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A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

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... The cognitive domain refers to knowledge and the development of intellectual skills through a process that builds from a basic level of remembering and understanding through applying and analysing information to more complex thinking where evaluating and creating new information occurs. This hierarchy of thinking processes is well known as the revised Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (Anderson et al., 2001). The term knowledge can refer to a factual, conceptual, procedural, or metacognitive understanding of a subject (Anderson et al., 2001;UNESCO -IBE, 2013). ...
... This hierarchy of thinking processes is well known as the revised Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives (Anderson et al., 2001). The term knowledge can refer to a factual, conceptual, procedural, or metacognitive understanding of a subject (Anderson et al., 2001;UNESCO -IBE, 2013). For this study's purposes, factual and procedural knowledge was defined within the knowledge domain required by PSP qualifications. ...
... For this study's purposes, factual and procedural knowledge was defined within the knowledge domain required by PSP qualifications. Factual knowledge is the "basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or to solve problems in it" (p46), and procedural knowledge is the "knowledge of how to do something" (p52) (Anderson et al., 2001). Factual knowledge includes knowing the technical terminology associated with achieving the learning outcomes and knowledge of specific details, such as a particular treatment for a particular medical condition. ...
Article
The training of pharmacy support personnel (PSP) differs considerably across the world; however, the question of whether the training of PSP meets the needs of the scope of practice in each country must be considered. This article considers a methodology employed to determine if qualifications for PSP in South Africa provided the knowledge and practical skills required by the prescribed scope of practice. A content analysis was performed in three steps, using Atlas Ti software to manage the textual information. The same basic format used in all qualitative content analysis was utilised, including preparing and organising, exploring, developing themes, reporting, and interpreting data. Content analysis can be a helpful tool in analysing large volumes of information. Despite the process being time-consuming, it allows for the trustworthiness of data. Breaking the analysis into three steps made the process more manageable, allowing a single researcher to do the analysis.
... The first view concerns high level thinking when people inquire, conclude, assess, and self-regulate themselves in a learning environment (Facione, 2000;Freeley & Steinberg, 2009;Simpson & Courtney, 2002). This view reflects Bloom's taxonomy levels of learning which include remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating (Anderson et al., 2001). The second view regards critical thinking as the quality supporting learners to think critically; it involves broad-mindedness, eagerness to know, willingness to understand and reflectively share their stance, and consideration towards other people's views, cultural bias and splitting in thinking (Davies & Barnett, 2015;Ennis, 2011). ...
... As critical thinking is closely linked to high order thinking skills, the teachers' overall strategies can be mapped into Bloom's revised taxonomy of thinking levels (Anderson et al., 2001) as illustrated in Table 3. Table 3 reveals that the most employed strategies lie in the level of analysis skill, the bottom level of high-order thinking skills. This shows that the teachers were able to integrate their essential teaching skills with the strategies to teach for higher order thinking to a certain extent (Peterson et al., 1990). ...
... This shows that the teachers were able to integrate their essential teaching skills with the strategies to teach for higher order thinking to a certain extent (Peterson et al., 1990). Moreover, the fact that only a few employed strategies reflect the evaluating level, which is helpful for teachers to help students assess the subject-matter learned and is a core level of teaching critical thinking (Anderson et al., 2001;Ennis, 1985), indicates that most teachers in this study did not plan their teaching strategies to achieve "student thinking in all levels" (Limbach & Waugh, 2010, p. 3). The more emphasis on the analysis level than other higher thinking levels might result from teachers' judgmental views of their students' competence and disposition, as the finding revealed that students' personal habits was the biggest contributing factor in applying critical thinking instructions. ...
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This study investigated how Indonesian teachers perceived and incorporated critical thinking concepts in English language classrooms. A case-study approach was set out to investigate teacher’s perceptions and practices of critical thinking in teaching English language to twelfth-grade students in Jambi Province, Indonesia. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, and stimulated-recall interviews were employed to collect data from six teachers in six different senior high schools. The semi-structured interview data were categorized and reported descriptively. Hennessy et al.’s (2016) Scheme for Educational Dialogue Analysis was adopted to analyze classroom observation data, and stimulated-recall interview data were analyzed as supplemental data. The findings show that teachers perceived skills, disposition, and knowledge as key attributes of critical thinking, and active learning activities were valued more than passive learning to promote students’ critical thinking. This study also reveals that all teachers employed various teaching strategies to encourage students’ critical thinking at a certain level. The findings imply that a professional development program that better equips teachers with understanding of critical thinking concepts and more teaching strategies should be urgently designed in order to produce critical global citizens.
... Thus, these three domains are interrelated with each other, Jurnal Sains Sukan dan Pendidikan Jasmani Vol 11, No 1, 2022 (45-57) ISSN: 2232-1918/ eISSN: 2600 where learning involves the psychomotor domain and requires students to have a background theory of the cognitive and affective domains (Thoirs & Coffee, 2012). Therefore, teaching and learning concerning the cognitive aspect is important in PE because students will be more inclined to understand the rules and strategy development of the movement in learning as well as improve their motor skills in doing physical sports activity alongside improving thinking capabilities and interpretation skills (Anderson et al., 2001). Zhang et al. (2019) in their study stated that the cognitive domain and knowledge is a dimension that refers to the understanding of a student regarding a topic whether through factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, or procedural knowledge. ...
... Additionally, Bloom's taxonomy is found to not have direct practical usage in curriculum development (Cannon & Feinstein, 2005) and has a strong dependency towards actions (Amer, 2006;Ferris & Aziz, 2005). As a result of the criticism that arose, the taxonomy was reviewed and revised by a group of cognitive psychologists, curriculum researchers, and assessment and testing experts which was led by Anderson in 2001 to reflect its relevancy in 21st-century teaching and learning (Amer, 2006;Anderson et al., 2001;Cannon & Feinstein, 2005). The changes in Bloom's Taxonomy are shown in Figure 1 below. ...
... Although the need to evaluate and assess learning outcomes of PE has been extensively discussed in past studies, there is a lack of studies conducted on the dimensions of subcategories of knowledge and understanding (Ayers, 2004). This has to be stressed because the holistic development of a student through knowledge and experience that involves the cognitive domain is the key element in the learning of PE as it contributes to successful learning of physical activities (Anderson et al., 2001;Darst & Pangrazi, 2009;Chang et al., 2020). Therefore, teachers need to prioritize and emphasize the cognitive learning domain by enhancing focus and developing student learning so that it can increase knowledge and understanding about the topic which then can be applied in the sports activity (Gurvitch & Metzler, 2013). ...
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The Handball Cognitive Assessment instrument for the Year 4 Physical Education (PE) subject is developed with the aim to assess the capabilities of the cognitive domain for the category of handball attack-play in regard to knowledge and understanding. In ensuring the instrument developed is dependable and suitable for use, this study was conducted to analyze and investigate empirical evidence on the validity and reliability of the instrument by using the Rasch analysis model. The Handball Cognitive Assessment instrument consists of twenty-five items that have been piloted by 51 Year 5 primary school students. The WINSTEPS programme was utilized to conduct the Rasch model analysis to obtain the validity and reliability of the instrument. The test of unidimensionality for the twenty-five items has a measured variance of 25.4% and all items exceeded the minimum of 20.0% as required by the Rasch model. The reliability index of the items is 0.83 and the reliability index of the respondents is 0.54. All the items have a positive correlation with PMC (PT-MEASURE CORR) and the item polarity shows that there is no discrepancy between the items for the constructs measured. The Outfit-MNSQ value shows a value that is less or equal to 1.5 logit which is defined as productive. However, for items 6, 8, and 14, although the Outfit-MNSQ value exceeds 1.5, it did not diverge too far when compared to the pilot study. These items were scrutinized again, and the validity is revalidated. The findings of this study prove that the Handball Cognitive Assessment is able to be utilized as an assessment instrument for the cognitive domain of PE specifically the Handball activity for Year 4 primary school students as it has proper validity and reliability that is accurate and can be implemented empirically.
... To answer our research questions, we present the results of a systematic literature review and propose a developed framework based on our review. We aligned the framework with the revised learning goal taxonomy of Bloom (1956) [24] by Anderson et al. (2001) [25], and the theory of learner goal orientation by Ames (1992) [26]. We consolidate the results of our literature review and consider relevant theories, to develop our framework that can be of assistance for practitioners. ...
