Article

Adolescence and the Changing Context of Optimal Experience in Time: Italy 1986–2000

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This study focused on the daily activities and related quality of experience of two distinct groups of Italian high school students analyzed in 1986 and 2000. Altogether, 120 participants, aged between 15 and 18, were administered the experience sampling method, a procedure providing on-line repeated samplings of daily time budget and associated quality of experience. In particular, attention was paid to optimal experience, characterized by a balance between environmental challenges and personal skills, intrinsic motivation, involvement, and well-being. In spite of the time gap, no major differences in the daily activity distribution were detected. Adolescents in both groups spent most of their time studying at school and at home, interacting, watching TV, carrying out maintenance, and engaging in structured leisure activities. The use of new technologies (computers, internet, mobile phones) emerged in the data gathered in 2000. As concerns the quality of experience, each daily activity showed a specific experiential profile recurring in both groups. Studying at home and engaging in structured leisure activities were primarily associated with optimal experience, as was using new technologies in 2000. These results shed light on students' preferential engagement in specific domains and allowed us to explore the active role of adolescents in shaping their future. Findings also highlighted the importance of providing adolescents with meaningful activities in order to foster their personal growth, well-being, and social integration.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Concerning productive activities, work represents the primary source of flow among adults (Cskiszentmihalyi and LeFevre 1989;Delle Fave and Massimini 2005;Haworth and Hill 1992), and schoolwork represents a potential source of flow among students (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004), posing highly challenging tasks in which individuals can invest personal abilities. In particular, studies have shown that the association of learning activities with optimal experience has both short-term consequences in terms of rewarding engagement in learning (Bassi et al. 2007), and far reaching implications in promoting longitudinal coherence in the amount of time devoted to study (Hektner 1996), in predicting the level of academic career students are willing to pursue (Hektner 1996;Wong and Csikszentmihalyi 1991), and in shaping individual long-term goals (Asakawa and Csikszentmihalyi 1998;Delle Fave and Massimini 2005). ...
... We next compared the values in the two conditions (OA vs. NOA) with paired t tests. As we performed a large number of t tests on the same dataset, we corrected significance levels by means of the conservative Bonferroni approach (Abdi 2007;Bassi and Delle Fave 2004;: Obtained p values were multiplied by 16 for the one-sample t tests and by 8 for the paired t tests. Schoolwork as OA was associated with significantly high values of the variables concentrated (t(154) = 9.56, p \ .002), in control (t(154) = 6.54, p \ .002), ...
... A controversial issue in current formal education is the simplification of learning tasks-providing low levels of challenges-in order to make them more appealing and to facilitate experiences of fun. In this condition, however, students mostly associate academic activities with experiences of apathy and disengagement (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004). Also in the present study, 42.2% of participants in the initial sample did not report flow during schoolwork. ...
Article
This study aimed at investigating optimal experience during schoolwork in relation to SDT concepts of autonomy and locus of causality. Data were gathered from 268 high-school students using Experience Sampling Method for 1 week. Three levels of self-determination were identified: high (corresponding to autonomous regulation), moderate (mixed autonomous and controlled regulation), and low (controlled regulation). Consistently with the literature, the relationship between participants’ challenges and skills values was used to recognize occasions for optimal experience, and multilevel modeling was applied in data analysis. Findings showed that during schoolwork as optimal activity (high challenges and high skills) students mostly reported low levels of self-determination. However, the quality of their experience was better in situations of high and moderate self-determination. At the theoretical level, findings allow for a more articulated understanding of the characteristics of optimal experience in academic activities. Practical implications are discussed for enhancing well-being and committed learning at school.
... Kad su u pitanju situacije koje izazivaju zanesenost, postoje značajne individualne razlike, no kad je dožive, ljudi je opisuju na vrlo sličan način, neovisno o svojoj dobi, rodu, socioekonomskom statusu, državi ili kulturi u kojoj žive (Bassi i Delle Fave, 2004;Moneta, 2004). Nadalje, treba napomenuti da istraživači razlikuju trenutnu zanesenost, koja ovisi o okolnostima (zanesenost kao stanje), i sklonost doživljavanju zanesenosti, koja ovisi o osobinama ličnosti (zanesenost kao dispozicija) (Keller i Blomann, 2008; Mosing i sur., 2012; Ullen i sur., 2012). ...
... To su aktivnosti koje ljudi sami biraju jer se žele kreativno izraziti i usavršiti svoje vještine. No stanje zanesenosti javlja se i u područjima ljudskog djelovanja, kao što su posao (Delle Fave i Massimini 2003 i obrazovanje (Bassi i Delle Fave, 2004;Shernoff i Csikszentmihalyi, 2009), u kojima pojedinci često moraju obavljati i aktivnosti koje su im nametnute ili u njima imaju manju slobodu izbora. ...
... Istraživanja provedena metodom uzorkovanja iskustva pokazala su da se od ukupnog broja situacija u kojima učenici doživljavaju zanesenost 36.6% situacija odnosi na učenje (Delle Fave i Bassi, 2000), te da zanesenost učenici mogu doživjeti za vrijeme školskog rada (npr. Bassi i Delle Fave, 2012), kao i kada uče kod kuće (Bassi i Delle Fave, 2004). Doživljavanje je zanesenosti često povezano s učenjem za neko natjecanje ili za test, odnosno s time da učenici imaju neki konkretan cilj (Choe, Kang, Seo i Yang, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Zanesenost je izrazito ugodno psihološko stanje koje ljudi doživljavaju kada su u tolikoj mjeri usmjereni na aktivnost kojom se trenutno bave da su potpuno njome zaokupljeni. Glavni je uvjet za pojavu stanja zanesenosti ravnoteža između izazova i vještina, pri čemu i izazovi i vještine moraju za pojedinca biti iznadprosječni. Zanesenost se najčešće istraživala u slobodnim aktivnostima, ali je ljudi doživljavaju i u aktivnostima koje su nametnute ili u njima ima manje slobode izbora, kao što su posao i obrazovanje. Zanesenost ima pozitivne posljedice ne samo na učinkovitost u različitim područjima života nego i na dobrobit pojedinca. I u akademskom je kontekstu zanesenost povezana s različitim pozitivnim ishodima, uključujući bolje svladavanje nastavnog programa, veća akademska postignuća, ali i veću dobrobit studenata. Kada je u pitanju studentska populacija, iskustva zanesenosti u akademskim aktivnostima manje su učestala nego u ostalim područjima studentskog života (slobodno vrijeme, uobičajene svakodnevne aktivnosti, povremeni posao), ali je veza između zanesenosti i dobrobiti najizraženija upravo u akademskom kontekstu. U ovom se radu daje pregled istraživanja akademske zanesenosti u studentskoj populaciji, posebno onih koja upućuju na moguće uzroke navedene povezanosti, kao što su važnost i korisnost akademskih aktivnosti za ostvarenje budućih životnih ciljeva, važnost akademskih aktivnosti za izgradnju socijalnog identiteta te smanjenje akademskog stresa i sagorijevanja.
... Homework is more frequently associated with optimal experience, and school work with apathy, an experience characterized by below average challenges and skills (Delle Fave 1996). This discrepancy may be related to the different degree of autonomy and self-regulation offered by the two activities (Hektner 2001; Bassi and Delle Fave 2004 ). The association of learning activities with optimal experience has both short-term consequences in terms of intrinsic reward, and far reaching implications in promoting longitudinal coherence in the amount of time devoted to study (Hektner 1996), in shaping individual long-term goals (Asakawa and Csikszentmihalyi 1998; Delle Fave and Massimini 2005 ), and in predicting the level of academic career students are willing to pursue (Nakamura 1988; Wong and Csikszentmihalyi 1991; Hektner 1996). ...
... However, results from high self-efficacy students show that the association of learning activities with high challenges and high skills can enhance related quality of experience. Under this condition, students derive high cognitive investment, involvement, satisfaction , and meaningful future goals from academic tasks even if, as typical of teenagers (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004), the variable wish to be doing the activity did not obtain a significantly positive score. Thus, building on personal skills and calibrating challenges to individual capabilities may not only prepare students for entering the job market in the future (Csikszentmihalyi and Schneider 2000), but also provide opportunities for short-and long-term gratifying experiences. ...
... Thus, considering the amount of apathy and relaxation reported by both high and low self-efficacy students at school, the assessment of their academic self-efficacy as well as their quality of experience in learning activities can provide teachers with useful information. Indeed, teachers play a crucial role in providing complex and at the same time enjoyable educational challenges adequate to pupils' skills (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004). To this regard, social-cognitive theory gives clear directions to intervention programs that aim to raise competence and confidence mainly through successful experiences of mastery in the various learning tasks (Bandura 1997). ...
Chapter
this chapter compares responses to the Experience Sampling Method from a sample of American students in the Chicago area studied by Csikszentmihalyi and Larson (1984) and a sample of Italian students from a classical lyceum in Milan the purpose of the comparison is to ascertain whether and to what extent respondents in these two cultures report similar experiences across their daily life in terms of the flow theory as operationalized by the challenge/skill ratio given the importance of the high school in the lives of these two groups of adolescents, the chapter also focuses on studying the U.S. sample consisted of equal numbers of 14-, 15-, 16-, and 17-year-olds / the Italian one was made up of students between 16 and 18 years of age (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Concerning the external dimensions of subjective experience (activities, location, and company) in daily life, adolescents experience more flow in active or structured leisure activities than in school activities (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Mesurado, 2009;Schmidt et al., 2007). When in the school context, they report more flow in social interactions with peers and extracurricular activities related to leisure, such as sport and arts, when compared to curricular ones (Freire et al., 2009;Shernoff, Csikszentmihalyi, Schneider, & Shernoff, 2003). ...
... Regarding a broader positive development perspective, linked to well-being, flow experience is associated with a series of positive outcomes regarding children and adolescents' functioning (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Csikszentmihalyi & Larson, 1984). Adolescents who experience more flow have higher satisfaction with life (Asakawa, 2010;Bassi et al., 2014), higher psychological well-being and self-esteem (Bassi et al., 2014;Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002;Steele & Fullagar, 2009), higher sociability and joy (Hektner, Asakawa, Knauth, & Henshaw, 2000), increased positive affect (Rogatko, 2009), increased happiness (Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003) and higher engagement in learning and achievement (Mesurado, 2010;Schüler, 2007;Shernoff et al., 2003;Steele & Fullagar, 2009). ...
... However, besides the influence of temperamental characteristics, contextual factors seem also to play an important role in eliciting optimal states in youth lives (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Mesurado, 2009). Theoretical models and empirical evidence of flow experience showed that this optimal psychological state is complex and involves dispositional and situational factors . ...
