culture-ideology of con-sumerism" and concludes that it is a "fundamental institu-tional support of global capitalism." The purpose of this article is to arrive at a theory-based understanding of con- for their many insightful comments and suggestions. The authors thank the editor, associate editor, and three reviewers for their comments and helpful suggestions. They are also grateful for the contri-butions of the consumer activists and consumers who were observed and interviewed for this article.
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While it is true that betrayal leads to the loss of reliance on an individual, this chapter asserts that distress from the breach of trust comes from a sense of being neither regarded nor accepted. The author utilizes the interpersonal script method in understanding the latest researches in the field. Psychologically speaking, betrayal seems to be a complex form of interpersonal relationship conflict. Various sorts of emotions can be felt upon experiencing this circumstance, including anger, fear, doubt, and repulsion. Mechanisms to counteract these potentially destructive feelings involve taking revenge or letting go of the mistakes. Although reconciliation is suggested, it depends on the hurt party to forgive and accept or to repress and retaliate. Likewise, the offender has the choice to apologize and maintain the bond, to create alibis and enjoy the relief from the guilt, or even to leave with no confrontation and destroy the ties with silence.
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Although aspects of social identity theory are familiar to organizational psychologists, its elaboration, through self-categorization theory, of how social categorization and prototype-based depersonalization actually produce social identity effects is less well known. We describe these processes, relate self-categorization theory to social identity theory, describe new theoretical developments in detail, and show how these developments can address a: range of organizational phenomena. We discuss cohesion and deviance, leadership, subgroup and sociodemographic structure, and mergers and acquisitions.
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The key premise underlying this work is that when consumers form relationships with brands they use norms of interpersonal relationships as a guide in their brand assessments. Two relationship types are examined: exchange relationships in which benefits are given to others to get something back and communal relationships in which benefits are given to show concern for other's needs. The conceptual model proposes that an adherence to or a violation of these relationship norms influences the appraisal of the specific marketing action and also the overall brand evaluations. Results of three experiments provide converging evidence in support of the theory.
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Two experiments examine the existence of, and explanation for, emotional contagion effects on product attitudes. In the first experiment, emotional contagion occurred among "receivers" who "caught" a happy emotion from "senders" whom the receivers liked. The relationship between the emotion experienced by senders and receivers was found to be mediated by receivers mimicking smiling on the part of senders. Exposing receivers to happy senders they liked also resulted in receivers having a positive attitudinal bias toward a product. The happiness experienced by receivers via contagion was found to mediate the effects of sender emotion and receiver liking of the sender on receiver product attitudes. The second experiment replicated the first while demonstrating that observation of the facial expressions of senders by receivers, thus allowing mimicking of smiling, was a necessary condition for emotional contagion to occur. The relevance of emotional contagion for understanding consumer behavior across various substantive domains is discussed. Copyright 2001 by the University of Chicago.
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This work incorporates concepts from the behavioral confirmation tradition, self tradition, and interdependence tradition to identify an interpersonal process termed the Michelangelo phenomenon. The Michelangelo phenomenon describes the means by which the self is shaped by a close partner's perceptions and behavior. Specifically, self movement toward the ideal self is described as a product of partner affirmation, or the degree to which a partner's perceptions of the self and behavior toward the self are congruent with the self's ideal. The results of 4 studies revealed strong associations between perceived partner affirmation and self movement toward the ideal self, using a variety of participant populations and measurement methods. In addition, perceived partner affirmation--particularly perceived partner behavioral affirmation--was strongly associated with quality of couple functioning and stability in ongoing relationships.
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This paper reports results from a longitudinal field experiment examining the evolution of relationships between consumers and an on-line photography brand in response to brand personality and transgression manipulations. Development patterns differed significantly for the two personalities, whereby relationships with sincere brands deepened over time in line with friendship templates, and relationships with exciting brands evinced a trajectory characteristic of short-lived flings. However, these patterns held only when the relationship proceeded without a brand transgression. Relationships with sincere brands suffered dramatically and irrevocably in the wake of transgressions but, surprisingly, showed signs of reinvigoration for exciting brands. Character inferences concerning the quality of the brand as a relationship partner mediated the results. Findings suggest a dynamic construal of brand personality, greater attention to interrupt events including transgressions, and consideration of the relationship contracts formed at the hands of different brands.
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Non-acceptance can be perceived as inadequate relationship value towards an individual. By nature, human beings try to find a sense of belongingness and fear any form of denunciation. This chapter recognizes the fact that not everyone is expected to like and to be liked by everyone else, but even with minimal amount, acceptance is sought for. Inevitably, there will be instances where refusal of one's proposal, elimination from a group, negative response to outputs, etc. takes place. These events are then categorized in a continuum that marks the level of inclusion and its corresponding behavioral patterns. When the value of an individual is seen to be on the positive leaning of the spectrum, that person is said to be highly valued; when placed on the opposite direction, that person encounters banishment and discrimination. In the course of relational valuation, the word rejection occupies a black-and-white feature that makes it hard to capture.