... To answer our research questions, we present the results of a systematic literature review and propose a developed framework based on our review. We aligned the framework with the revised learning goal taxonomy of Bloom (1956) [24] by Anderson et al. (2001) [25], and the theory of learner goal orientation by Ames (1992) [26]. We consolidate the results of our literature review and consider relevant theories, to develop our framework that can be of assistance for practitioners. ...
... To understand how we can design CAs aligned to the purpose of learning and teaching, we can refer to the work done by Anderson et al. (2001) [25]. This cognitive learning goal dimensions taxonomy considers the difficulty of learning tasks on various levels. ...
Conference Paper
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Driven by circumstances like the global pandemic many learners and educators realize the importance and value of self-regulated digital learning. To better support self-regulated learning, conversational agents have become more relevant. Conversational agents can act as tutor or as learning mate for learners. Although conversational agents have potential to better support self-regulated learning processes, challenges exist requiring implications about how to make these interactions more engaging and supportive. This study discusses the value of gamified conversational learning chatbots that use game elements to engage learners to guide researchers and practitioners to design conversational agents that effectively motivate learners and provide self-regulated learning at the same time. Therefore, we propose a systematically developed framework for gamifying educational conversational agents and contribute to theory by consolidating several theories about games, digital learning, and conversational agents and support practitioners by providing implications about what to care about when gamifying conversational agents.
... In this case, the principles of the game-based approach are complemented along with the process of learning and acquisition of foreign languages. To this purpose, the taxonomy of Krathwohl and Anderson (2001) about learning cognitive skills is used to explain the different stages of the learning and acquisition process. In this sense, students shall start with an input stage, continue with the processing of the new information, and at last culminate it with the output stage. ...
... For this purpose, it is also necessary to combine the ideas presented in this chapter with the pedagogical theories involved in learning foreign languages with serious video games. Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) Following the line from the previous chapters, video games seem to help students develop communication skills in foreign languages (Calvo-Ferrer, 2018;Liou, 2012;Postigo-Fuentes & Fernández-Navas, 2020;Rama, Black, van Es & Warschauer, 2012;Stevens, 2006). This close connection shall predictably have a direct outcome in the learning path. ...
... However, the learning path is a process that involves different stages. To this purpose, the process from learning to acquisition is well-explained with the taxonomy of Bloom (1956), which was later modified by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001). Bloom (1956) introduced his taxonomy as a resource to help teachers define cognition demands according to linguistic and cognitive abilities. ...
Book
Present society is involved in a continuous state of change, which has recently become faster due to the influence of new forms of technology. This book introduces a theoretical view on the use of games in the foreign language classroom. Its content has been divided into four chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to the digital age, and it explains how society has evolved from the invention of the first computers until the present when individuals use their own mobile devices to interact with the world and operate in it. The second chapter focuses on defining the concepts of serious and conventional games and how they can be used in the classroom. The third chapter introduces the theoretical principles of digital game-based learning and identifies suitable activities in each stage of the learning process. At last, the fourth chapter explores the principles of gamification and how teaching content can be transformed into games. This book is addressed to language educators and researchers who aim to introduce games to their subjects and understand their nature.
... Learning goals can be established, which are combinations of learning objectives and taxonomy levels, a hierarchy used to sort learning objectives into levels of complexity. For example, the Bloom taxonomy [23] is a taxonomy commonly used in Dutch elementary education and consists out of six levels of learning: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. ...
... Teachers can select the level they want students to achieve in this phase. Using the revised Bloom taxonomy [23], we defined three levels: level 1 covers remembering and understanding, level 2 applying and analyzing, and level 3 evaluating and creating. Thereafter, teachers can specify which Dutch national curriculum objectives [37] they would like to teach in this design phase, and which 21st-century skills they would like their students to acquire in this design phase (as defined by SLO [44]). ...
... The worksheets provided three predefined learning objectives related to each design phase. These objectives were divided into three levels in accordance with the Bloom taxonomy [23]. In the 24 worksheets, learning objectives from level 1 were selected four times, from level 2 ten times, and from level 3 six times. ...
Conference Paper
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Design-based Learning (DBL) and Maker Education (ME) are educational approaches that aim to equip students with 21st century skills. As they are not yet widely adopted in the Netherlands, Dutch teachers often develop their own teaching materials. However, these teachers might be unfamiliar with the intricacies of DBL and ME, and they may have trouble setting learning objectives related to the design process or assessing these objectives. In this paper, we explore how a blueprint for DBL and ME curriculum design, based on several curriculum design models, can support elementary school teachers with creating projects for their classroom. We report on the design and implementation of a workshop with three teachers. Based on observation data, workshop artifacts, and post-workshop interviews, we report insights in teachers' experiences with creating design briefs, setting learning objectives, choosing learning and assessment activities, and further contextual needs related to the implementation of the designed project.
... Penerapan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah boleh dilaksanakan apabila guru sejarah dapat memahami penggabungjalinan penerapan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah dengan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi (White, 2002;Rosy, 2015;Hawa Abdullah & Ghazali Darusalam, 2018). Penggabungjalinan penerapan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah dengan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dapat dilakukan dengan merujuk kepada aras berfikir dalam Hierarki Taksonomi Bloom semakan Anderson (Rosy, 2015;BPK, 2014;White, 2002;Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001;Bloom, 1965). Dalam Hierarki Taksonomi Bloom semakan Anderson, terdapat enam aras berfikir iaitu mengingat, memahami, mengaplikasi, menganalisis, menilai dan mencipta (BPK, 2014;Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). ...
... Penggabungjalinan penerapan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah dengan kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dapat dilakukan dengan merujuk kepada aras berfikir dalam Hierarki Taksonomi Bloom semakan Anderson (Rosy, 2015;BPK, 2014;White, 2002;Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001;Bloom, 1965). Dalam Hierarki Taksonomi Bloom semakan Anderson, terdapat enam aras berfikir iaitu mengingat, memahami, mengaplikasi, menganalisis, menilai dan mencipta (BPK, 2014;Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). Sehubungan itu, aras berfikir mengingat dan memahami telah dikategorikan sebagai tahap berfikir aras rendah manakala aras berfikir mengaplikasi, menganalisis, menilai dan mencipta telah dikategorikan sebagai tahap berfikir aras tinggi (KPM, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Abstrak-Kertas konsep ini membincangkan isu dan masalah yang telah menghalang usaha penerapan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran mata pelajaran sejarah. Kemahiran pemikiran sejarah yang diterapkan ialah merangkumi kemahiran memahami kronologi, kemahiran meneroka bukti, kemahiran membuat interpretasi, kemahiran membuat imaginasi dan kemahiran membuat rasionalisasi. Penerapan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah dalam proses pembelajaran dan pemudahcaraan memerlukan kesediaan guru sejarah dan keupayaan berfikir murid-murid sekolah mengikut Hierarki Taksonomi Bloom. Selain itu, guru sejarah hendaklah memahami dengan lebih mendalam tentang kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi dan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah iaitu kaedah pengabungjalinan kedua-dua kemahiran intelektual tersebut dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran sejarah agar dapat meningkatkan keupayaan berfikir dalam kalangan murid. Walau bagaimanapun, pelbagai isu dan masalah yang wujud berkaitan dengan penerapan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah yang tidak diselesaikan. Oleh hal yang demikian, kertas konsep ini diharapkan dapat memperluas perbincangan tentang penerapan kemahiran pemikiran sejarah dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran mata pelajaran sejarah untuk kajian yang akan datang. Kata Kunci-Kemahiran Pemikiran Sejarah, Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran, Isu dan Masalah.
... En Anderson y Krathwohl (2000) se recogen diversas capacidades de menor a mayor dificultad de desarrollo y dominio cognitivo, que permiten el procesamiento de la información en diversos estadios y con ello aprender: recordar el conocimiento haciendo uso de la memoria para recuperar conceptos, definiciones, listas, hechos, evocando la información retenida. Comprender la información captando el significado, interpretando, resumiendo, clasificando, infiriendo, explicando o estimando. ...
... Crear supone saber unificar elementos para formar un todo coherente y funcional, reorganizando elementos en una nueva estructura o patrón generando o produciendo algo nuevo. Para Anderson y Krathwohl (2000) la capacidad de evaluar ha de ser anterior a la de crear; se considera frecuentemente parte necesaria del comportamiento precursor antes de crear algo. ...