Article
Full-text available
A investigação tem demonstrado que as experiências ótimas promovem o desenvolvimento positivo. Sendo a adolescência marcada pela experimentação e definição de interesses, é também um período crucial para a ocorrência de experiências ótimas na vida diária, concretamente, a experiência de Flow. Os adolescentes estão mais propensos a procurar desafios e desenvolver novas competências nos vários contextos, emergindo assim a possibilidade de experienciarem Flow e desenvolverem vidas bem-sucedidas. O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão dos principais resultados da investigação acerca dos fatores individuais e contextuais associados à experiência de Flow e do impacto desta na vida dos adolescentes. Especificamente, o artigo discute as possíveis relações entre o Controlo Atencional, a Regulação Emocional e a experiência de Flow, e a importância destes para o desenvolvimento positivo dos adolescentes. Adotando uma perspetiva social e ecológica, o artigo apresenta conclusões e sugere novas linhas de investigação futura acerca dos preditores da experiência de Flow.
... Experiencing flow can indeed be a rewarding optimal experience, but its impact goes far beyond this effect, contributing to short-and long-term positive influence regarding children and adolescents' functioning and development (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Hektner & Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). The flow experience has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents, such as greater positive affect (Rogatko, 2009), satisfaction with life (Bassi, Steca, Monzani, Greco, & Delle Fave, 2014), happiness (Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003), sociability (Hektner, Asakawa, Knauth, & Henshaw, 2000), psychological well-being and self-esteem (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002;Steele & Fullagar, 2009), and engagement in learning and achievement (Shernoff, Csikszentmihalyi, Schneider, & Shernoff, 2003). ...
... In this sense, according to flow theory, a flow experience is more likely to occur whether the challenge and skill levels are above the person's average, that is, in a high challenge/high skill condition (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002). Consistently, researchers have shown that a high challenge/high skill condition is associated with more positive affect, enhanced motivation, and higher levels of concentration and involvement in different contexts of adolescents' lives (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Delle Fave & Massimini, 2005). ...
... Structured contexts are more favorable toward the occurrence of flow Shernoff et al., 2003). Among this type of contexts, structured leisure activities emerge as the preferential context for achieving an optimal experience because they allow high levels of engagement and intrinsic motivation (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Mesurado, 2009), are freely chosen, and offer immediate feedback (Perkins & Nakamura, 2013). In fact, research has shown that the majority of adolescents have experienced flow mostly during leisure activities, in contrast with school activities (Freire, Tavares, Silva, & Teixeira, 2016). ...
Article
This study investigated how the internal psychological states (i.e., challenge–skill perception, positive and negative affect, and effortless attention) and contextual features (i.e., activity and company) of momentary experiences relate to optimal experience in adolescents’ lives. Data were collected from 245 Portuguese adolescents (14–19 years old, 63% female) by using the experience sampling method. Multilevel modeling revealed that challenge–skill and positive affect were positively associated with optimal experience, while negative affect was negatively associated with optimal experience. Effortless attention mediated the associations between internal states and optimal experience, while activity and company only moderated some of these associations. These findings will inform practitioners about the factors that should be addressed in interventions with adolescents to promote optimal experiences in their lives.
... A closer examination of studies (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Csikszentmihalyi & Lefevre, 1989) finding support for flow being associated with a higher quality of experience relative to nonflow channels reveals that activities within the flow channel are mostly relevant in predicting optimal experiences in the activation and cognitive efficiency dimensions, as opposed to the affect and motivation dimensions. Csikszentmihalyi and LeFevre (1989) assessed optimal experiences in the affect, activation, cognitive efficiency, and motivation dimensions of experience in work and leisure of adult participants. ...
... The results revealed that while at work (where the majority of flow experiences occurred) participants reported high levels of concentration, creativity, and potency, reflecting the cognitive efficiency and activation dimensions, but low levels of positive affect and motivation. Bassi and Delle Fave (2004) similarly assessed the affective, cognitive, and motivational quality of experience in schoolrelated and leisure activities for two samples of Italian students. In both the samples, high levels of concentration were associated with flow during school-related activities, along with low or negative levels of being happy and free. ...
... The present study assessed the primary assumptions of flow theory, which assert that flow is predictive of optimal experiences relative to other psychological states and stems from intrinsic motivation. Previous findings (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989) assessing activities in the flow channel compared to nonflow channels using the traditional four-channel model have provided some support for these assumptions. Use of the revised EFM, allowing a finer distinction between psychological states, reveals that some optimal experiences are indeed associated with flow, while others are more characteristic of the psychological state of control. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flow theory postulates that the psychological state of flow emerging when one engages in activities where skill level and challenge are both high, results in ‘optimal’ subjective experiences relative to other psychological states, and is intrinsically motivated. The experience sampling method was used on a sample of college students to compare daily activities associated with flow (high skill, high challenge) to the psychological state of control (high skill, moderate challenge) in relation to the subjective experiences of enjoyment, happiness, intrinsic motivation, and cognitive involvement. Contrary to flow theory, enjoyment, happiness, and intrinsic motivation were characteristic of activities associated with being in ‘control,’ as opposed to flow. Flow activities were associated with being cognitively involved in the task at hand. We believe such theoretically important findings have been masked when using the original four-channel model of flow, but are clarified with use of the revised experience fluctuation model.
... In order to assess the experience associated with different challenges/skills ratios, within each channel mean z-scores were calculated for each variable. Several studies using EFM (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Hektner et al., 2007) identified four main experiences, corresponding to specific channels: (a) optimal experience (Channel 2), characterized by perceived challenges and skills higher than subjective mean; (b) relaxation (Channel 4), associated with below-average challenges and above-average skills; (c) apathy (Channel 6), characterized by below-average challenge and skill values; and (d) anxiety (Channel 8), associated with above-average challenges and below-average skills. ...
... Previous findings highlighted the relationship between activity structure and subjective experience (Stebbins, 2007). Structured activities promote optimal experience, and unstructured leisure provides short-term pleasure but also disengagement and low mobilization of personal skills (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004). The high amount of free time during which patients experienced low challenges should be given adequate attention. ...
Article
Purpose/objective: Motor rehabilitation programs in hospital aim at promoting patients' highest attainable recovery of body functions and capabilities. Well-being is predominantly identified with physical autonomy, yet the psychological dimensions of rehabilitation are often overlooked. Research method/design: To partially fill this gap, the quality of daily experience reported by 50 adult participants hospitalized in an Italian rehabilitation unit was investigated. Data were gathered through Experience Sampling Method, (ESM), providing repeated real-time assessments of the experience associated with daily activities. Before analysis, participants were divided into 3 groups, according to their low, moderate, or high levels of autonomy assessed through Barthel Index. Results: Participants predominantly associated rehabilitation activities with optimal experience, characterized by high concentration, engagement, control of the situation, and by the perception of high challenges matched with adequate personal skills. During personal care and leisure-the most frequent daily activities-participants reported instead low challenging experiences of apathy and boredom. During social interactions perceived high challenges prevailed. Multilevel analysis showed that the type of activity performed was a significant predictor of participants' quality of experience, and the level of autonomy had a modest impact on it. Conclusions/implications: Results highlighted the potential added value of rehabilitation tasks as opportunities to promote patients' well-being. The predominantly negative experiences associated with the other daily activities point instead to the need for changes in hospital organization in order to more effectively promote patients' autonomy and resource mobilization.
... The authors maintain that it is a universal phenomenon, even though things can be done quite differently (due to cultural influence) in order to reach optimal experience (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1998;Delle-Fave & Massimini, 2004; Delle-Fave, Massimini, & Bassi, 2011;Hektner, Schmidt, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2007, Asakawa, 2010. Although there are numerous studies on optimal experience in different countries around the globe, including the United States (Csikszentmihalyi, & LeFevre, 1989;Rathunde & Csikszentmihalyi, 2005), Italy , Bassi & Delle-Fave, 2004, Germany (Rheinberg, Manig, Kliegl, Engeser, & Vollmeyer, 2007), Australia (Jackson, Kimiecik, Ford, & Marsh, 1998), Spain (Moreno Murcia, Cervelló Gimeno, & González-Cutre Coll, 2008, Japan (Asakawa, 2010;Asakawa, 2004), etc; research on this topic in Latin America is much scarcer Mesurado, & Richaud, 2012). ...
... Numerous studies have used the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) in order to study the types of activities associated with different subjective experiences (Hektner, Schmidt, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2007). For example, a study undertaken of two distinct groups of Italian high school students analyzed in the late 1980s and early 2000s showed that optimal experience -a mental state characterized by high challenge perception and ability-was associated with such activities as studying at home, structured leisure, interactions, class work and watching TV (Bassi & Delle-Fave, 2004). Also, studies done by Larson and Richards (1991) have shown that American adolescents report higher boredom levels -a mental state characterized by low challenge levels and medium ability perception-in school contexts than when activities were done outside of school. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Csikszentmihalyi describes optimal experience as a feeling that one?s own abilities are sufficient to face life?s challenges. Such experience consists of directed, goal-oriented activity, regulated by norms that provide feedback sufficient to know if things are being done well. This chapter describes different studies done in the Latin American country of Argentina about flow. The first study focused on 1) whether it was possible for children and adolescents to identify optimal experiences; and 2) to identify the types of activity associated with flow. The results demonstrate that approximately 85% of Argentinean adolescents identified flow experiences in their daily activities. Sports, study, artistic activities, computer use, meetings and social activities, TV and games, are the activities that most often allow Argentinean children and adolescents to experience flow. The second study, focused on examining flow experience of children while playing soccer. The results showed that high levels of ability and concentration were associated with higher levels of flow during the soccer. Children who experienced high anxiety and boredom levels tended to have low levels of flow experience. The third study intended to investigate whether it is possible for young people to identify flow while doing prosocial activities. The results showed that young people can experience flow while doing prosocial activities in different contexts: in family, community, educational and social relations. Finally, the last study relayed in this chapter presents research examining the internal (parental relationships and personality traits) and external (type of activity and way of doing the activity) conditions of flow. This is particularly important for determining which aspects help generate the optimal mental states that contribute to happiness and wellbeing.
... These experiential configurations are all common ingredients of everyday life: For example, findings showed that relaxation is mostly related to maintenance activities and watching TV, which represent typical opportunities for energy restoration and rest in Western societies (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004;Delle Fave et al. 2011). By contrast, boredom, apathy and worry represent negative experiential profiles, possibily associated with stagnation and psychic disorganization when they become pervasive in one"s life. ...
... Our research among various samples of adolescents from North and Central Italy globally showed that participants describe studying as a compulsory activity associated with low levels of happiness, but also as a potential opportunity for cognitive investment in relation to long-term goals. However, essential differences in experience fluctuation were detected across type of activity (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004). Homework was more frequently associated with optimal experience (21.4%) compared to apathy (16.4%): ...
