20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced bone morphogenetic protein-2-dependent osteogenic differentiation through the ERK pathway in human periodontal ligament stem cells
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, PR China.European journal of pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.53). 01/2013; 698(1-3):48-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.07.044
20-Hydroxyecdysone, an ecdysteroid hormone, can induce osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLS cells) have mesenchymal-stem-cell-like qualities and are considered as one of the candidates of future clinical application in periodontitis treatment. However, there are no studies describing the effect of 20-Hydroxyecdysone on PDLS cells. In this paper, we report a detailed study on the effect of 20-Hydroxyecdysone on PDLS cell proliferation in vitro. PDLS cells were developed from human PDL cells and were treated with 20-Hydroxyecdysone to understand different aspects of its effects. 20-Hydroxyecdysone promoted PDLS cell proliferation; significantly increased the gene expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, and osteocalcin. Moreover, 20-Hydroxyecdysone enhanced bone formation by PDLS cells and significantly increased bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) mRNA and protein expression. However, 20-Hydroxyecdysonemediated increase in ALP activity was blocked with a BMP-2-specific neutralizing antibody or with the antagonist noggin; and20-Hydroxyecdysone mediated induction of BMP-2 expression and increase of ALP activity were abolished by the extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059. 20-Hydroxyecdysone also increased the phosphorylation of ERK. These findings provide evidence to state that 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates cell proliferation and induces osteogenic differentiation through the induction of BMP-2 expression in PDLS cells. It also shows that the ERK pathway is involved in 20-Hydroxyecdysone induced BMP-2 expression and osteogenic differentiation. These results are suggesting its potential as a drug for periodontal regenerative therapy.
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ABSTRACT: We investigate the effects of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) on improving memory deficits in the current study by using an animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats. Animals in control group went on a normal diet. Rats that developed diabetes were divided into 4 groups, including STZ-induced diabetic group was treated with saline and three 20E groups received different 20E concentrations for 12 weeks. Spatial memory performance was measured in rats by the Morris water maze. The level of nuclear factor-кB (NF-кB) in the brain was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA levels and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase (GR) were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and spectrophotometry, respectively. The concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain were detected by ELISA. Compared with the control group, rats in the STZ-induced diabetic group that developed type 1 diabetes exhibited significant memory loss. In addition to the hippocampus CA1 area that displayed severe damage, significantly higher expression levels of NF-кB were observed in these rats. Furthermore, the expression levels of SOD, catalase, GSH-Px GR and BDNF were significantly decreased in rats with diabetes. By contrast, the treatment with 20E, especially at higher concentrations, reversed the above-mentioned conditions caused by diabetes. The results suggest that the 20E has a protective role in counteracting memory deficits in rats with diabetes of rat, possibly through enhancing the antioxidative ability in the brain.
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