Article
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En este artículo se analiza la competencia reflexiva desarrollada durante las prácticas pedagógicas de formación inicial del profesorado de educación física (FIPEP), en la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. El objetivo del estudio supone conocer cómo se desarrolla la competencia reflexiva a partir de las prácticas pedagógicas realizadas por los estudiantes. Se empleó una metodología cualitativa soportada en el programa informático ATLAS.ti (Versión 9) para el análisis de las sesiones desarrolladas en campo y el desarrollo de los grupos de discusión con los estudiantes practicantes, junto con sus asesores, cooperadores e investigadores. Se concluye que las habilidades de pensamiento de orden inferior son las de mayor incidencia en el desarrollo de reflexividad de los estudiantes en sus prácticas pedagógicas. Palabras clave: competencias docentes, educación superior, formación docente, profesionalización, capacidades cognitivas.
... They also state that, as in Bloom's revised taxonomy (L. W. Anderson et al., 2001), series of sub-processes such as lower-order thinking and higher-order thinking construct the process of thinking and describe them as follows: ...
... Bloom (1956) introduced six levels of the cognitive domain, from recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through getting more complex and to the higher-order abstract mental levels in his original taxonomy. The revision of Bloom's taxonomy was developed by L. W. Anderson et al. (2001) and Create as demonstrated in Figure 1, where the top levels being the higher-order of metacognitive skills and the bottom is the lower that provide the foundation for higher-order thinking skills. (2019) claims that the activities that require lower-order thinking, such as fact quizzes can only enhance lower-order thinking not the higher-order learning; and higher-order retrieval practices mostly enhance higher-order learning. ...
Thesis
Computational thinking, a form of thinking and problem solving, is defined as a mental process for abstracting problems and formulating solutions. Computational thinking is considered to be an essential skill for everyone and has become the centre of attention in education settings. There is a limited number of tools to measure computational thinking skills by multiple-choice questions, and limited research on the relationship between computational thinking and other domains. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between computational thinking performance, perception of computational thinking skills and school achievement of secondary school students. Computational thinking performance of secondary school students in Kazakhstan is measured by using a bespoke multiple-choice test, which focuses on the following elements of computational thinking: logical thinking, abstraction and generalisation. The perceptions of computational thinking skills are self-reported using a pre-existing questionnaire, which covers the following factors: creativity, algorithmic thinking, cooperation, critical thinking and problem solving. The General Knowledge Test results that contain scores for 14 different subjects are used as indicators of students’ school achievement, with further sub-scores for the science subjects, language subjects and humanities. The sample group of 775 grade eight students are drawn from 28 secondary schools across Kazakhstan. The validity and reliability of the multiple-choice questions are established by using Item Response Theory models. The item difficulty, discrimination and guessing coefficients are calculated; and the item characteristic curves for each question and test information functions for each quiz are obtained. As a result, the multiple-choice questions are concluded as a valid and reliable tool to measure the computational thinking performance of students. Multiple regression is used to examine the relationship between computational thinking performance, perception of computational thinking and school achievement sub-scores. The results of the data analysis show that science subjects, language subjects and perception of computational thinking skills are significant predictors for computational thinking performance, showing a moderate relationship between computational thinking performance and school achievement. However, no significant relationship is found between humanities subject scores and computational thinking performance. This study also adds to the literature for the studies that investigate the relationship between computational thinking skills and other variables. This research contributes to the development of validated tools to measure computational thinking performance by using multiple-choice questions. This study investigates the relationship between computational thinking performance and general school achievement of secondary school students, and its findings shed light on the measurement of children’s cognitive development. The findings can help in designing better curricula by adjusting subjects that enhance children’s higher-order thinking abilities. The findings obtained in this research also adds to the literature for the studies that investigate the relationship between computational thinking skills and other variables.
... Зв'язок та відмінність між критичним та креативним мисленням проявляються в процесі сприйняття інформації, який умовно можна поділити на три стадії: базове сприйняття (осягнення та розуміння самого медіатексту, що дає змогу запам'ятати його), критичне мислення (сприйняття інформації у спосіб, що сприяє осягненню причинно-наслідкових зв'язків та допомагає осягнути кореляцію між об'єктивною реальністю та медіареальністю) та креативне мислення (процес творення нових ідей або пошуку альтернативних варіацій на основі медіаповідомлення) (Dummet & Hughes, 2019, p 5-16). Ці етапи сприйняття є дотичними до таксономії мислення, запропонованої Д. Кратволом (колега Б. Блума) та Л. Андерсоном, яка спирається на когнітивний процес сприйняття інформації, що відбувається у шість етапів: запам'ятовування, розуміння, застосування, аналіз, оцінка, створення (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). ...
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ІIІ Міжнародна науково-практична конференція «Освіта для ХХІ століття: виклики, проблеми, перспективи» 16-17 листопада 2021 р. Суми. Вид. Сум ДПУ ім. А. С. Макаренка, 2021 – С.235-238. file:///C:/Users/George/Desktop/%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%B5%20%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B8/%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%B8%20%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BC%201.pdf
... Self-evaluation, insight in the ongoing Open access progress and involvement in problem-solving promote a higher level of learning which can create a deeper understanding among health workers and make them pay more attention to what they are doing and why. 25 This can improve their capacity to inform and educate patients, to handle stressful situations and provide more time and engagement to attend to interpersonal interactions with patients. With increased knowledge and continuous discussions concerning care of the mothers and newborn, healthcare workers might also get more sensitised and empathic towards their patients. ...
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Objective To investigate the effect of a quality improvement (QI) package on patient satisfaction of perinatal care. Design Secondary analysis of a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial. Participating hospitals were randomised by size into four different wedges. Setting 12 secondary-level public hospitals in Nepal. Participants Women who gave birth in the hospitals at a gestational age of ≥22 weeks, with fetal heart sound at admission. Adverse outcomes were excluded. One hospital was excluded due to data incompleteness and four low-volume hospitals due to large heterogeneity. The final analysis included 54 919 women. Intervention Hospital management was engaged and facilitators were recruited from within hospitals. Available perinatal care was assessed in each hospital, followed by a bottle-neck analysis workshop. A 3-day training in essential newborn care was carried out for health workers involved in perinatal care, and a set of QI tools were introduced to be used in everyday practice (skill-checks, self-assessment checklists, scoreboards and weekly Plan–Do–Study–Act meetings). Refresher training after 6 months. Outcome measure Women’s satisfaction with care during childbirth (a prespecified secondary outcome). Results The likelihood of women being overall satisfied with care during childbirth increased after the intervention (adjusted OR (aOR): 1.66, 95% CI: 1.59 to 1.73). However, the proportions of overall satisfaction were low (control 58%, intervention 62%). Women were more likely to be satisfied with education and information from health workers after intervention (aOR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.40) and to have been treated with dignity and respect (aOR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.16). The likelihood of having experienced abuse during the hospital stay decreased (aOR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.51) and of being satisfied with the level of privacy increased (aOR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.18). Conclusions Improvements in patient satisfaction were indicated after the introduction of a QI-package on perinatal care. We recommend further studies on which aspects of care are most important to improve women’s satisfaction of perinatal care in hospitals in Nepal. Trial registration number ISRCTN30829654 .
... One of the most provocative teaching methods is guided discovery. It is opposite to the exposition method and matches the category of synthesis of the Bloom's taxonomy [3]. The learners are not given the rule or generalization. ...
Article
In the present paper we would like to share our technology enhanced, interactive and student centric approach applied during our long-lived experience in teaching mathematics and informatics in higher education institutions. Our goal is to develop active-engagement student-centered environment instead of the traditional instructor-centered environment. Our teaching is based on cooperative learning, flipped learning, guided discovery, laboratory approach, simulations and investigations. It is oriented to the application of modern technologies and involves research elements.
... So that with proximity and often used in accessing information quickly it will stimulate one's mind to more easily remember so that it can trigger understanding within a person. This process is in accordance with Anderson's theory, namely from the stages of remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and making(28).Busevid based android, it makes it easier for people to access or open information related to the discomfort experienced by pregnant women in trimesters 1, 2 and 3. The data in this study shows that the level of knowledge will affect a person's level of anxiety. ...