Chapter
Flow is just one of the various experiences that occur in daily life. Research has shown that different experiential profiles can be identified based on the subjective perception of environmental opportunities for action (challenges) and of the personal capabilities possessed to cope with them (skills). The different patterns of relationship between these two variables were operationalized through the Experience Fluctuation Model, leading to the identification of eight different experiences: arousal, flow, control, relaxation, boredom, apathy, worry, and anxiety. Besides allowing researchers to identify qualitative fluctuations of daily experience, the model provides information on how each specific experience can change quantitatively, as levels of challenges and skills increase or decrease. In this chapter, we will first present the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), a procedure that allows the gathering of real-time repeated samplings of individuals’ experience as daily situations and events unfold. Starting from ESM assessments, we will then illustrate the Experience Fluctuation Model, and we will provide empirical support to the eight experiential profiles identified by the model. We will finally present findings from groups of participants differing in age and culture, highlighting the potential of flow to promote growth in complexity and well-being.
... The authors maintain that it is a universal phenomenon, even when things can be done quite differently (due to cultural infl uence) in order to reach optimal experience (Asakawa, 2010 ;Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, I., 1988 ;Delle-Fave & Massimini, 2004 ;Delle-Fave, Massimini, & Bassi, 2011 ;Hektner, Schmidt, & Csikszentmihalyi, 2007 ). Although there are numerous studies on optimal experience in different countries around the globe, including the United States (Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989 ;Rathunde & Csikszentmihalyi, 2005 ), Italy (Bassi & Delle-Fave, 2004, Germany (Rheinberg, Manig, Kliegl, Engeser, & Vollmeyer, 2007 ), Australia (Jackson, Kimiecik, Ford, & Marsh, 1998 ), Spain (Moreno Murcia, Cervelló Gimeno, & González-Cutre Coll, 2008 ), Japan (Asakawa, 2004(Asakawa, , 2010, etc.; research on this topic in Latin America is much scarcer (Mesurado, 2009a ;Mesurado & Richaud, 2012 ). ...
... Numerous studies have used the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) in order to study the types of activities associated with different subjective experiences (Hektner et al., 2007 ). For example, a study undertaken with two distinct groups of Italian high-school students, in the late 1980s and early 2000s, showed that optimal experience -a mental state characterized by high challenge perception and abilitywas associated with activities such as studying at home, structured leisure, interactions, class work and watching TV (Bassi & Delle-Fave, 2004 ). Also, studies conducted by Larson and Richards ( 1991 ) have shown that American adolescents report higher boredom levels -a mental state characterized by low challenge levels and medium ability perception -in school contexts than when activities were done outside of school. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Csikszentmihalyi describes optimal experience as a feeling that one’s own abilities are sufficient to face life’s challenges. Such experience consists of directed, goal-oriented activity, regulated by norms that provide feedback sufficient to know if things are being done well. This chapter describes different studies done in the Latin American country of Argentina about flow. The first study focused on (1) whether it was possible for children and adolescents to identify optimal experiences; and (2) to identify the types of activity associated with flow. The results demonstrate that approximately 85% of Argentinean adolescents identified flow experiences in their daily activities. Sports, study, artistic activities, computer use, meetings and social activities, TV and games, are the activities that most often allow Argentinean children and adolescents to experience flow. The second study, focused on examining flow experience of children while playing soccer. The results showed that high levels of ability and concentration were associated with higher levels of flow during the soccer. Children who experienced high anxiety and boredom levels tended to have low levels of flow experience. The third study intended to investigate whether it is possible for young people to identify flow while doing prosocial activities. The results showed that young people can experience flow while doing prosocial activities in different contexts: in family, community, educational and social relations. Finally, the last study relayed in this chapter presents research examining the internal (parental relationships and personality traits) and external (type of activity and way of doing the activity) conditions of flow. This is particularly important for determining which aspects help generate the optimal mental states that contribute to happiness and wellbeing.
... In this sense, the construct of flow aligns well with the current interest in task engagement (Baralt, Gurzynski-Weiss, & Kim, 2016;Philp & Duchesne, 2016) and learner motivation (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011), which encompasses not only cognitive but also social, behavioral, and affective dimensions. Second, although flow has not been widely applied in the L2 literature, flow was found to be a useful construct to embody optimal human experiences in various fields including sports, leisure, work, and education (e.g., Bassi & Fave, 2004;Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989;Graef, Csikszentmihalyi, & McManama Gianinno, 1983). Third, the essential component of flow, the optimal challenge level of a task, fits into the current discussion of learner experience, namely, perceived task difficulty. ...
... Different influences of the optimal fit condition on different aspects of cognition and affect were observed. In some studies, the fit produced positive outcomes in cognitive efficiency and attention at the workplace (Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989) and with school-related activities (Bassi & Fave, 2004), and its influence on motivation varied across contexts. Based on this, the relatively small, though significant, effects of the difficulty-skill balance on flow, compared to other studies whose effects were substantial (e.g., Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi, 2012b;Lambert et al., 2013), may be partly due to the contexts in which the current experimental study occurred. ...
Article
Despite an increased awareness of language learner performance in task-based instruction, little is known about how learners perceive and respond to different task factors. This study investigates the effects of task complexity and modality on (a) learners’ perception of task difficulty, skill, and its balance, and on (b) learners’ task experience. It adopts Csikszentmihalyi's (1975) construct of flow, characterized by interest, attention, and control. It further examines how difficulty–skill balance predicts flow experience. In a repeated measures design, 141 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) performed 4 argumentative tasks that differed in task complexity (+/– elements) and modality (speaking vs. writing), and completed a questionnaire asking about their perception of task difficulty, skills, and task experience. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that, although both task complexity and modality affected learner perception of task difficulty, only modality influenced perceived skill and flow; writing provided more favorable task experiences regarding the difficulty–skill balance and flow. Furthermore, difficulty–skill balance significantly predicted flow experience, but the condition seems insufficient for affecting flow.
... Studies on adolescents' daily life showed that adolescents feel most intrinsically motivated, happy, alert, and active in leisure activities , especially in those that are highly structured like sports, arts and hobbies (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson 1986 ;Delle Fave and Bassi 2003 ). More than any other activity structured leisure activities offer the possibility of high engagement and intrinsic motivation, proving to be a source of well-being and optimal experience (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004 ;Delle Fave and Bassi 2000 ;Mesurado 2009 ). This happens because adolescents are working toward their own chosen goals , which gives them a sense of freedom from adult control (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson 1986 ;Perkins and Nakamura 2011 ). ...
Chapter
Leisure has been associated with several developmental opportunities that foster adolescents’ optimal growth. Considering leisure as a context, activity or experience, researchers have focused on its role in the study of flow experience. Both leisure and flow experiences, and the way they interrelate, emerge as relevant to promoting positive youth development, daily and along life trajectories. This chapter aims to present and analyze conceptual and empirical evidence about the connection between positive youth development, leisure, and flow experience. Among the empirical evidence, we highlight studies from our Portuguese research team, the Research Group on Optimal Functioning – GIFOp, aimed at studying adolescents’ optimal functioning. Specifically, we illustrate results according to different aims and methodologies. In this sense, we discuss adolescents’ daily life perceptions of activities and quality of experiences, and future life goals, measured by retrospective self-report questionnaires; and flow, optimal experience and motivational aspects of subjective experience, by real-time measures, specifically the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). The conclusion sheds light on the importance of a psycho-social-ecological approach when studying adolescents’ flow and leisure experiences and how these enhance positive youth development. Future research directions will consider the importance of merging school and leisure contexts, highlighting the role of leisure structured activities to promote flow and optimal experiences, when considered as different components of subjective experience. In addition, the use of different methodologies based on both retrospective and real-time measures, are addressed as being equally important and relevant to continue the main conceptual discussion around flow and optimal experiences in adolescence.
... In sum, these two activity categories associated with more fl ow, reaffi rm the fi ndings from a cross-cultural study by Delle Fave ( 2007 ), in which the categories of both productive and structured leisure activities were reported as prominent opportunities for optimal experience. The category of passive leisure activities , within which watching TV is broadly reported, is most frequently reported in Activity 1 (Apathy), and such a fi nding is also in alignment with previous research (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004 ;Csikszentmihalyi 1990 ;Delle Fave and Bassi 2003 ;Kubey and Csikszentmihalyi 1990 ), and it shows that low effort and low enjoyment apathy activities are rarely associated with optimal experience. Though in certain conditions it may temporarily reduce loneliness, transiently mask or abate negative affect (Kubey and Csikszentmihalyi 2002 ), and offer behavioral and identity models (Larson 1995 ), or even may provide stimuli to attract attention thus facilitating passive involvement; but it does not require any skills to conquer any challenges, and thus it unlikely leads to personal growth feelings (Delle Fave et al. 1993 ). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The present chapter provides evidence for the association between fl ow and identity via quantitative examinations based on Eudaimonistic identity theory, where an individual is seen to recognize elements of his or her true self, including interests, talents, and abilities, through participating in a range of personally salient (identity-related) and therein self-defi ning activities. Specifi cally, salient characteristics of activity experiences, i.e., feelings of personal expressiveness and fl ow, are seen to facilitate an individual's personal growth in the process of solidifying self-defi nition. On these bases, a relationship between fl ow experience and personal identity strength is hypothesized and confi rmed via a multinational investigation, in which identity consolidation is observed to be facilitated through the participation in self-defi ning activities that are platforms to optimal experience. In sum, the present investigation makes a cohesive case for the relationship between subjective experiences of fl ow and sense of self-identifi cation. Finally, further and ongoing research directions are outlined.
... Happiness is defined as a prevalence of positive over negative affect and a satisfaction with life as a whole[1,2]. The adaptation-level theory suggests that people judge the pleasantness or unpleasantness of events or circumstances based on the positive and negative experiences of the individual[3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in the past have found that gender plays an important role in happiness. This study examines gender difference in happiness and depression in Chinese society, with regard to the Five Factor Model (FFM). Totally, 5648 students (aged between 17 and 29) were recruited from universities in China. Results indicated that women reported higher happiness and higher depression than men. The present study provides empirical data that women tend to express more emotional feelings, like gratitude and happiness. Moreover, results showed that extraversion mediated women’ experience of subjective happiness and depression whereas neuroticism mediated women’ experience of depression. The results of the present study reconfirmed that extraversion was the most reliable predictor of positive affect (e.g., happiness) while neuroticism was the most reliable predictor of negative affect (e.g., depression).
... In addition, a difference emerged between schoolwork activities -such as listening to lectures and taking notes -and homework tasks (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Hektner et al., 2007). The former are more frequently associated with apathy and disengagement, whereas the latter with optimal experience. ...