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This article examines methodological issues for content analytic research of the World Wide Web. The outline of content analysis as a systematic and quantitative scientific method for measuring the content of messages have existed for centuries. Nevertheless, its development and diffusion have been primarily spurred by the rise of mass media, newspapers in the 19th century and electronic media in the 20th century. The growth of the Internet promises to induce a similar expansion of its use and refinement of its techniques. The World Wide Web is characterized by its ubiquity, global reach, interactivity, decentralized, hyperlinked structure, and multimedia format. All of these characteristics present researchers with opportunities and challenges at each step of a content analysis: sampling, unitization, development of content categories, coding, and analysis. Based on a review of recent content analytic research, this article analyzes these issues and suggests methodological improvements for future research.
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emphasizes the tension between trust—what many consider the sine qua non of the personality factors necessary for mature and mutually satisfying relationships—and violations of trust or what we will call betrayals begin with a review of our approach to personality including our assumptions about the nature of human nature and individual differences / next, we present definitions of trust found in the literature and present conceptual distinctions we believe will facilitate subsequent research and theory in this area / examine research on trust in some detail, including generalized trust and particularly relational trust, that is, trust of specific relational partners / present extant theoretical perspectives on relational trust including developmental approaches, a component model, and the appraisal model / then turn our attention to research on violations of trust—what we call betrayal experiences—in which we highlight our own recent program of research / conclude with a brief overview and discussion of the implications of the trust–betrayal dialectic for understanding the nexus between personality and social life (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Health benefits derived from personal trauma disclosure are well established. This study examined whether disclosing emotions generated by imaginative immersion in a novel traumatic event would similarly enhance health and adjustment. College women, preselected for trauma presence, were randomly assigned to write about real traumas, imaginary traumas, or trivial events. Yoked real-trauma and imaginary-trauma participants wrote about real-trauma participants' experiences. Imaginary-trauma participants were significantly less depressed than real-trauma participants at immediate posttest, but they were similarly angry, fearful, and happy. Compared with control group participants, both trauma groups made significantly fewer illness visits at 1-month follow-up; however, real-trauma participants reported more fatigue and avoidance than did the other groups. Imaginary-trauma group effects could reflect catharsis, emotional regulation, or construction of resilient possible selves.
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Self-control theories have focused on various aspects of the processes involved in exerting self-control. In the present paper, we intend to add to this literature by demonstrating that exerting self-control leads one to narrow one's attention and cognition, inducing a narrow mindset. We demonstrate this in three studies. Participants who exerted self-control applied a narrower view (Study 1), applied a narrower categorization (Study 2), and used more concrete language (Study 3) than participants who did not exert self-control. Results are discussed in light of the possibility that a narrow mindset enhances performance on the self-control task at hand at the cost of poorer performance on other tasks.
Supportive Communication
  • Brant R Burleson
  • Erina L Macgeorge
Burleson, Brant R. and Erina L. MacGeorge (2002), " Supportive Communication, " in Handbook of Interpersonal Communication, ed. Mark L. Knapp and John A. Daly, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 374–422.
Talking Politics Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience
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Gamson, William A. (1992), Talking Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH Goffman, Erving (1974), Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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American Express) http://www.amexblew.com Best Buy? (Best Buy) http://www.bestbuy-s.com Buy.com " Baiting and Switching? " (Buy.com) http://members.xoom.com/_XMCM/lightIV/index.htm Carrier Furnace Consumer Complaint (Carrier) http
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Cyber Vigilante (Allstate Insurance) http://www.insurancejustice.com American Express Blew (American Express) http://www.amexblew.com Best Buy? (Best Buy) http://www.bestbuy-s.com Buy.com " Baiting and Switching? " (Buy.com) http://members.xoom.com/_XMCM/lightIV/index.htm Carrier Furnace Consumer Complaint (Carrier) http://www.geocities.com/capitolhill/1007
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
  • Albert Bandura
Bandura, Albert (1991), "Social Cognitive Theory of Self-Regulation," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2), 248-87.
Trust and Betrayal: The Psychology of Getting Along and Getting Ahead
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Jones, Warren H., Laurie L. Couch, and Susan Scott (1997), "Trust and Betrayal: The Psychology of Getting Along and Getting Ahead," in Handbook of Personality Psychology, ed. Robert Hogan, John Johnson, and Stephen Briggs, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 465-82.
Cues Filtered Out, Cues Filtered In: Computer Mediated Communication and Relationships
  • Joseph B Walter
  • Malcolm R Parks
Walter, Joseph B. and Malcolm R. Parks (2002), "Cues Filtered Out, Cues Filtered In: Computer Mediated Communication and Relationships," in Handbook of Interpersonal Communication, ed. Mark L. Knapp and John A. Daly, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 529-63.