Article
p> Background : Pregnancy is a natural process experienced by a woman, during which there will be physical and psychological changes. Pregnant women may experience discomfort and change in feelings such as happy, worry and anxiety due to those changes. Currently, the whole world is suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic. This situation causes an increase of anxiety in pregnant women because of their ignorance about how to handle pregnancy discomfort. Entering the digital era 4.0, android can be utilized so that education and information can be more easily accessible. Objective : To determine the effect of android-based education in handling discomfort and reducing anxiety in pregnant women during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods : This research employed a quasi-experimental with a control group time-series design. There were 120 pregnant women used as samples. A simple random sampling was carried out to obtain those samples which then formed into 2 groups, namely the experimental group and the control group. The instrument used were the Busevid (Healthy Pregnant Women in the COVID-19 Period) android application and a questionnaire designed by the researchers which had been evaluated by the experts and tested. Then, the Manova with GLM repeated measures was utilized to analyze the data. Results : The increased knowledge of discomfort in the android group was 43.77 in the post-test 1 and 59.98 in the post-test 2, while the leaflet group was 17.18 in the post-test 1 and 35.92 in the post-test 2. The anxiety reduction in the android group was 16.90 in post-test 1 and 28.65 in the post-test 2, while the leaflet group was 4.35 in the post-test 1 and 5.10 in the post-test 2. The p-value was 0.000 <0.05, indicating that there was an effect of android-based education on handling discomfort and reducing anxiety in pregnant women during the Covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion : Android application can provide a significant change in increasing knowledge about discomfort and decreasing anxiety in pregnant women during the Covid-19 pandemic, so that android can be used as an alternative in providing positive benefits in education media and health promotion. </p
... How would you do the design? We coded the responses of the students and classified the extracted codes based on the new Bloom cognition levels 28 . To comply with the conditions to use the Chi square independence tests, we merged the categories Creating, Evaluating, and Analyzing into category Evaluating and merged the category Remembering with the category Understanding. ...
Conference Paper
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Software architecture students, often, lack self-confidence in their ability to use their knowledge to design software architectures. This paper investigates the relations between undergraduate software architecture students' self-confidence and their course expectations, cognitive levels, preferred learning methods, and critical thinking. We developed a questionnaire with open-ended questions to assess the self-confidence levels and related factors, which was taken by one-hundred ten students in two semesters. The students answers were coded and analyzed afterward. We found that self-confidence is weakly associated with the students' critical thinking and independent from their cognitive levels, preferred learning methods, and expectations from the course. The results suggest that to improve the self-confidence of the students, the instructors should work on improving the students' critical thinking capabilities.
... Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification system for different levels of thinking, with psychomotor learning being one of the learning domains (Anderson et al., 2001). The psychomotor domain is concerned with the physical skills development, which are frequently used in clinical practice (Scheckel, 2016). ...
Article
Background: Nursing education suffers from a lack of high-quality clinical experiences for students, especially among medical specialty groups such as cancer patients, in Saudi Arabia. A paucity of empirical evidence is supporting simulation in education and the transfer of psychomotor skills to patient care. In particular, although generally recognized as an essential oncology nursing skill, effective strategies for teaching the management of chemotherapy extravasation to students have not been investigated. Purpose: To investigate the effects of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) technology on the competency of nursing students in the management of chemotherapy extravasation and the transfer of this skill from traditional learning labs to clinical settings. Methods: A quasi-experimental study comprising a two-group pretest–posttest with repeated measures was used. The intervention was a scenario-based, HFS. Third-year students (n=68) from a nursing program were randomly allocated to either intervention or control groups. Competency was measured in both groups using the same standardized assessment checklist. Results: Competency scores were lower in the control group compared to the intervention group at both posttesting times. These results, however, were not statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding skill transfer. Conclusions: Nursing faculty can use either HFS or traditional learning methods to effectively teach students how to manage chemotherapy extravasation and transfer this skill to clinical settings. Keywords: Chemotherapy extravasation; Oncology education; Simulation, Skill transfer; Students’ competency; Teaching strategy
... Current evidence suggests that flipped classroom yields a significant improvement in health professionals' learning than traditional teaching methods [17]. Additionally, some reports suggest the usefulness of flipped classrooms in the training of interprofessional collaborative practice competencies [18][19][20]. ...
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Background Interprofessional collaborative practice competency (ICPC) is key to providing safe, high-quality, accessible, patient-centred care. Effective delirium management, particularly, requires a multi-component intervention, including the use of interprofessional teams at care point. This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom approach for improving ICPC in simulation-based delirium case management. Method An embedded mixed-methods study was designed to investigate the effects of the flipped classroom approach on health professionals’ performance in delirium management. The study population comprised nine health professionals (three physicians, nurses, and pharmacists each). They used pre-class study materials about delirium management via a digital learning platform before a simulation case training session. A readiness assurance process test was conducted on key concepts, covered in the pre-class study material. Participants were randomly assigned to three teams, each of which included health professionals. Each team participated in a simulation case scenario. For the quantitative outcome measures, the Chiba Interprofessional Competency Scale (CICS29), a validated scale for measuring competencies of interprofessional practice, was used before, after, and three months after the educational intervention. The qualitative component consisted of a post-training questionnaire and semi-structured focused group interviews about the impact of the flipped classroom approach. Result The CICS29 measured after the intervention and three months after was noted to be significantly higher than before the intervention. Three semi-structured focused group interviews were conducted (n=9), which, upon analysis revealed that the flipped classroom approach effected on four stages of Bloom's taxonomy level. A total of nine categories and 17 subcategories were identified corresponding to four levels of the revised Bloom’s taxonomy: remember (1), understand (12), apply (23), and analyse (3). Conclusion The simulation-based skill training using flipped classroom approach can be an effective method for improving ICPC for health professionals. In this approach, an elevated level of cognitive activity is practiced in the Bloom’s taxonomy, and the participants worked on an application-based case simulation that promoted higher level learning and engagement in interprofessional collaborative practice. This approach also established a basic common language of delirium assessment and management, thus facilitating communication among health professionals and improving ICPC.
... Cronbach's alpha for the posttest was 0.69. A reason for the low internal consistency is that the test is assessing different levels of learning objectives (Anderson et al., 2001), including remembering (i.e., defining symbols), understanding (i.e., solving word problems), applying (i.e., solving formula problems), and evaluating (i. e., recognizing impossible situations). ...
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This study investigates the positivity principle-the idea that people respond more positively and learn better from an instructor who displays positive emotion than from an instructor who displays negative emotion-and the equivalence hypothesis-the idea that learners respond similarly to the emotional tone displayed by both human and virtual instructors. In this between-subjects design experiment, participants viewed one of eight instructional videos on binomial probability, varying in the emotion portrayed by the voice and gestures of an onscreen instructor and varying in whether the instructor was human or virtual. Participants either saw a positive instructor (happy or content) or a negative instructor (bored or frustrated) and that instructor was either human or virtual. In support of the positivity principle, participants recognized the positive or negative emotional tone of the instructor, felt a similar emotion to the instructor, and had more favorable social connection ratings for positive instructors. However, the positivity of the instructor did not impact how well participants performed on a delayed posttest. In support of the equivalence hypotheses, all of these effects were found for both human and virtual instructors. Overall, this study provided support for three of the four links in the positivity principle, and showed that the principle applied to both human and virtual instructors as per the equivalence hypothesis.
... The most common model for question classification in terms of fulfilling some educational goals is probably Bloom taxonomy, which was invented in 1959 and revised in 2001 (Bloom 1956;Anderson, Krathwohl, Airiasian, Cruikshank et al. 2001). This taxonomy defines six levels of questions based on the complexity of created questions. ...
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Automatic question generation is one of the most challenging tasks of Natural Language Processing. It requires "bidirectional" language processing: firstly, the system has to understand the input text (Natural Language Understanding) and it then has to generate questions also in the form of text (Natural Language Generation). In this article, we introduce our framework for generating the factual questions from unstructured text in the English language. It uses a combination of traditional linguistic approaches based on sentence patterns with several machine learning methods. We firstly obtain lexical, syntactic and semantic information from an input text and we then construct a hierarchical set of patterns for each sentence. The set of features is extracted from the patterns and it is then used for automated learning of new transformation rules. Our learning process is totally data-driven because the transformation rules are obtained from a set of initial sentence-question pairs. The advantages of this approach lie in a simple expansion of new transformation rules which allows us to generate various types of questions and also in the continuous improvement of the system by reinforcement learning. The framework also includes a question evaluation module which estimates the quality of generated questions. It serves as a filter for selecting the best questions and eliminating incorrect ones or duplicates. We have performed several experiments to evaluate the correctness of generated questions and we have also compared our system with several state-of-the-art systems. Our results indicate that the quality of generated questions outperforms the state-of-the-art systems and our questions are also comparable to questions created by humans. We have also created and published an interface with all created datasets and evaluated questions, so it is possible to follow up on our work.
... The theoretical framing of our research programme followed Anderson et al.,' (2001) reconceptualization of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Originally, Bloom and his collaborators formulated the constituents of educational enterprises as follows: knowledge (recall), comprehension (understanding), application (use of abstractions), analysis (breakdown of a subject into its parts), synthesis (putting parts together to form a whole) and evaluation (judgements about the value of a material) (Bloom et al., 1984). ...