Chapter
Objective: This study aimed to identify contextual and clinical factors contributing to the quality of experience of people participating in psychosocial rehabilitation activities (RA) and to investigate the association of RA with optimal experience or flow, a state characterized by the perception of high challenges and high skills, deep concentration, positive affect, clear goals, control and autonomous motivation, which contributes to individuals' well-being. Method: Twenty-seven people at an Italian psychiatric rehabilitation center provided real-time information on daily activities and associated experience through experience sampling method. Multilevel models were calculated to assess the factors contributing to participants' quality of experience. Results: Analyses showed that situation-contingent factors—type of activity and relationship between perceived challenges and skills—predicted partici-pants' quality of experience over and above the clinical factors taken into account in this study: level of global functioning (GAF), rehabilitation duration, and type of setting (residential vs. semiresidential). In addition, RA were prominently associated with optimal experience. Conclusion and Implications for Practice: Results suggest the importance for people involved in rehabilitation programs to engage in challenging tasks, favoring both the onset of positive and complex experiences and skill development. Findings further show the usefulness of real-time assessment methods in monitoring the rehabilitation process.
... On the opposite, wider variations across categories were detected in the values of affective and motivational variables. These findings support evidences obtained from other samples by means of experience sampling procedures (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Delle Fave & Massimini, 2005b). ...
Chapter
In the social and behavioural sciences, the concepts of selection and adaptation have been fruitfully applied to the analysis of human behaviour. While most researchers agree that humans are bio-cultural entities, theoretical approaches differ in their emphasis on the role and relevance of natural selection (Barkow et al. 1992), cultural pressures, or the interaction between the two systems in influencing human behaviour (Durham 1991; Richerson and Boyd 2005). The aim of this chapter is to emphasize the role of individuals as active agents in shaping their cultural environment and in promoting its complexity. From this perspective, attention will be paid to psychological selection, that is the individual processing of bio-cultural information (Csikszentmihalyi and Massimini 1985), and to its potential in fostering personal growth and culture empowerment.
... Students are also found to be thinking about topics entirely unrelated to academics a full 40% of the time while in classrooms (Shernof, 2010). Overall, studies suggest that schools need alternative approaches in order to provide what is most lacking: greater enjoyment, motivation, and opportunities for action in the learning process (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Shernof et al., 2003). ...
... Another reason why the students in arts and science specialized classes may have reported higher engagement than students in regular classes is because specialized classes involve profession-related skill acquisition (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004). From this perspective, the increase in skills and competencies is likely to support student engagement by offering greater challenges that reduce the boredom associated with high skills and low challenges (Delle Fave et al., 2011). ...
Article
The authors examined (a) differences in school engagement and the subjective well-being (SWB) of 330 Israeli students (Grades 7–10, 52% girls) in specialized school classes (arts and science) versus students in classes with no specialized subject and (b) the role of engagement as a mediator between class choice and SWB. A multivariate analysis of covariance examined intergroup differences and structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation model. The results indicated that students in both specialized classes felt more engaged than students in regular classes and that students in science classes experienced higher SWB than did students in art and regular classes. The difference between specialized classes and regular classes in terms of student SWB was fully mediated by student engagement. The results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider enabling students to enroll in specialized classes that may not only increase their engagement but also their SWB.
... These findings support the notion of schools offering passive, individualistic and teacher controlled activity dominated by direct instruction (Goodlad, 1984). Different approaches are needed in the classroom if greater enjoyment, motivation, and opportunities for action in the learning process are to be valued and adopted as learning goals (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Shernoff et al., 2003). ...
... Four decades of research suggests that flow is a universal optimal experience that is recognized in every society in which it has been studied, from North America to Europe to the Far East. In addition, descriptions of the phenomenology of flow have proven to be remarkably consistent across a variety of demographic factors, including age, gender, culture, ethnicity and socio-economic status (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Csikszentmihalyi & Asakawa, 2016;Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1988;Delle Fave et al., 2011;Moneta, 2004;Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002;Ullén, de Manzano, Almeida, Magnusson, Pedersen, Nakamura, & ... Madison, 2012). Furthermore, there is evidence that the pre-conditions of flow (clear and proximate goals, immediate feedback, and a perceived balance of challenge and skill) are universal (Csikszentmihalyi, 2014;Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1988;Delle Fave, Massimini, & Bassi, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored how much participants in the United States (US) and India loved activities that are inherently flow producing (Frequent Flow Activities) versus those that are not (Low Flow Activities). Frequent Flow Activities (FFA) typically possess the three antecedents of flow, namely clear and proximate goals, immediate feedback and a perceived balance of challenge and skill. By contrast, Low Flow Activities (LFA) are typically relaxing or enjoyable but not underpinned by these antecedents. In addition, this study explored whether love for FFA/LFA differed by age, gender and nationality, and whether love for FFA/LFA was positively related to various measures of wellbeing. Results indicate that neither age nor gender affected love for FFA/LFA. However, nationality did make a difference, in that Indian but not US participants loved FFA more than LFA. Finally, both FFA/LFA were significantly and positively related to a number of wellbeing measures. Implications and applications are discussed.
... According to this research, students sleep approximately 8 hours per day. The amount of time spent on travel, maintenance and household activities was estimated based on data from three studies on adolescents' and students' use of time(Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Delle Fave & Bassi, 2000; Duckett, Rafaelli, & Richards, 1989). The weighted mean was calculated and used as an estimation of how much time participants spend on travel, maintenance and household activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have explored what people do in their free time, but only a few of them have tried to explain why. In Study 1 we therefore aimed to obtain a detailed picture of the ways in which students spend their free time, but also we wanted to investigate their motivation for engaging in a specific activity that they consider to be their favourite. We found that the highest percentage of 585 students, who participated in Study 1, spend most of their free time on social interactions, reading and leisure with family. However, although they did not spend much time on physical activities, participants reported them as their favourite ones. An analysis of variance showed no differences in hedonic motives for free time activities, while eudaimonic motives did differ. In Study 2, we investigated intrinsic motivation for physical exercise on a new sample of 202 students, and found that recreational athletes have significantly higher intrinsic motivation compared to physically less active participants.
... Several studies have shown that students can experience flow as part of their schoolwork and college activities (e.g., Bassi & Delle Fave, 2012;Egbert, 2003;Klein, Rossin, Guo, & Ro, 2010; for a review, see also Shernoff & Csikszentmihalyi, 2009), or while studying at home (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004). Flow was found to be related to higher levels of commitment to education, progress through the school curriculum (Csikszentmihalyi, Rathunde, & Whalen, 1993), and a higher level of educational outcomes in adolescents and highschool students (Rossin, Ro, Klein, & Guo, 2009;Shernoff, Csikszentmihalyi, Schneider, & Shernoff, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Flow is a highly enjoyable state people feel when they are completely absorbed in an activity. The present study investigated the psychometric adequacy of WOLF inventory (developed to measure flow in a work setting), adapted for measuring the flow experience in an educational setting, i.e. study-related flow (WOLF-S). A sample of 394 university students completed several paper-and-pencil measures of flow and related constructs. The WOLF-S demonstrated the hypothesised three-factor structure, adequate internal consistency reliability, along with congruent and construct validity. Additionally, the results showed that students experienced flow during a wide range of activities, but academic activities, such as learning and reading, were more conductive to flow than other activities.
... Uma vasta quantidade de trabalhos empíricos tem demonstrado a relevância que as experiências óptimas assumem no desenvolvimento positivo do adolescente. Diversas investigações realizadas com medidas de avaliação da qualidade da experiência subjectiva têm encontrado uma relação positiva entre as experiências óptimas e o desenvolvimento social e intelectual do adolescente (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004). Além disso, estas experiências desempenham um papel importante no desenvolvimento de competências de auto-regulação, associadas à capacidade de focar a atenção e definir objectivos realistas, contribuindo para uma maior abertura e gosto pelas experiências novas (Hetkner, Asakawa, Knauth, & Henshaw, 2000;Shernoff, Knauth, & Makris, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years a growing interest about the study of the quality of subjective experience in adolescents’ daily contexts has emerged in research community. Special attention has been devoted to the school context, attending its relevance in the construction of adolescent’s life trajectory. The main aim of this article is to present a revision of empirical research conducted in the field of the subjective quality of experience in the school context, considering the theoretical and empirical model - The Experience Fluctuation Model. Focusing, specifically, in the concept of optimal experience, its impact in fostering the quality of school experience and in providing opportunities for optimal learning as well as for the development of positive life trajectories are discussed. Finally, the contributions of this perspective for research and intervention in educational contexts are highlighted.
... The importance of peers is reflected in the very positive quality of experience of adolescents during leisure activities, where peers are the social interaction partners. An ESM study from Italy (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004) provided a comparable finding. Such situations are experienced by students without SEN as well as with SEN particularly pleasant. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate the quality of experience of students with and without SEN in everyday life in general and when relating to peers in particular: (1) How do they experience everyday school life vs. leisure time? (2) How much time per week do they spend with peers outside school? and (3) How do they experience those peer contacts? The data comprised 120 grade 8 (20%) and grade 9 (80%) students from the German-speaking part of Switzerland, with a mean age of 15.8 years (SD = 0.8 years). Of these students, 42 were diagnosed with SEN, of which 32 were taught in regular classes and 10 in special classes. Students were asked to report their current affective states on about 31 randomly selected occasions during one week, with a total of 3758 ‘snapshots’ of their activities and their emotional experience in everyday life. Data were collected using the experience sampling method. Momentary affective states were measured by the PANA short-scales. The findings show, first, that students with and without SEN from regular classes interact as often with peers during leisure time, while students with SEN from special classes are presumably more likely to interact with family. Second, adolescents experience leisure activities more positively than instruction. Third, social interactions generally have a positive effect on the quality of experience. The quality of experience is especially good for teenagers when they are with peers – best with peers during leisure time. There are no differences between the student groups.
... The quality of subjective experience of flow has been associated with social and intellectual adolescent development (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004), as well with the promotion of self-regulation skills (Hetkner, Asakawa, Knauth, & Henshaw, 2000). Additionally, when optimal experiences occur in the school context, they tend to be asso- ciated with higher school motivation (Bassi, Coppa, & Delle Fave, 2007) and better academic performance (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002). ...
Article
In the last decades, research has focused on the promotion of positive youth development by creating, implementing and assessing positive youth interventions programs. This study analyzes the effectiveness of a group intervention program, titled “Challenge: To Be+”, aimed to promote positive development of adolescents, focusing on positive emotions, character strengths, and optimal experiences. We assessed its impact on positive developmental dimensions (self-esteem, self-concept, psychological well-being and satisfaction with life) and tested gender as a predictor of program impact in the experimental group. Furthermore, we explored the perceptions and the evaluation of adolescents regarding the program and its contents, using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Participated 99 adolescents (55 girls and 44 boys) from the ninth grade, divided into experimental (n = 74) and comparison (n = 25) groups. Results showed higher levels of self-esteem and satisfaction with life at posttest in the experimental group when compared to the comparison group, after controlling for the pretest. Taking in consideration the experimental group, gender was a predictor of program improvement on positive developmental dimensions, indicating a stronger effect on girls. Qualitative and quantitative results showed a positive appraisal of the program, with no gender differences in this appreciation. Findings support the importance of this program for the promotion of positive youth development.
... Il metodo è stato declinato nei contesti di apprendimento (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Bassi, Steca, Delle Fave, & Caprara, 2007;Bonica, Sappa, & Savarino, 2007), nella realtà lavorativa (Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989;Ilies & Judge, 2004;Uy, Foo, & Aguinis, 2010), nel rapporto con la dimensione tecnologica (Chen, Wigand, & Nilan, 1999;Davis & Wong, 2007;Kubey, 1990) con quella spirituale (Coppa & Delle Fave, 2007;, oppure nel mondo dello sport (Delle Fave, Bassi, & Massimini, 2003b;Stein, Kimiecik, Daniels, & Jackson, 1995). E' stata considerata l'esperienza di vita di bambini (Larson, 1989) e anziani (Galati, Sotgiu, & Lavagno, 2007) di pazienti affetti da psicopatologie (Delle Fave & Massimini, 1990;Myin-Germeys et al., 2009) o da disabilità (Bassi, Preziosa, & Pozzoli, 2007). ...
... Akış deneyimleri satrançtan, dağ tırmanışına kadar geniş bir etkinlik aralığı içinde meydana gelebilmektedir (Csikzentmihalyi, 1990). Bireyler arasındaki büyük farklılıklara rağmen uygun koşul ve görevlerde akış oluşmuş; sosyoekonomik durum, yaş, kültür ve etnik köken ne olursa olsun oldukça benzer şekilde tarif edilmiştir (Asakawa, 2004(Asakawa, , 2010Bassi ve Delle Fave, 2004;Csikszentmihalyi ve Csikszentmihalyi, 1992;Moneta, 2004). Csikzentmihalyi (1990), akış deneyiminde ileri düzeyde beceri ve ileri düzeyde zorluk olmak üzere iki değişkenin akış durumunu meydana getirdiğini; akışın bir denge durumu oluşturduğunu belirtmektedir. ...
Article
Full-text available
ÖZET: Bu çalışma son on yıldır oldukça popüler olan iş akış deneyimi ile bireysel değişkenler arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. İncelenen bireysel değerler kişilik özellikleri ve strestir. Bu doğrultuda Ege, Akdeniz ve İç Anadolu bölgelerinden 110 akademik personelden anket yöntemiyle veri toplanmıştır. Analizlerin ardından, sorumluluk kişilik özelliğinin tüm iş akışı boyutları ile pozitif yönlü anlamlı ilişkiye sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, işten zevk alma ve içsel motivasyon boyutları ile iş stresi değişkeni negatif yönlü ilişkiye sahiptir. ABSTRACT: The study aims to explore the relationship between individual variables and work flow experience which is highly popular researched area since the last decade. These individual variables are personality traits and work stress. In order to accomplish this research 110 surveys have been collected from academic personnels from Aegean, Mediterranean and Central Anatolia Regions in Turkey. After the analysis, it was found that all work flow experience dimensions have positive relationship with conscientiousness personality trait. Also, work enjoyment and ıntrinsic work motivation dimensions of and work flow experience have negative relationship with work stress.
... Although flow is a holistic peak experience, flow experience was examined in light of the two dimensions based on the observation that optimal challenge often functions differently in emotional and cognitive aspects (Bassi & Fave, 2004;Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989;Lambert, Chapman, & Lurie, 2013). Emotional experiences pertain to affective facets of flow, including intrinsic interest and positive emotional activation (Lambert et al. 2013). ...
... The importance of peers is reflected in the very positive quality of experience of adolescents during leisure activities, where peers are the social interaction partners. An ESM study from Italy (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004) provided a comparable finding. Such situations are experienced by students without SEN as well as with SEN particularly pleasant. ...
Chapter
Reprint of: Zurbriggen, C. L. A., Venetz, M. & Hinni, C. (2018). The quality of experience of students with and without special educational needs in everyday life and when relating to peers. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 33(2), 205-220. doi:10.1080/08856257.2018.1424777
... Akış deneyimleri satrançtan, dağ tırmanışına kadar geniş bir etkinlik aralığı içinde meydana gelebilmektedir (Csikzentmihalyi, 1990). Bireyler arasındaki büyük farklılıklara rağmen uygun koşul ve görevlerde akış oluşmuş; sosyoekonomik durum, yaş, kültür ve etnik köken ne olursa olsun oldukça benzer şekilde tarif edilmiştir (Asakawa, 2004(Asakawa, , 2010Bassi ve Delle Fave, 2004;Csikszentmihalyi ve Csikszentmihalyi, 1992;Moneta, 2004). Csikzentmihalyi (1990), akış deneyiminde ileri düzeyde beceri ve ileri düzeyde zorluk olmak üzere iki değişkenin akış durumunu meydana getirdiğini; bir denge durumu oluşturduğunu belirtmektedir. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bu çalışmanın amacı, iş akış deneyimi kavramının ve belirleyicilerinin açıklanmasıdır. Bireylerin iş akış deneyimleri ile kişilik özellikleri ve iş stresi arasındaki ilişkinin yanı sıra demografik faktörlere göre farklılaşmasına dair sorulara da cevap aranmıştır. Bu amaçla Ege, Akdeniz ve İç Anadolu Bölgelerinde bulunan 4 farklı üniversitede görev yapan 114 akademisyenden kolayda örnekleme yöntemiyle oluşturulan örneklemde anket yolu ile veriler elde edilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda, iş akış deneyimine ait üç boyut ile de anlamlı pozitif yönlü ilişkiye sahip olması sebebiyle, sorumluluk kişilik özelliklerine sahip kişilerin iş akış deneyimi yaşamaya diğerlerinden daha eğilimli oldukları, iş stresi değişkeninin ise işten zevk alma ve içsel motivasyon boyutları ile negatif yönlü ilişkili olması sebebiyle yüksek iş stresinin akış deneyimini azalttığı sonucuna varılmıştır.
... The importance of peers is reflected in the very positive quality of experience of adolescents during leisure activities, where peers are the social interaction partners. An ESM study from Italy (Bassi and Delle Fave 2004) provided a comparable finding. Such situations are experienced by students without SEN as well as with SEN particularly pleasant. ...
... Il metodo è stato declinato nei contesti di apprendimento (Bassi & Delle Fave, 2004;Bassi, Steca, Delle Fave, & Caprara, 2007;Bonica, Sappa, & Savarino, 2007), nella realtà lavorativa (Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989;Ilies & Judge, 2004;Uy, Foo, & Aguinis, 2010), nel rapporto con la dimensione tecnologica (Chen, Wigand, & Nilan, 1999;Davis & Wong, 2007;Kubey, 1990) con quella spirituale (Coppa & Delle Fave, 2007;, oppure nel mondo dello sport (Delle Fave, Bassi, & Massimini, 2003b;Stein, Kimiecik, Daniels, & Jackson, 1995). È stata considerata l'esperienza di vita di bambini (Larson, 1989) e anziani (Galati, Sotgiu, & Lavagno, 2007) di pazienti affetti da psicopatologie (Delle Fave & Massimini, 1990;Myin-Germeys et al., 2009) o da disabilità (Bassi, Preziosa, & Pozzoli, 2007). ...
... The optimum challenge effects on flow can be managed by task type alternatives, contexts, mental and emotional evaluation of tasks, plus learner motivation (Kormos & Préfontaine, 2017). Some studies clarified the suitable advantageous consequences in mental adeptness and attention at the company (Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989) and with activities at school (Bassi & Fave, 2004), and its effects on motivation differed from context to context. On the other hand, the effects of the difficulty-skill balance on flow, in line with other studies that had ample influences (Abuhamdeh & Csikszentmihalyi, 2012b;Lambert et al., 2013), are perhaps because of the contexts where these studies took place. ...
Article
Full-text available
Regardless of the appreciation of language learners' achievement in task-based language teaching, not much has been hinged upon learners' perception and reception of various elements. This study examined task complexity and modality effects on Iranian English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners' comprehension of task difficulty, competencies, and difficulty-skill balance as well as the learners' task experience. The Flow Outlook features were also applied to investigate how difficulty-skill balance anticipated flow experience. Via a repeated-measures design, and with a focus on task complexity (simple vs. complex) and task modality (written vs. spoken), 49 EFL learners carried out four argumentative tasks (two simple written and spoken vs. two complex written and spoken tasks); then, they ticked the flow questionnaire to gauge their perception of task difficulty, competence, and task experience. Repeated-measures MANOVA revealed that although task complexity influenced task difficulty and difficulty-skill balance significantly, the skill was not affected significantly; task modality influenced task difficulty and skill significantly while difficulty-skill balance received no significant effect. The follow-up post hoc test indicated that complexity and modality significantly influenced flow, attention, and control, but not interest. Linear regression revealed difficulty-skill balance was a predictor for learners' flow experience for both writing tasks and simple speaking tasks but not for complex speaking tasks. Pedagogically, the findings of this research may have some implications for English language teachers, learners, and materials developers.
... Furthermore, with regard to different academic areas which may be the sources of flow, the role of computers and new technology in general cannot be ignored. The role computers and technology play in Italian students' lives was analyzed by Bassi and Delle Fave (2004). Their participants reported a higher frequency of flow experience when using computers to search for information or prepare home assignments as compared to paper-and-pencil work or skimming through books. ...
Article
Full-text available
According to Csikszentmihalyi (1990, pg. 4), flow is " an optimal, extremely enjoyable state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter... ". In this study flow has been measured with the Flow Questionnaire (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1988). The research was conducted on the sample of 200 students. The aim of this research was to determine whether there was a difference in the flow experience during studies among the students of the Faculty of Teacher Education (FTE) (Informatics, Primary education) and the students of the Faculty of Science (FS), Department of Mathematics (Teachers). It was also investigated which variables (knowledge and skills in computing science/informatics, subjective well-being) contribute to the more intense and more frequent flow experience during studies. Conclusions: There were no statistically significant differences in flow between students studying at the FTE and FS found, and the average flow during studies for both groups was M=4.93, measured on the scale ranging from 1 to 8. The proportion of the variance of flow explained by the inspected variables was 37.6% and it was statistically significant (F=20.68; df=6; p<0.001), but the only significant predictors were positive affect (β=045; p<0.001) and negative affect (β=-0.25; p<0.001). Students' grades were used as means of measuring knowledge and skill; however, it was found that they were not connected with the intensity or frequency of the occurrence of flow.
Chapter
The sense of agency is defined as the experience of oneself as the agent of one's own action ([1], p. 523). It means being the one causing a specific movement or generating a certain thought in the stream of consciousness [2]. This ability implies distinguishing actions that are self-generated from those generated by others [1], thus contributing to the subjective phenomenon of self-consciousness [2-4]. Moreover, being the initiator of an action entails representation of oneself as causally responsible for the action and for its direct effects [5].