Chapter
Classroom implementation of Ghana’s comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) curriculum faces diverse challenges, ranging from teacher preparedness to community and parental acceptance of certain topics. While there is some evidence of acceptance at the student, teacher and community levels, we know less about what happens in the classroom. In 2014, a research programme was developed to investigate CSE curriculum content in relation to how classroom implementation occurs. This chapter reflects on the research trail and draws lessons for implementing similar research programmes in related contexts. Our work revealed that by collaborating and developing strong partnerships with different interest groups, research on sensitive public health topics can generate evidence that broadly mirrors the opportunities and challenges of translating sexuality education policies and curricula into classroom realities. The local ownership of the research problem and research questions increased acceptance and led to the immediate application of the results to create new guidelines for teaching sexuality education in Ghana’s pre-tertiary school system.
... For instance, methods and tools derived from learning and education research can be exploited to structure and measure users' cognitive capabilities at the action level (e.g. Anderson et al., 2001). ...
Thesis
The advance in digital technologies is placing increasingly high demands on users’ cognitive capabilities, resulting in ubiquitous cognitive challenges (e.g. memory overload) in everyday interaction with products. Such challenges can be attributed to the inadequate understanding of cognitive capability for informing design. The literature review further specifies that current research has largely ignored how user cognition is understood and implemented by designers. This study thus aims to advance the understanding of user cognition by adding the designers’ perspective. This research adopts a mixed method approach, which helps highlight and address the designerly ways of knowing as well as the implicit nature of cognition in design. The research framework consists of three phases. First, the language differences between design practise and cognitive research were confirmed by interviewing designers and analysing designers’ articles. Second, a review of design languages of cognition and ethnographic fieldwork were conducted to explore the designerly ways of understanding and implementing cognition. Finally, the findings were tested in a larger-scale survey. By explicating the related design languages, this research elucidates designers’ Micro, Meso, and Macro perspectives on user cognition, thereby expanding the current rational information-processing conception of cognition to a more context-based understand- ing. The multiple perspectives also add more embodied and situated considerations to the conventional focus on elementary information processing capacity, advancing the existing understanding of users’ cognitive capabilities. Hence, this study enhances the predominant way of conceptualising user cognition in design research and empirically supports the postulated situated nature of cognition in cognitive research. Furthermore, it recognises a specific application field within the broader landscape of cognitive research, suggesting that designing interactions has its own research agenda rather than relying on other established sub-areas.
... Respondent 6 explained that "it is easier since it just requires recall of information than analogical reasoning which requires careful association and drawing relationship across terms." Thus, recall of information is easier than analyzing and synthesizing (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). This then suggests that the teacher-respondents should develop more skills in analyzing and synthesizing ideas.. ...
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This study evaluated the possible relationship of Chemistry Content Knowledge and Verbal Analogical Reasoning to Teacher’s Chemistry Concept analogies among 20 Public High School Science Teachers in Cebu, Philippines using validated questionnaires. Test for Chemistry Content Knowledge showed that teacher-respondents’ scores has a mean of 34.90, indicating an approaching proficiency level of knowledge in Chemistry concepts with Chemical reactions and Atomic structure as the least and mastered topics, respectively in the test. A mean of 23.10 was a result for the test in Verbal Analogical reasoning, indicating a below-average analogical reasoning skills among teacher-respondents. These then implied the need to improve teacher-respondents Chemistry Content Knowledge and Verbal Analogical Reasoning skills. Moreover, analogies by the teacher-respondents on Chemistry concepts exhibited qualities of good analogies, although some qualities such as the use of functional similarities and discussing the deviation of the target and analog concept were not observed. It was also found out that there were no significant relationship among the variables, Chemistry Content Knowledge and Verbal Analogical Reasoning as indicated by the p-value of 0.360. Moreover, relationships between Chemistry Content Knowledge to Chemistry Concept Analogies and Verbal Analogical Reasoning Analogies to Chemistry Concept Analogies were also not significant as indicated by p-values 0.097 and -0.068, respectively. Hence, Levels of Chemistry Content Knowledge and Verbal Analogical Reasoning were not predictors of the quality of analogies employed by teachers in teaching Chemistry concepts. This study aimed to provide educational experts insights into these factors' underlying relationships and improve chemistry education quality by supporting teachers' understanding of Chemistry concepts and use of analogies. Moreover, results of this study filled the gap of understanding the relationship between Chemistry Content Knowledge and Analogical Reasoning to teachers’ effective use of analogies in teaching Chemistry concepts.
... The class time is also used to provide feedback to students on their work and answer any questions. Bloom revised Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) aligns with FC in the sense that the material given to learners to be done outside the classroom engages the lower cognitive skills of the taxonomy, such as understanding and gaining knowledge. On the other hand, the higher cognitive skills such as applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating are addressed inside the classroom through discussion, problem-solving, analyses, and feedback (Charles-Organ & Williams, 2015) (Figure 1). ...
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Global research studies on distance education in foreign language learning focus primarily on secondary schools or higher education. The paper examines primary school foreign language teachers’ (n=119) perceptions of distance teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to face-to-face education. The purpose of the study was to investigate the quality, achieved learning outcomes, advantages and obstacles faced by FL teachers in remote teaching. Based on the e-questionnaire, our study indicated that distance FL teaching was more challenging and stressful than classroom teaching because primary school students were not responsive to technology and needed parental guidance. Primary school students rely on cognitive and socio-emotional support from the FL teacher.
... Teachers describe the lower thinking skills as the remembering, understanding and application skills whereas higher order thinking skills as the skills that develop when a student acquires new knowledge and stores it in his memory and then he/she can easily correlates, organizes, or evaluates that knowledge to accomplish a specific goal. These higher order thinking skills must include sub skills like analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are at higher level of the Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). ...
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ABSTRACT Effective development of students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has always been the focal point of teaching-learning activities. Pedagogical researchers have been focusing on finding out the ways for effective development of HOTS of students. The study explores the Vygotsky’s scaffolding and Skinner’s operant conditioning concepts in order to synthesize them for improved development of HOTS of students. The researchers have opted for a limited scale meta-analysis of the researches related to scaffolding and operant conditioning to find the possibility of a synthesized model for improved students learning. Using logical positivism the study tried to answer that How Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding and Operant conditioning can be synthesized to promote higher order thinking skills and what type of scaffolding activities can be used in the class. The study has suggested a theoretical model and activities using Vygotsky’s scaffolding and Skinner’s operant conditioning model to develop higher order thinking skills among students. Keywords: Scaffolding, Operant conditioning, Higher Order Thinking Skills
... -Knowledge about facts (KF), e.g., provide key words, literals or operators -Knowledge about procedures and methods (KP), e.g., provide step-by-step guidance how to apply a method, operation or procedure by using an example This is how the feedback typology could resemble all four types of knowledge coined by Anderson et al. [1]. As programming education addresses all of these four knowledge types, implementing these additional feedback types is considered relevant for coding exercises, and therefore potentially helpful for students. ...
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Online coding environments can help support computing students gain programming practice at their own pace. Especially informative feedback can be beneficial during such self-guided, independent study phases. This research aims at the identification of feedback types applied by CodingBat, Scratch and Blockly. Tutoring feedback as coined by Susanne Narciss along with the specification of subtypes by Keuning, Jeuring and Heeren constitute the theoretical basis. Accordingly, the five categories of elaborated feedback (knowledge about task requirements, knowledge about concepts, knowledge about mistakes, knowledge about how to proceed, and knowledge about meta-cognition) and their subtypes were utilized for the analysis of available feedback options. The study revealed difficulties in identifying clear-cut boundaries between feedback types, as the offered feedback usually integrates more than one type or subtype. Moreover, currently defined feedback types do not rigorously distinguish individualized and generic feedback. The lack of granularity is also evident in the absence of subtypes relating to the knowledge type of the task. The analysis thus has implications for the future design and investigation of applied tutoring feedback. It encourages future research on feedback types and their implementation in the context of programming exercises to define feedback types that match the demands of novice programmers.
... 33 VR technology also has the benefit of allowing veterinary students to visit farms without the constraints of potential biosecurity issues. 22 However, Pottle 17 also states that the benefits of VR are not viable for all subject areas, and furthermore, the revised Bloom's taxonomy suggests that there are separate stages of learning that are processed differently depending on the individual, 34 and thus certain methods of study such as VR are only applicable to some subjects. 35 The small group teaching session was found to be more important than traditional lectures, but less so when compared with VR. ...