Article
Full-text available
The Human Health Program at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, is an undergraduate curriculum that focuses on health in its broadest context, exploring novel strategies that educate, engage, empower, and encourage college students to develop and sustain healthy lifestyle behaviors. In the program, students take part in a onesemester experience that is a blend of academic health education and wellness coaching, where the group class supports a self-directed health goal process.
Article
Full-text available
The steady decline of individuals taking up recreational hunting in the United States is cause for concern. Young hunters are a key source for recruiting future hunters. Understanding young hunters’ experience and satisfaction during hunting activities would provide valuable information about youth and the potential for recruitment. Flow theory was used to: (1) develop a methodological approach to measure flow during a youth white-tailed deer hunt; and (2) examine relationships among youth hunters’ experiences and satisfaction during Michigan’s Special Youth Firearm White-tailed Deer Hunt as a potential tool for recruitment. Positive relationships between flow experiences and young hunters’ satisfaction suggest that hearing wildlife and seeing white-tailed deer are important aspects of the hunt. Using the experience sampling method to determine relationships between flow and satisfaction of the hunt expands the suite of instruments available to understand youth hunting experiences as a potential tool for recruitment.
Article
Full-text available
Background The experience sampling method (ESM) is an increasingly popular data collection method to assess interpersonal dynamics in everyday life and emotions contextualized in real-world settings. As primary advantages of ESM sampling strategies include minimization of memory biases, maximization of ecological validity, and hypothesis testing at the between- and within-person levels, ESM is suggested to be appropriate for studying the daily lives of educational actors. However, ESM appears to be underutilized in education research. We, thus, aimed to systematically evaluate the methodological characteristics and quality of published ESM studies of social interactions among children and adolescents in school settings, as well as to explore how much variance in social interaction variables could be attributed to the within-person level. Method Using Academic Search Complete, APA PsycINFO, APA PsycArticles, ProQuest, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and SAGE Journals, and in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and pre-defined eligibility criteria, we conducted a systematic literature search of experience sampling studies up to November 2020. To assess methodological quality, we used a modified checklist for reporting of ESM studies. Results Of the originally 2 413 identified studies, a final 52 experience sampling studies were included in the present review. Findings on sample and study design characteristics generally revealed wide variability. Even if high-quality studies were associated with higher scores on the training of participants in using the ESM procedure, and use of incentives, these design strategies did not reveal a statistically significant impact on compliance. The intraclass correlation coefficient was reported in nine studies and on average 58% of the variance in social interaction variables could be attributed to within-person fluctuation between timepoints. Conclusion The current study is the first to systematically review ESM-based studies on social interactions among children and adolescents in the school context. These observations suggest that ESM is a potentially favorable technique for extracting complex social phenomena in real-world settings. We hope that this review will contribute to improving the quality assessment of ESM studies as well as to inform and guide future experience sampling studies, particularly regarding social phenomena with children and adolescents in educational settings.
Article
Csikszentmihalyi (1990) suggested that certain types of people might be better psychologically equipped to experience flow. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist in one’s ability to experience flow based upon factors such as cultural background, gender, years of specialized training, skill level, and sport event type. The English and Chinese versions of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 were used to assess trait flow in American (N = 160) and Chinese collegiate athletes (N = 341). Using a one-way ANOVA analysis, the flow scores of American participants were found to be higher than those of Chinese participants, η2 = 0.175, 95% CI: 3.536-3.622, p < .005. The flow scores of male athletes were higher than those of female athletes within the Chinese sample, η2 = 0.032, 95% CI: 3.390-3.486, p < .005. The flow scores of university athletes were higher than those of national team level athletes within the Chinese sample, η2 = 0.044, 95% CI: 3.279-3.501, p < .005. Flow scores for athletes in skill-showing events were higher than those of athletes participating in physical ability-showing events for the American participants, η2 = 0.074, 95% CI: 3.812-3.948, p < .005. This study suggests that individual differences exist in the psychological characteristics of athletes’ trait flow.
Chapter
Leisure typically refers to the use of discretionary time. That is, a person experiencing leisure is experiencing the time remaining after work. Thus, leisure is total time minus time spent on nondiscretionary activities. This definition of leisure is grounded in traditional economic theory, which divides human activities in terms of time spent on production, consumption, and leisure. In this chapter, I will describe selected research in QOL studies related to the use of leisure time that is satisfying and enhancing to subjective well-being. In doing so, I will address the following questions: What is leisure well-being? Does leisure well-being contribute significantly to subjective QOL? If so, how? And what are the predictors of leisure well-being and subjective QOL?
Chapter
Jennifer A Schmidt is associate professor of educational psychology at Northern Illinois University. She earned her PhD in psychology: human development from the University of Chicago, where she studied with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, the developer of the flow model. She is former research director of the Alfred P. Sloan Center on Parents, Children, and Work at the University of Chicago where she directed a study involving parents and children from 500 families across the United States. Her work to date has involved samples of children, adolescents, and adults. She has conducted research within the contexts of families, elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools. She has published numerous journal articles and book chapters in which she explores both the antecedents and consequences of engagement in classroom and extracurricular learning activities. She has co-authored with J. Hektner and M. Csikszentmihalyi the book, Experience Sampling Method: Measuring the Quality of Everyday Life (Sage Publications, 2007), a sourcebook for social and behavioral scientists studying human experience in everyday life. Her current work examines the subjective experiences of adolescents in various school-based and extracurricular learning contexts.
Chapter
This chapter explains the methodology undergirding many of the studies on which this book is based. Those studies examine students’ engagement from moment to moment while in educational contexts with the experience sampling method, or ESM. Respondents of these studies carried a paging device (usually a programmable wristwatch), which signals them at random moments throughout the day. Each time they were signaled, they completed a brief questionnaire in which they answered open-ended and scaled questions about the day and time of the signal, their activities and thoughts, as well as the cognitive, affective, and motivational qualities of their experience. To study engagement, my colleagues and I analyzed ESM reports occurring while in schools exclusively, and especially while in classrooms, from the Sloan Study of Youth and Social Development (SSYSD), a nationally representative study conducted at the University of Chicago. On average, high school students report being less engaged while in classrooms than in almost any other setting in which they spend significant time. Students felt significantly more engaged, however, given certain perceptions of both instruction and themselves. Concentration, attentiveness, and overall engagement were significantly enhanced, for example, when instruction was perceived as challenging, relevant, and appropriately challenging and when students perceived themselves to be active, in control, and competent. Students were also significantly more engaged in group and individual work than while listening to a lecture or watching TV or a video. Students in our sample were also significantly more engaged in their nonacademic courses than in their academic ones.
Chapter
This chapter describes the effects of personal activities on the subjective aspects of QOL. Personal activities cover a large gamut of activities such as physical activities (e.g., sports and recreation), religious activities (e.g., church going), social activities (e.g., socializing with others), volunteering activities (e.g., helping with church-related activities), caregiving (e.g., nursing the elderly), shopping activities (e.g., visiting shopping malls, browsing, and spending money buying things), arts and culture activities (e.g., painting and sculpting), etc. The chapter starts out describing three major theories that link activities with subjective aspects of QOL and the proceeds to describe research linking subjective well-being with specific personal activities.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined daily experiences of interest in and across the social contexts of family and in- and out-of-school peers. Forty-two Dutch adolescents, aged 13–15 years, provided us with 2 weeks of experience sampling data on their engagement in interesting topics and activities throughout their daily lives. Findings show that adolescent daily life included a diverse range of parallel interests. School-related interests made up a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives, challenging the idea of mere disengagement of secondary school students in academics. Findings also show that some interests are strongly bound to a specific context, while others appear across family and peer contexts. This indicates how multiple contexts can simultaneously feed interests, something that calls for further across-context research of interest development.
Article
The paper reports the results of the phenomenological study of client experiences in the process of psychotherapy. It describes the stages of categorization, generalization, and interpretation of data. We raised the following questions: what changes happen to client experiences during the same treatment session and between sessions; and how these changes relate to the components of optimal experience. The sample consisted of 6 people aged 32—53, 5 women, and one man. One female client attended four meetings with a psychotherapist; the male and four female clients attended three meetings each. The transcripts were coded by two independent experts, followed by a joint discussion. First, unique semantic units were marked, then the statements were coded and categorized by experts. We give an account of the generalized dynamics of client experiences. The results of applying the categorical grid of the model of optimal experience to the dynamics of client experiences are presented separately. The yielded results can be interpreted as qualitative effectiveness markers of psychotherapeutic work.
Article
The subjective well-being on this study concerned on adolescents’ self-reported assessments of their own subjective well-being. It is an issue of concern of students. This study aims to examine the level of subjective well-being among students. We performed this descriptive study in Jakarta, from January to February 2020. This research was conducted on 134 teenagers aged 17 to 18 years living in Jakarta. There were 115 (85.8%) women and 19 (14.2%) men. In this study, adolescents’ view about their subjective well-being were gathered through open-ended questions. This study uses qualitative mixed method design. The form consists of three open-ended questions pertaining to views of adolescents regarding the concept of well-being. The answers are then combined and collected under the general header. Data analysis uses MAXQDA analysis tools to develop thematic coding and take the highest frequency. The results found that adolescents’ opinions about subjective well-being include: productivity, positive emotion, social oriented, need satisfaction, minor challenges, health, religiosity, and independent.
Chapter
In this chapter I discuss research on leisure wellbeing in relation to happiness, subjective wellbeing, and positive mental health. The literature defines leisure wellbeing in terms of satisfaction with leisure life, satisfaction with important dimensions of leisure life, perceived recreation quality, satisfaction with leisure time, and satisfaction with a specific leisure event. There is much evidence suggesting that leisure wellbeing plays an important role in happiness, subjective wellbeing, and positive mental health. There are at least 10 theories explaining the link between leisure wellbeing and happiness, subjective wellbeing, and positive mental health. These are: physiology and genetics, social motivation, effectance motivation, intrinsic motivation and flow, telic versus paratelic states, sensation seeking, activity, bottom-up spillover, benefits, and DRAMMA. Research suggests the following sets of factors as predictors of leisure wellbeing: activity factors, time factors, individual differences, situational factors, cultural factors, and constraints.
Chapter
This chapter covers wellbeing research related to personal and consumption activities. Wellbeing theories are discussed. These include classical conditioning, activity, flow, personal expressiveness, and self-determination. The research on personal activities is usually categorized in four major groups, namely physical, social, leisure/recreation, and spiritual/community. The research on consumption activities is also discussed. In that context, wellbeing principles are identified in terms of pattern of consumption, procedure of consumption, match between the choice phase and the consumption phase, type of consumption, as well as other factors in consumption.
Article
Full-text available
Flow is a highly enjoyable, optimal psychological state people feel when they are so focused on a task that it amounts to complete absorption in an activity. Flow was found to be related to desirable educational outcomes as well as higher well-being. The aim of this study was to assess how often students experience flow at the faculty (during lectures, seminars and exercises, learning, preparing for presentations and other study-related activities) and in everyday life, and to assess the relationship between the flow experiences of students and their well-being. The sample comprised 176 second-year female students at the University of Zagreb, the Faculty of Teacher Education. In addition to the questions about faculty-related and unrelated flow experiences, the participants filled in two questionnaires: the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985) and the Flourishing Scale – FS (Diener et al., 2009). The results revealed that students, at least occasionally, experience flow while carrying out faculty-related activities. The participants experience flow most frequently while preparing for seminars and similar tasks as well as while preparing for exams, and least frequently during lectures. Flow experiences in non-academic activities are more frequent than in the academic activities. However, only the flow in the academic activities is positively correlated to students' well-being while there are no significant correlations between the non-academic flow experiences and well-being. The only significant predictor of well-being was the flow students experienced while preparing for exams. That leads to the conclusion that the flow experienced during activities related to achievement at the faculty is more important for students' well-being than the flow experienced during activities in other areas of life.
Article
Full-text available
As the teen market segment expands and spending power increases, advertisers are cognizant of the importance in understanding traditional and emerging media trends in reaching this new generation of consumers. Increasing penetration of the internet at home and at school encouraged the authors to examine teens' relationships with media. Time allocation across media and the needs fulfilled by each medium were investigated. The study further explored how the internet, given its ability for two-way communication, stacks-up against interpersonal communication sources. Influences of gender and home access to the internet were analyzed, as were the methods teens use to learn about websites. Results provide implications for effectively targeting the teen market.
Article
Full-text available
Examined 75 adolescents' experience of freedom, intrinsic motivation and positive affect in free time vs productive and maintenance activities, and the degree of challenge and concentration in such activities (i.e., preparation for serious adult roles). Data from 4,489 self-reports indicate that in free time activities, Ss reported experiencing greater freedom, intrinsic motivation and positive affect than in productive and maintenance activities. Higher degrees of challenge and concentration in productive rather than free time activities were reported; sports, games, arts, and hobbies were higher on concentration and challenge than all other activities. These more structured activities were seen by the Ss as transitional (i.e., similar in demand characteristics to serious adult roles) compared with relaxed leisure activities such as socializing and TV-watching. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this discussion is to explain and sharpen different points of view about the impact of media and attributes of media on learning, motivation and efficiency gains from instruction. This paper is an attempt to summarize my arguments about the research and theory in this area and to respond to Robert Kozma's criticism of my earlier discussion of these issues. I will first briefly summarize my arguments about media effects; next I will attempt to characterize the many reactions to the controversial claim that media do not influence learning or motivation. Finally, I will respond to the specific criticisms advanced by Robert Kozma this issue.
Article
Full-text available
Despite a history of achieving only marginal benefits from using technology in education, many schools and other educational organizations are investing heavily in computer technology. This paper examines common criticisms of educational computer use, considers how society and schools have reacted to previous technological trends, and outlines relationships between diverse approaches to computer use and the ensuing outcomes that can be expected. Two approaches to media use, representational and generative, are described in an attempt to identify instructional approaches that improve educational quality.
Article
This article investigates the psychological dimensions of leisure for adolescents, examining their experience of freedom, intrinsic motivation and positive affect in free time versus productive and maintenance activities. In addition, it examines the degree of challenge and concentration in such activities in order to consider the preparation they provide for serious adult roles. Following the procedures of the experience sampling method, 75 adolescents provided 4,489 self-reports on various dimensions of experience during their daily lives. As expected, in free time activities the adolescents reported experiencing greater freedom, intrinsic motivation and positive affect than in productive and maintenance activities, while they reported higher degrees of challenge and concentration in productive rather than free time activities. However, several free time activities, specifically, sports and games and arts and hobbies, were higher on concentration and challenge than all other activities. Contrasted with the more “relaxed leisure” of activities such as socializing and television watching, these more structured activities are seen as “transitional” in being similar in their demand characteristics to the serious activities of adult roles.
Article
Whenever a person’s life is passed in review, either in an autobiography, a biography, a psychohistory, or a clinical report, a more or less implicit assumption is made that the life in question has a certain coherence, a form and purpose which is in some way uniquely different from that of others (Bühler and Massarik 1968; Pascal 1960). In fact a biography would be unimaginable if the life events of a person followed each other randomly or if they were determined only by the vector forces of genetics and social milieu. The assumption behind any biography is that the subject’s actions over time reflect a unique theme played out against a wider background of historical themes.
Article
The institutionalization of education in the modern era removed the processes of learning and cultural transmission from contexts in which children were often guided by adults to whom they were closely attached and from activities of significance in everyday life. Despite the arbitrary nature of modern classroom structures, it is argued that some of the fundamental needs that energized learning prior to compulsory schooling still have relevance within the classroom. The fundamental needs for autonomy and relatedness are highlighted and suggested to be strongly influenced by the quality of interpersonal conditions at home and in school. Several recent studies are reviewed that examine the effects of autonomy support and quality of relatedness with respect to motivational orientations and learning outcomes. It is concluded that the success of cognitive agendas in educational settings is dependent upon affective processes within the classroom and that the creation of an optimal classroom climate serves both learning and developmental goals.
Article
This paper considers the nature of learning and the role of institutions in general and schools in particular in structuring learning. It outlines and commends a view of learning as a process whereby we discover ourselves as persons and thereby act to create the contexts in which we live and work. Central to this view is the idea of the ‘learning school’.
Article
Twenty-five adolescents reported their daily activities and the quality of their experiences for a total of 753 times during a normal week, in response to random beeps transmitted by an electronic paging device. In this sample adolescents were found to spend most of their time either in conversation with peers or in watching television. Negative affects were prevalent in most activities involving socialization into adult roles. Television viewing appears to be an affectless state associated with deviant behavior and antisocial personality traits. The research suggests the importance of a systemic approach which studies persons' activities and experiences in an ecological context. The experiential sampling method described in this paper provides a tool for collecting such systemic data.
Article
The digital revolution accompaning the new generation is discussed. This revolution is powered by a fundamental preference for interactive media rather than broadcast media. A case study of a class is elaborated which is given the task of preparing a project on salt water fishes. The class make extensive use of Internet to prepare the project and share the project with other students with the help of Internet. The role of the teacher is limited to providing guidelines and the learning process is done by students themselves.
Article
shows how the Milanese team operationalized the new conceptual model when the model was reformulated this way, the ESM [Experience Sampling Method] data fell beautifully in line with the theoretical expectations people reported the most positive states when the challenges and skills were in balance and when both were above their mean levels for the week of testing in the sample of Milanese teenagers, for instance, 18 of the 27 dimensions of experience were significantly more positive in this condition than in any other teenagers concentrated much more, felt more in control, were more happy, strong, active, involved, creative, free, excited, open, clear, motivated, and satisfied with their performance when both challenges and skills were in balance above the mean (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Euronet (European network) on adolescence study was born in 1991. The Euronet project comprises 13 different samples, 6 from Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakian Federal Republic—and at that time, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Romania), 6 from Western European Countries (Finland, France, Germany, Norway, French Switzerland and German Switzerland) and 1 from the United States. The title of this project, Euronet on Adolescence, was chosen to indicate the major cultural focus of the study—possible similarities and differences in adolescents' daily lives in European countries. The North American sample was included as an important comparison sample. Throughout this book, 3 general issues are addressed that can be conceived of as general questions about the role of culture. They are: East–West differences: fiction and reality, language and political borders, and gender and age differences. The first 2 issues are based on the descriptive approach to cross-national research, the third corresponds to the interaction approach. This book aims to provide specific information on the lifestyles and attitudes of adolescents in the countries included and answers to specific questions as to the relation between variables across the different national units. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[examines] the spiritual dimensions of physical activity / review . . . some of the present knowledge about the kind of activities people engage in and the psychological and social consequences they usually produce / the thesis of this review is that we are what we do, or become what we have done / the nature of the activities in which we invest psychic energy will determine the kind of individuals who will constitute our society / briefly develop the theoretical position that informs my perspective, beginning with a definition of the 1st term in the title of this piece, that is, activity the variety of human activities / the major activity categories / psychic complexity / flow and complexity / flow in the activities of everyday life / the development of spiritual skills / how research can contribute to the improvement of life (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Theorizes that human evolution is a process of interaction among 3 teleonomies: (1) intrasomatic genetic memory that tends to reproduce itself, (2) extrasomatic cultural memories that tend to reproduce their own kind, and (3) experiences tending to replicate themselves within the life cycle of individual consciousness (psychological selection). Psychological selection occurs through a process called flow. Flow is a dynamic state that characterizes consciousness when experience is attended to for its own sake. Such states occur most frequently when a person is involved in creative activities such as art, religious rituals and disciplines, and play and sports. The state of flow is induced when a good fit results from the interaction between the rules of cultural memory (challenges) and the genetic memory (the actor's skills). It is concluded that evolution seems to have built into humans a predisposition to enjoy the integration of the 2 great negentropic systems of culture and biology into a 3rd system of information in consciousness. (75 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The study examined the relationship of challenge and challenge-skill balance to the positive subjective states of enjoyment, interest, happiness and relaxation in the daily life of 57 students in the Youth Training Scheme using the innovative ‘experience sampling method’. Respondents answered questions in a diary on the receipt of a signal from a pre-programmed watch or radio pager eight times a day for one week. The study showed a significant association between the mean level of challenge experienced by individuals over the seven-day period and the mean level of enjoyment and interest, but not happiness and relaxation. When incidences of high challenge were matched by high skills, enjoyment and interest both tended to be high in line with ‘flow’ model predictions. Contrary to ‘flow’ theory the study found that situations of low challenge which were exceeded by skill were associated with enjoyment, happiness and relaxation. Implications are highlighted for research into training and quality of life.
Article
The Experience Sampling Method was employed to collect data from a sample of 35 sixth-form college students over a period of one week. This methodology involved the subjects answering questions printed in a diary on receipt of signals from a pre-programmed watch. They also completed a package of questionnaires related to psychological well-being. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the experience of situations where high challenge is matched by skill (termed ‘flow’) can be classed as ‘optimal experience’. The results showed that the positive poles of subjective experience tended to cluster in ‘control’ (skills exceeding moderate challenge) rather than flow. However, more optimal experience (considered as high enjoyment) occurred in flow than expected. In addition, optimal experience in flow was characterized by high cognitive involvement. Subjects who experienced flow as optimal experience were found to score significantly higher on measures of psychological well-being than those who did not experience flow as highly enjoyable. The implications are discussed with respect to college students' quality of life and educational experiences.