Article
Previously, pig production was not covered in the Jordan University of Science and Technology’s (JUST) veterinary curriculum due to Jordan being a predominantly Muslim country, with few graduates practicing outside the Middle East. However, pig production, management, and health (PPMH) education is increasingly recognized as needed to meet the requirements to obtain European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) accreditation. This study assessed the introduction of pig-related teaching into JUST’s veterinary curriculum and student perceptions of this content. A teaching intervention consisted of lectures, group sessions, and a virtual reality (VR) tour of a pig production (PP) unit. To ascertain participants’ level of understanding of PPMH, perceptions of different teaching styles, and changes in perception and understanding of the topics, they answered a survey before and after the intervention. Students’ knowledge of PP, husbandry, and perceived importance of PP awareness increased significantly, with 90% ( n = 17) agreeing that the intervention improved comprehension of the areas mentioned. Participants’ interest in PPMH learning increased, with 75% ( n = 14) stating they would want to learn more about the topic. VR was significantly ranked the most useful in terms of learning ( p = .029), and all participants stated the VR tour had a positive impact on their learning experience. Based on the findings, the focus of pig-related teaching in settings with limited awareness because of sociocultural reasons should be directed toward student-led exercises, group work, and use of technology such as VR. As a result of this intervention, blended PP has now been introduced to the JUST Veterinary curriculum.
... Teachers describe the lower thinking skills as the remembering, understanding and application skills whereas higher order thinking skills as the skills that develop when a student acquires new knowledge and stores it in his memory and then he/she can easily correlates, organizes, or evaluates that knowledge to accomplish a specific goal. These higher order thinking skills must include sub skills like analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are at higher level of the Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). ...
Article
Effective development of students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has always been the focal point of teaching-learning activities. Pedagogical researchers have been focusing on finding out the ways for effective development of HOTS of students. The study explores the Vygotsky’s scaffolding and Skinner’s operant conditioning concepts in order to synthesize them for improved development of HOTS of students. The researchers have opted for a limited scale meta-analysis of the researches related to scaffolding and operant conditioning to find the possibility of a synthesized model for improved students learning. Using logical positivism the study tried to answer that How Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding and Operant conditioning can be synthesized to promote higher order thinking skills and what type of scaffolding activities can be used in the class. The study has suggested a theoretical model and activities using Vygotsky’s scaffolding and Skinner’s operant conditioning model to develop higher order thinking skills among students. Keywords: Scaffolding, Operant conditioning, Higher Order Thinking Skills
... Sichtbar werden solche DAH beispielsweise bei der Formulierung von Kompetenzen respektive von Kompetenzerwartungen (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). Verben beschreiben -im Sinne von Tunwörtern -in Kompetenzerwartungen ebensolche Tätigkeiten beziehungsweise DAH (Futter et al., 2018). ...
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Der Perspektivrahmen Medien & Informatik vereint institutionelle Voraussetzungen der aktuellen Deutschschweizer Lehrpläne für die Volkschule sowie fachspezifische Ansprüche der Medienwissenschaften beziehungsweise der Wissenschaft der Informatik in einem Modell. Zudem ermöglicht er eine Anschlussdiskussion zur gymnasialen Ausbildung. Der Perspektivrahmen Medien & Informatik zeigt auf, wie sowohl perspektivenbezogene als auch perspektivenvernetzende Inhalte und Prozesse konstruiert werden können und macht einen ersten Vorschlag eines entsprechenden Modells. Damit bietet der Perspektivrahmen Medien & Informatik eine Diskussionsgrundlage, um eine gemeinsame Fachdidaktik an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Bern an- und weiterzudenken.
... Evaluasi ini diartikan sebagai kemampuan siswa dalam membuat perkiraan atau keputusan yang tepat berdasarkan kriteria atau pengetahuan yang dimilikinya. Kata kerja operasional untuk menggambarkan tingkatan evaluasi yaitu: (1) Memeriksa dan (2) Mengkritik, (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001: 68). ...
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This research was aimed to find out: (1) the difference of learning outcomes among the students who are taught using instructional materials and training manual; (2) the difference learning outcomes of students who have high work expectation using instructional materials and training manual; (3) the difference learning outcomes of students who have low work expectation using training manual and instructional materials; and (4) the interaction between learning material and work expectation on the learning outcomes. This research used the quantitative approach with the 2x2 factorial quasi- experiment design. The research population was all grade XII students of Light Vehicle Enginering of State Vocational High School 1 Gombong. Determining the samples used purposive sampling technique. Class XII TKR C was selected as the control group, and class XII TKR D was used as the experimental group. The learning outcomes were measured using a test, while work expectation was measured using a questionnaire. The data analysis technique used to test the hypotheses was a two-way Anova with the help of statistical program SPSS 22. The research results are as follows. (1) There is a significant difference of learning outcomes among the students taught using the instructional materials and training manual. (2) Learning outcomes of students who have high work expectation taught using the instructional materials are significantly higher than the training manual. (3) Learning outcomes of students who have low work expectation taught using the training manual are significantly higher than the instructional materials. (4) There is significant interaction between learning material and work expectation on the learning outcomes.
... Teachers describe the lower thinking skills as the remembering, understanding and application skills whereas higher order thinking skills as the skills that develop when a student acquires new knowledge and stores it in his memory and then he/she can easily correlates, organizes, or evaluates that knowledge to accomplish a specific goal. These higher order thinking skills must include sub skills like analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are at higher level of the Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). ...
Article
Effective development of students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has always been the focal point of teaching-learning activities. Pedagogical researchers have been focusing on finding out the ways for effective development of HOTS of students. The study explores the Vygotsky’s scaffolding and Skinner’s operant conditioning concepts in order to synthesize them for improved development of HOTS of students. The researchers have opted for a limited scale meta-analysis of the researches related to scaffolding and operant conditioning to find the possibility of a synthesized model for improved students learning. Using logical positivism the study tried to answer that How Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding and Operant conditioning can be synthesized to promote higher order thinking skills and what type of scaffolding activities can be used in the class. The study has suggested a theoretical model and activities using Vygotsky’s scaffolding and Skinner’s operant conditioning model to develop higher order thinking skills among students.
... Learning outcomes can be defined as the competences that students are accomplished in their courses (Weinert, 2001). Skills of problem solving, scientific practice, personal and social competences are involved in the application of subject-specific skills (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001). In the university, students should learn the conceptual knowledge and the knowledge on social competences and personal communication skills at the same time. ...
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Thailand is a developing country where farmers have potential to expand the agricultural output. Social media provide a powerful source of information. Thus, social media literacy influences the development of farmer literacy regarding agricultural technology and productivity. The research aims to study: 1) demographic factors and economic factors; 2) social media behavior; 3) media literacy practice; and 4) factors affecting the social media literacy practice of farmers in Thailand. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the sample of 385 farmers in Thailand. Statistical analysis was based on frequency, percentage, mean, maximum, minimum, t-test and F-test. The research results indicated that most of the farmers were female with an average age of 45.42 years and had attained a bachelor's degree or higher with an average annual income of THB 138,992 and average annual expenses of THB 127,518. All the sampled farmers had a smartphone and used it to connect to social media for searching and seeking information on agriculture. The farmers had a moderate level of media literacy. Hypothesis testing showed that gender, age and knowledge were factors affecting the social media literacy of farmers in Thailand.
... Therefore, they were also trained to think using HOTS (high order thinking skills). These characteristics of higher-order thinking skills refer to the cognitive level of Bloom's taxonomy which has been revised, namely analyzing, evaluating, and creating (Anderson, et al, 2001). ...
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The community partnership program was administered in the form of online assistance for English learning of the grade X of senior high school students. The partner was an orphanage belonging to the local government in DKI Jakarta Province. The objective of the assistance program was to motivate the English learning and find the solution for their problem in understanding English at school. Fourteen boys participated in this program. One meeting was held in the orphanage with the person in charge and four asynchronous meetings with the participants were conducted in three months. In practice, most of the students showed their motivation in terms of involving the English discussion and completing the tasks as well. Unfortunately, the signal of internet connection did not support the online learning and some of the students were in quarantine due to coronavirus infection. In conclusion, they were not ready to study online as several obstacles arose such as the weak internet signal and their absences. Therefore, they need to study English in a room with a teacher where all of them can communicate with each other in a friendly atmosphere. By doing so, they are possible to improve their English mastery.
... Una clasificación describe el esquema sistemático con los nombres de las clases, los criterios utilizados para distinguirlos y la relación entre clases. Un factor crítico en la implementación de este tipo de actividades globales es la disponibilidad de un sistema de clasificación de la cobertura de la Tierra, que sea común o estándar y armonizado, que provea una base confiable para la interacción entre las actividades cada vez más crecientes de mapeo y monitoreo de la cobertura de la Tierra, tanto a nivel nacional, regional y global (Anderson et al., 2001;fao, 2005;Di Gregorio et al., 1998;Miner, 2011). ...
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El análisis multitemporal y los cambios en los espacios naturales a que están sometidos los territorios son cada vez más significativos y demuestran las interacciones entre las sociedades y los ecosistemas terrestres y marinos que les sirven de soporte. Siguiendo esta línea de pensamiento, el dinamismo de los paisajes agudiza la necesidad de disponer de información cualitativa y georreferenciada actualizada de estos espacios. La clasificación de los espacios terrestres, según su capacidad de uso, es un ordenamiento constante de carácter práctico e interpretativo, basado en la aptitud natural que presenta el suelo bajo diferentes usos específicos. Por otra parte, el concepto de cobertura terrestre implica una valoración de cantidad de superficie terrestre, a diferencia de la cubierta, que es un concepto solamente cualitativo. Para evaluar el cambio de coberturas terrestres y usos del suelo se recomienda el uso de herramientas como los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG) (Trucíos et al., 2010 y 2011), para conocer la ubicación y cuantificación de áreas que definan las tendencias de posibles procesos de deforestación, degradación (Palacio et al., 2004; Berlanga et al., 2009). La percepción remota del territorio constituye una de las herramientas más importante de los últimos tiempos, disponibles para los estudios de los recursos naturales. No solamente es de gran utilidad en el proceso de investigación, en general, sino que es especialmente valiosa para detectar fenómenos y producir mapas de diversas temáticas cuando, como es frecuente, no existen descripciones detalladas de sus efectos y evolución; su empleo proporciona bases para implementar medidas encaminadas a reducir los impactos sociales y económicos de desastres potenciales. La imagen espacial o satelital es una útil fuente de información, tanto como un procedimiento adicional para mejorar información ya existente, como para solucionar los problemas de incompatibilidad de las unidades espaciales geográficas, que se generan en diferentes proyectos o informes. En este trabajo se presenta una aproximación multiescalar en dos sectores de la costa del estado de Veracruz, a través de la descripción de los cambios en la cobertura y uso del suelo. Se calculan los cambios, intercambios y transiciones sistemáticas que afectan la pérdida de la cobertura vegetal, utilizando la matriz de tabulación cruzada, donde se aprecie la dinámica entre categorías, con el uso de Sistema de Información Geográfica como herramienta de análisis. Los resultados muestran todos los escenarios en función de los procesos de cambios ocurridos a través del análisis de la tabla cruzada de las coberturas, lo que permitió conocer y explicar de manera holística los cambios en la cobertura terrestre, intentando aproximarnos a la realidad geográfica de este tipo de procesos, donde la interrelación de factores físicos y humanos se presenta de manera conjunta.
... For students' knowledge level, Bloom's taxonomy classifies educational learning objectives into levels of complexity and specificity: Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Create [33]. It has been the primary focus of most traditional education and is frequently used to structure curriculum learning objectives, assessments and activities. ...
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Effective and engaging E-learning becomes necessary in unusual conditions such as COVID-19 pandemic, especially for the early stages of K-12 education. This paper proposes an adaptive personalized E-learning platform with a novel combination of Visual/Aural/Read, Write/Kinesthetic (VARK) presentation or gamification and exercises difficulty scaffolding through skipping/hiding/ reattempting. Cognitive, behavior and affective adaptation means are included in developing a dynamic learner model, which detects and corrects each student’s learning style and cognitive level. As adaptation targets, the platform provides adaptive content presentation in two groups (VARK and gamification), adaptive exercises navigation and adaptive feedback. To achieve its goal, the platform utilizes a Deep Q-Network Reinforcement Learning (DQN-RL) and an online rule-based decision making implementation. The platform interfaces front-end dedicated website and back-end adaptation algorithms. An improvement in learning effectiveness is achieved comparing the post-test to the pre-test in a pilot experiment for grade 3 mathematics curriculum. Both groups witnessed academic performance and satisfaction level improvements, most importantly, for the students who started the experiment with a relatively low performance. VARK group witnessed a slightly more improvement and higher satisfaction level, since interactive activities and games in the kinesthetic presentation can provide engagement, while keeping other presentation styles available, when needed.
... Bergmann and Sams 2012;Kuiper et al., 2015;Szparagowski, 2014;Gariou-Papalexiou et al., 2017;Tay and Wang, 2016). It follows Revised Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001) where the lower level of cognitive works take place before class as presented in the pyramid in Figure 2. When students come to class, they can engage in higher cognitive levels of learning with the presence of peers and facilitators. ...
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Excellent certificates are not enough to make excellent teachers rather, teaching demands constant insight, reflection, and suitable pedagogy. Determining the best pedagogical method of course delivery plagues faculty members and schools across the globe. This paper reports on an investigation and outcomes of a comparative study of three different methods of course delivery offered for the same course in an Indian elementary school before the COVID-19 pandemic. The study followed a Design-Based Research (DBR) approach. Comparisons have been made to the collected quantitative data from each teaching method-face-to-face, blended flipped, and fully online-in respect of students’ learning achievement and satisfaction. Findings revealed that participants in the face-to-face group achieved better than the rest two groups. However, students in the flipped group reported better satisfaction with the course than in the other two modes, and it happened within 8 weeks. These results offer implications for selecting the best method of course delivery for elementary mathematics even in unequipped schools, echoing an insight for practice to add effectiveness to the delivery mode.
... Cognitive psychology posits that learning and decision making involve a combination of memory use, motivation, and thinking [1,2,3]. It is likewise understood that better educational outcomes can be attained if learning content is partitioned into manageable chunks, particularly when focus is placed on solutions to real-world problems [4,5]. ...
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This paper presents and delineates Promoting Equity and Achievement in Real-time Learning (PEARL), a framework developed to help strengthen academic and career-related skills of students and professionals, and most specifically those from underserved and underrepresented backgrounds. PEARL uses problem-based learning pedagogy, competency-based education and artificial intelligence to break learning and assessment activities into manageable learning chunks. This allows for the formation, creation, and validation of stackable knowledge units. The paper also highlights how artificial intelligence along with learner-centered pedagogy can be used to improve knowledge gain and skill mastery.
... Catalogue's (CDCC) Revised Bloom Taxonomy (RBT, Anderson, et al. 2001) to analyze the assumed cognitive demands of the TE's questions. To our knowledge, the RBT can be used for planning, designing, and assessing the influences of teaching processes. ...
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Purpose This study explores the relationships between the cognitive demands of the questions asked by a teacher educator (TE) and prospective teachers’ (PT) capacity for critical thinking (CT). Design/Approach/Methods Participants comprised a TE and 32 PTs. The cognitive demands of the TE's questions and PTs’ CT were analyzed using a systematic observation approach. Findings Results indicate that there are tangible connections between the increasing mental demand of TE questions and PTs’ higher-order cognitive processing. The PTs achieved higher-order CT when the TE asked more cognitively demanding questions. For instance, when the TE's questions were pitched at the cognitive demand levels—namely, the analyze, evaluate, and/or create levels—the PT answers were longer and reflected higher CT, such as inductive reasoning, suggesting new ways of thinking, or legitimating the arguments of others. Accordingly, results suggest that intentionally subjecting PTs to sustained higher cognitive demands via questions may help them reach their optimal CT capacity. Originality/Value Although proposed teaching strategies have been invaluable in proposing content-specific interventions for fostering the CT of university students, how lecturers should use their questions to conduct such interventions has been overlooked. This study addresses this gap.
... During these first phases, the teaching team for the course follows Bloom's Taxonomy, revised by Anderson [32], to classify the practical course contents and feasible alternatives. The alternatives are also studied according to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) technique [33]. ...