Article
Computer game playing is a popular activity among adolescents yet there have been no systematic studies in the U.K. on its prevalence and its demographics. A questionnaire study was undertaken with 387 adolescents (12–16 years of age) to establish the time spent playing computer games, who they first started playing with, the reasons why they first started and why they play now and negative consequences of play. Results revealed that for many adolescents, home computer game playing can take up considerable time with 7% of the sample playing for at least 30 hours a week. Although there were no differences between males and females in who played computer games, it was established that males were found to play significantly more regularly than females.
Article
This essay discusses the functions of solitary media use within the ongoing daily emotional lives of adolescents. I review evidence suggesting that adolescents find in solitary TV watching and especially music listening, the opportunity, first, to cultivate a newly discovered private self: teens use media to explore numerous possible selves including those that are desired and feared. Second, I propose that solitary media experiences provide adolescents an important context for dealing with stress and negative emotion. Popular music listening allows adolescents to internalize strong emotional images around which a temporary sense of self can cohere.
Article
It is widely assumed that participation by females on the Internet is hampered by their attitudes towards computers, which in turn is reflective of their attitudes towards new technology. Research generally supports that females have less overall experience with computers and are more likely than males to have negative attitudes towards computers. Although limited, research on Internet experiences and attitudes has found parallel gender differences, with females reporting lower levels of experience and more negative attitudes. This paper explores whether Internet and computer experiences, skills and attitudes are related, using evidence from two studies of incoming college students, in 1989/90 and 1997. There were significant gender differences in many computer experiences and attitudes of incoming students in 1989/90. Males were more experienced with computers, more likely to have taken high school courses requiring computer use, and reported higher skill levels in applications such as programming, games and graphics than females. By 1997, incoming students were more experienced with using a computer than the earlier students. However, gender differences in computer experience and skill levels had diminished in some areas. The 1997 survey also assessed Internet experiences, skills, competence and comfort. Students had more exposure to computers than to the Internet. Males were more experienced and reported higher skill levels with the Internet than females, with the exception of e-mail. The overall competency and comfort level for students in 1997 was significantly higher for computers than for the Internet; 19% of the students did not feel competent and/or comfortable with the computer compared to 36% with the Internet, with females reporting higher levels of incompetence and discomfort for both. Competence and comfort levels with the Internet and computers were highly intercorrelated, and both predicted Internet skills and experiences.
Article
This paper derives from an interdisciplinary research project which is studying the engagement of young people with different aspects of techno-popular culture. The focus is on the young person and the significance of digital technologies in their lives as a whole. Drawing on cultural studies research we are investigating the ways in which the contexts for computer use are structured by the different discourses present within the family, and the ways in which these discourses may provide a framing context for children’s interactions with digital technology. Drawing on socio-cultural research we take the view that learning is learning to do something with a cultural or cognitive tool. Our analysis of data from case studies of 16 families shows that the context of home computer use amongst young people is far from a simple and uniform phenomenon and is structured by the different discourses present within the family. What young people learn through interaction with computers is thus as much framed by the context of use as by the affordance of the technology.
Article
One of the main concerns that has constantly been raised against video games is that most of the games feature aggressive elements. This has led many people to assert that this may have a detrimental effect on individuals who play such games. Despite continuing controversy for over 15 years, there has been little in the way of systematic research. This article reviews the empirical studies in this area, including research methodologies such as the observation of free play, self-report methods, and experimental studies. The article argues that all the published studies on video game violence have methodological problems and that they only include possible short-term measures of aggressive consequences. The one consistent finding is that the majority of the studies on very young children—as opposed to those in their teens upwards—tend to show that children do become more aggressive after either playing or watching a violent video game. However, all of these come from the use of one particular research methodology (i.e., observation of children’s free play).
Article
The present study examined the relationship of personality, experience while studying, and academic performance. One hundred and seventy talented high-school students (68 males, 102 females) completed the Personality Research Form (PRF) and recorded their experience via the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). The results showed that controlling for ability, work orientation, a PRF factor, was a better predictor of grade than experience. However, an experiential variable,intrinsic motivation while studying, was related to the difficulty level of courses students took over the 4 years of high school. The results supported the notion that there are two kinds of motivation in scholastic achievement, one directed toward long-term goals, the other directed toward ongoing experience.
Article
This article illustrates the use of quantitative time-sampling data in developing a psychology of "optimal experience" to help in the psychiatric development of adequate rehabilitation approaches. The Experience-Sampling Method was used on a sample of 47 Italian adolescent students to measure fluctuations in their experience. We found that the ratio of subjectively experienced challenges and skills was a fundamental parameter that predicted optimal experience as well as boredom and anxiety. In contrast, "low" experience in daily life was viewed as a risk factor that could be minimized to increase the quality of life. Monitoring fluctuations in optimal and low experience may therefore be an important tool in developing personalized psychiatric rehabilitation plans.
Article
In a study of social context in which adolescents live from an intergenerational perspective, the purpose was comparison of significant others of the generation of Italian adolescents (n = 595) and their parents' recalled others significant during adolescence (397 fathers and 416 mothers). Analysis showed the predominance of parents and above all the mother as the most significant others for both generations during adolescence. Further, today's adolescent generation attributed less importance to other unrelated adults than their parents recalled.
Article
European adolescents' use of mass media differs significantly by gender, family life, social economic status, and education, according to recent studies. For example, boys are more likely than girls to have a television in their own room, and content preferences are dramatically different. Recent studies also suggest that family dynamics may change as new media technologies are introduced. In some studies, the mother's educational status has been more directly related to patterns of electronic media use than the father's, and adolescents' commitment to school has been shown to predict music preferences. To make meaningful generalizations about adolescents and the media in the future, these and other mediating factors, including ethnicity and cognitive development, must be considered.
Article
The authors analyzed the pattern of experience fluctuation in adolescents' daily activities. Italian high school students (N = 120; 16-20 years of age) were tested with the experience sampling method, a technique based on on-line sampling of daily life and experience. A total of 4,794 forms were gathered and analyzed by means of a model for the study of experience fluctuations. Among daily activities, studying at home, doing classwork, watching television, and having structured leisure were selected as the focus of analysis on the basis of their frequency and meaning in the adolescents' lives. Results showed that (a) daily activities have unique experiential profiles, (b) engagement may be used as an index of long-term commitment to a given activity, (c) studying at home and doing classwork share this basic component and can foster behavioral development, (d) structured leisure can play an edifying role at the short-term level for a socially integrated transition to adulthood, and (e) watching television is associated with lack of goals and engagement and is a source of apathy. The results (a) shed light on the role of daily life experience in shaping individual development and (b) provide suggestions for educational and psychosocial intervention in adolescence.
Article
Biological and cultural inheritance deeply influence daily human behavior. However, individuals actively interact with bio-cultural information. Throughout their lives, they preferentially cultivate a limited subset of activities, values, and personal interests. This process, defined as psychological selection, is strictly related to the quality of subjective experience. Specifically, cross-cultural studies have highlighted the central role played by optimal experience or flow, the most positive and complex daily experience reported by the participants. It is characterized by high involvement, deep concentration, intrinsic motivation, and the perception of high challenges matched by adequate personal skills. The associated activities represent the basic units of psychological selection. Flow can therefore influence the selective transmission of bio-cultural information and the process of bio-cultural evolution.
Article
This chapter explores Italian adolescents' use of free time, highlighting cultural peculiarities, the quality of experience in leisure activities, and implications for individual development.
BamÈini e new media: personal computer, Internet e videogiochi' [Children and new media: personal computer, Internet, and video games
  • Istat
Giovani che non lasciano il nido: atteggiamenti, speranze, condizioni all'uscita da casa
  • C Bonifazi
  • A Menniti
  • M Misiti
  • R Palomba
Bonifazi, C., A. Menniti, M. Misiti and R. Palomba: 1999, Giovani che non lasciano il nido: atteggiamenti, speranze, condizioni all'uscita da casa [Youth who do not leave the nest: Attitudes, hopes, conditions for leaving home] (Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Roma).
Esperienza ottimale e fluttuazione dello stato di coscienza: risultati sperimentali [Optimal experience and fluctuation of states of consciousness: experimental results
  • A Delle Fave
Delle Fave, A.: 1996, 'Esperienza ottimale e fluttuazione dello stato di coscienza: risultati sperimentali [Optimal experience and fluctuation of states of consciousness: experimental results]', in F. Massimini, P. Inghilleri and A. Delle Fave (eds), La Selezione Psicologica Umana (Coop. libraria IULM, Milano), pp. 541-568.
Televisione e qualita` dell'esperienza quotidiana' [Television and daily quality of experience
  • Delle Fave
  • F Massimini
  • M Borri Gaspardin
Video games: The good news
  • M Griffiths
Griffiths, M.: 1997, 'Video games: The good news', Education and Health 15, pp. 10-12.
Gruppo e giovane: due termini che discriminano l'appartenenza a gruppi diversi di adolescenti' [Group and Youth: two terms distinguishing affiliation to different groups of adolescents
  • A Fonzi
  • E Menesini
  • C Piagentini
Fonzi, A., E. Menesini and C. Piagentini: 1994, 'Gruppo e giovane: due termini che discriminano l'appartenenza a gruppi diversi di adolescenti' [Group and Youth: two terms distinguishing affiliation to different groups of adolescents], Eta`Evolutiva 49, pp. 5-14.
Multimedialita` e cultura elettronica' [Multimedia and electronic culture
  • R Fragnito
Analysing experience sampling data: A guideÈook for the perplexed The Experience of Psychopathology-Investigating Mental Disorders in Their Natural Settings
  • R Larson
2003, I cittadini e le tecnologie della comunicazione Indagine multiscopo sulle famiglie ''I cittadini e il tempo liÈero''-Anno 2000 [Citizens and communication technology. Investigation on families ''Citizens and free time
  • A Morrone
Relazione sulla condizione dell'infanzia e dell'adolescenza in Italia
  • Presidenza Del Consiglio Dei Ministri
Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri: 2001, Relazione sulla condizione dell'infanzia e dell'adolescenza in Italia [Report on the Conditions of Infancy and Adolescence in Italy], Retrieved on February 10, 2003 from http: //www.minwelfare.it/aree+di+interesse/politiche+sociali/tematiche+ familiari/minori/documenti/default.htm.
  • M Csikszentmihalyi
Csikszentmihalyi, M.: 1975, Beyond Boredom and Anxiety (Jossey Bass, San Francisco).
Bill n. 3387 on the reformation of Italian education
  • Ministero Dell 'istruzione
  • Delluniversità E Della Ricerca
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dellUniversità e della Ricerca: 2003, Bill n. 3387 on the reformation of Italian education. Retrieved on February 10, 2003 http:// www.istruzione.it/mpi/progettoscuola/percorso.shtml.