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This article presents the first results of the project Architecture 360, which focuses on learning alternatives for developing working skills in higher education courses, and specifically construction competences for architecture students. The project aims to help teachers to choose the best learning solutions for their classes from numerous alternatives of strategies, dynamics and activities. The assistance is based on developing a new approach that combines several methods (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT); multi-criteria decision-making; Delphi; and the Knapsack problem) and draws from teachers’ experience, a panel of experts’ expertise, the revised Bloom Taxonomy and neuroscience for education. The new approach to assisting university teachers in choosing the best practical learning alternatives was successfully developed and validated for the case study of a course at Barcelona Architecture School. In general, the approach defined the main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of 26 learning alternatives. In the case study, the following optimized set of alternatives were identified: blended learning, challenge-based learning, reflective learning, videos of real cases, case studies, site visits, interactive simulation and gamification. Moreover, 23 activities were analysed. It was concluded, for instance, that active alternatives would improve implementation, including teachers’ available teaching materials and dedication outside class.
... Case based scenarios and multiple choice questions (MCQs) were developed by members of the research team, who teach the module involved and also have expertise in symptom management. Scenarios and questions developed were based on the learning outcomes of the module and the content that it delivers [11]. Fig 1 outlines the intervention and how this was delivered. ...
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Background: The management of patients' holistic symptom needs are often complex and challenging. The education needs of undergraduate nursing students must be optimally addressed to have a significant positive impact on patient care. Mobile spaced learning has been recognised as a form of online education which can provide a novel approach to delivering effective evidence based healthcare education to undergraduate students. Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the experiences of undergraduate nursing students in a university setting, of using mobile spaced learning as a digital platform for symptom management education. Method: This pilot study used a mixed methods approach. Online spaced learning material, which utilised both case based scenarios and multiple choice questions, was delivered to first year undergraduate nursing students over a period of 2 weeks. Participants were then invited to participate in an online survey related to the usability of mobile spaced learning. A focus group was conducted to further explore the participants' views. Result: Findings conveyed that students viewed mobile spaced learning as an acceptable platform that enhanced both their learning and their ability to transfer knowledge into clinical practice. Conclusion: Implementation of a digital spaced learning intervention would be acceptable to undergraduate nursing students learning about holistic symptom management. Further research is needed to explore the feasibility of implementing this intervention within the undergraduate nursing curriculum, and also to explore the impact on long-term knowledge retention.
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Purpose: In recent years, besides the subject acquisitions that students need to learn in science education, their skills are also measured. These skills are also included in curricula and measurement and evaluation activities in science education. In our country, skill-based questions are included in the high school entrance exam. In assessment studies that reveal international student achievement and skills, skills are measured as well as knowledge. The aim of this study is to create a theoretical and conceptual framework for the science lesson skill-based questions within the framework of the skills specified in the science lesson curriculum and the cognitive skills for the science lesson revealed in the literature. Design & Methodology: Concept analysis method was used as an academic research method in the research. With the concept analysis method, the features and functions of skill-based questions were examined in depth and their relations with other concepts were clarified. Findings/Results: In creating the theoretical and conceptual framework for skill-based questions was carried out by examining the researches and reports in the literature, science program and the skills, skills for the questions in the high school entrance exams, 21st century skills, skills measured in TIMSS and PISA exams and skill levels in Bloom's taxonomy. The conceptual framework created is presented as a concept network. In this study, skill-based questions are defined as "questions prepared in the context of daily life, which are appropriate for the subject and acquisitions, take into account cognitive thinking skills, and are mostly at a high level taxonomic level". Implications & Suggestions: Researchers and teachers who want to examine the skills measured in skill-based questions and write questions can benefit from the theoretical and conceptual framework created in the study.
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Many medical schools have undergone curricular reform recently. With these reforms, time spent teaching anatomy has been reduced, and there has been a general shift to a pass/fail grading system. At Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM), a new curriculum was implemented in fall 2016. The year‐long human gross anatomy course taught in 2015 was condensed into an integrated, semester‐long course starting in 2016. Additionally, the grading scale shifted to pass/fail. This study examined first‐year medical student performance on anatomy practical laboratory examinations – specifically, among lower‐order (pure identification) questions and higher‐order (function, innervation) questions. Participants included medical students from a pre‐curricular reform cohort (year 2015, 34 students) and two post‐curricular reform cohorts (years 2016, 30 students and 2017, 33 students). A Kruskal Wallis ANOVA test was used to determine differences of these questions among the three cohorts. Additionally, 40 of the same lower‐order questions that were asked on gross anatomy laboratory examinations from medical student cohort year 2015 and year 2016 were further analyzed using an independent samples t‐test. Results demonstrated that the pre‐curricular reform cohort scored significantly higher on both lower order (median = 81, P < 0.001) and higher order questions (median = 82.5, P < 0.05) than both post‐curricular reform cohorts. Additionally, when reviewing the selected 40 similar questions, it was found that the pre‐curricular reform cohort averaged significantly higher (82.1 ±16.1) than the post‐curricular reform cohort from 2016 (69.3±21.8, P = 0.004). This study provides evidence about the impact of curricular reform on medical student anatomical knowledge.
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COĞRAFYA ÖĞRETİMİNDE ETKİNLİK KURAMINA GÖRE TASARLANMIŞ BİR ÖRNEK: 9. SINIF HARİTA BİLGİSİ KONUSU
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Learning is a complex, subjective process. An important perspective on learning is that anyone, regardless of their level of education, can participate in learning about science and contribute to their community. The public increasingly looks towards online resources to find answers to challenges, so it is necessary that people become empowered to take information about issues rooted in science and apply them to their own lives and communities. In my experiences as a learner and educator, understanding the learning process provides a framework to design successful learning environments. Since the brain is the organ most closely associated with the process of learning, learning environments should be modeled to reflect how the brain learns. Brain biology research reveals the nature of learning as four fundamental actions: information gathering, reflective thinking, creating meaning, and testing ideas. These four pillars of learning should be used to support lifelong learning needs of society by adapting the learning environment to the needs of a learner and their individual learning process. The purpose of this document is to present a framework based on the four pillars of learning to strengthen the design of online learning content and better address learning needs of the individual, adult learner. This framework has been applied to the development of online modules addressing the genetics of the development of pesticide resistance. Advisor, Gary L. Hein
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Extension educators are continually seeking ways to make instruction more effective and engaging. This study evaluated the Attention, Interact, Apply, and Invite – Fact, Think, Feel, Do (AIAI-FTFD) Start-to-Finish Teaching Model for human service educators in an ongoing Extension educational program to determine the effectiveness of this model in implementing the concept of “teaching as an intervention” in Extension educational programming. Specifically, the study assessed the cognitive, emotional, and intent to change behavioral learning outcomes generated by using the AIAI-FTFD teaching model while completing the 9 Important Communication Skills for Every Relationship (9 Skills) program. A self-reported quantitative evaluation design was utilized to assess key objectives in the sample (n = 152). Noticeable and clearly-evident effect sizes were found in perceived knowledge gain and perceived confidence gain in the ability to implement the skills covered in the training. Subsequent discussion focuses on how the AIAI-FTFD Start-to-Finish Teaching Model can facilitate change and learning in educational settings.
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The achievement gaps existed among the three types of Malaysian elementary schools with different instruction mediums. Thus, this study sought to compare the types of errors made by the low-performing students from different school types in solving word problems involving higher-order thinking skills by conducting a multiple case study. The study involved 18 low-performing students from a National Primary School (NPS), National-Type Chinese Primary School (NTCPS), and National-Type Tamil Primary School (NTTPS) in Malaysia. The students’ errors in solving eight word problems were identified qualitatively through conducting four sessions of diagnostic interviews, followed by the Newman’s Error Analysis. Then, a cross-case analysis was conducted. The findings indicated that the participants of the three school types made reading, comprehension, transformation, process skills and encoding errors. However, the NPS and NTTPS low-performing students made more process skills errors and encoding errors, as compared to the NTCPS low-performing students. The findings imply the need to enhance the procedural fluency of NPS and NTTPS low-performing students for reducing the achievement gaps among the school types.
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In this project, an e-Learning program for complementary and integrative medicine in oncology was systematically developed, implemented, and evaluated in a stepwise procedure. Learning objectives and content were defined within the KOKON project network, considering the educational competencies for integrative oncology. To design a valuable e-Learning, experts were involved in all relevant steps of the process, as well as stakeholders from various target groups (undergraduates: medicine students, postgraduates: oncology physicians). We used mixed methods including quantitative surveys, progress tests, and qualitative focus groups. The developed e-Learning program led to a significant measurable knowledge gain about complementary and integrative medicine. In parallel, physicians and students were subjectively satisfied with the training. For the majority of e-Learning elements, the needs of both target groups are comparable. Furthermore, both groups emphasized the value of formative assessment tools for gaining knowledge. From the various surveys and experiences collected in this project, we derive recommendations for others developing e-Learning programs.
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