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Approximately 80 percent of pregnant women suffer by some degree of nausea and vomiting. But the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is rarely successful. The aim of this study was evaluation the effect of mint on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy that its treatment in some recent research has been effective. In this double blind RCT, 60 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy were sampled and divided into two groups with Block-randomized method. mint group, in addition to giving the routine training, for four consecutive nights, before sleeping, a bowel of water whit four drops of pure mint essential oil placed on the floor near their beds and in control groups were used four drops of normal saline . The severity of nausea by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and severity of vomiting by counting the number of its in 7 days prior, 4 days during, and 7 days after intervention were assessed. The results showed that the severity of nausea and vomiting did not differ between the two groups in 7days before and after intervention by using repeated measurement test. But during intervention, the severity of nausea showed a decreasing trend (especially in 4th night) in the mint and an increasing trend in the control group. The severity of nausea within 7 days after the intervention had a decreasing trend in both groups; however, the intensity was lower in the mint than saline group but not statically significant. No meaningful relationship has been detected during and after intervention for the intensity of vomiting. The results of study showed that peppermint essential oil hasn't the effect on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.
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Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Study of the Effect of Mint Oil on Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy
Hajar Pasha
1
, Fereshteh Behmanesh
2*
, Farideh Mohsenzadeh
2
, Mahmood Hajahmadi
3
, Ali
Akbar Moghadamnia
4
1
Fatemeh Zahra Fertility and Infertility Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
2
Department of Midwifery, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
3
Department of Community Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
4
Department of Pharmacology, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
* Corresponding author: Fereshteh Behmanesh, Department of Midwifery, Babol University of Medical Science, Babol, Iran. Tel.: +98-1112199592, Fax: +98-
1112199936, E-mail: f24farzan45@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Background: Approximately 80 percent of pregnant women suffer by some degree of nausea and vomiting. But the treatment of nausea and
vomiting of pregnancy is rarely successful.
Objectives: The aim of this study was evaluation the effect of mint on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy that its treatment in some
recent research has been effective.
Materials and Methods: In this double blind RCT, 60 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy were sampled and divided
into two groups with Block-randomized method. mint group, in addition to giving the routine training, for four consecutive nights, before
sleeping, a bowel of water whit four drops of pure mint essential oil placed on the floor near their beds and in control groups were used four
drops of normal saline . The severity of nausea by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and severity of vomiting by counting the number of its in 7
days prior, 4 days during, and 7 days after intervention were assessed.
Results: The results showed that the severity of nausea and vomiting did not differ between the two groups in 7days before and after
intervention by using repeated measurement test. But during intervention, the severity of nausea showed a decreasing trend (especially
in 4th night) in the mint and an increasing trend in the control group. The severity of nausea within 7 days after the intervention had a
decreasing trend in both groups; however, the intensity was lower in the mint than saline group but not statically significant. No meaningful
relationship has been detected during and after intervention for the intensity of vomiting.
Conclusions: The results of study showed that peppermint essential oil hasn't the effect on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.
Keywords: Mentha piperita; Nausea; Vomiting; Aromatherapy
Article type: Research Article; Received: 09 Nov 2011, Revised: 03 Apr 2012, Accepted: 17 Apr 2012; DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.3477
Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:
This study is going to evaluate the effect of mint on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
Please cite this paper as:
Pasha H, Behmanesh F, Mohsenzadeh F, Hajahmadi M, Moghadamnia AA. Study of the Effect of Mint Oil on Nausea and Vomiting
During Pregnancy. Iran Red Cres Med J.2012;14(11):744-7. DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.3477
Copyright © 2012, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal; Published by Kowsar Corp.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which per-
mits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
Nausea and vomiting are among the common prob-
lems in the first half of pregnancy (1). Approximately
%80 percent of women are influenced during pregnancy,
along with significant impact on their quality of life (2,3).
The reason behind gestational nausea and vomiting is
not still well defined (1). In spite of temporal relationship,
there is no constant correlation between the severity of
nausea and vomiting and increased level of chorionic go-
nadotropin; however, since conditions with high HCG lev-
el, such as molar and multiple pregnancies, are accompa-
nied by higher rates of nausea and vomiting, (4) it seems
that nausea is probably caused by increment in estrogen
parallel to increase in gonadotropin level (1). Treatment
of gestational nausea and vomiting is rarely so successful
that the pregnant women could reach to a full recovery.
The problem is somehow alleviated by measures such as
trying to eat less in more servings, stop eating before sa-
tiety, and Nonetheless, vomiting is sometimes so severe
that does not respond to treatments; in these cases, drugs
such as vitamin B6 (5,6), promethazine, and are used (1).
These drugs are associated with side effects (7). In a study
Effect of Mint Oil on Vomiting During Pregnancy
Pasha H et al.
745
Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2012:14(11)
showed that 34% of women did not use drug treatment
(vitamin B6), and 26% administered it less than the pre-
scribed dose, and ascribed it to lack of trust in drug safety
during pregnancy and the preference to non-medical
approach (2). Application of complementary and alter-
native medicine is the major trend recently occurred in
medical care that can even reduce plasma level of stress
hormones (8). Although healing ingredients of essential
oils are broadly used in medicine throughout the world
(9), administration of herbal medicines is limited during
pregnancy due to unawareness of their mechanisms of
action and lack of randomized controlled trials in this
field. Yet, the study showed that 85% of midwives recom-
mend herbal remedies, regardless of their side effects,
to pregnant women for treating gestational nausea and
vomiting (10). Among the herbal medicines mentioned
in recent researches to treat nausea and vomiting of
pregnancy, mint can be enumerated (11,12).
2. Objectives
The present study has been carried out to evaluate the
effect of mint oil on nausea and vomiting during preg-
nancy.
3. Materials and Methods
This double blind clinical trial was conducted, after get-
ting approval by Ethics Committee of Babol University
of Medical Sciences and permission for research imple-
mentation, on 60 pregnant women complaining of ges-
tational nausea and vomiting sampled by the researcher
from prenatal ward of seven selected health clinics based
on inclusion (14-35 years, singleton gestation, first tri-
mester pregnancy) and exclusion criteria; well-known
underlying physical or psychological problems, dead em-
bryo or fetus with diagnosed malformation, severe ges-
tational nausea and vomiting, multiple gestations and
hydatiform mole, and those applied other medication
for nausea and vomiting were excluded from this study.
Women intended to participate were given the informed
consent and were randomly allocated to mint oil (n = 30)
and normal saline (n = 30) groups ( Figure 1 ). In addition
to receiving the routine training on diminishing gesta-
tional nausea, such as more meals and less food per meal,
refraining from eating before reaching satiety, avoiding
fatty and spicy foods, eating crackers or dry bread before
getting up from sleep and keeping hydration (10), the
mint group samples were assigned to use a bowl of wa-
ter with 4 drops of pure mint oil (purchased from Kashan
Barij Essence Company) placed on the floor near their
beds for four consecutive nights before sleeping to lessen
the morning sickness (13,14). Despite the same instruc-
tion to the other group, the placebo samples were given
a container with normal saline to use it according to the
mentioned approach. It should be noted that both drug
and placebo were pre-coded by the consultant pharma-
cist and were unknown to the researcher and the mother.
Some mint oil was poured to inner parts of drug's lid,
so that mothers receiving the normal saline cannot be
aware of being allocated to this group. The visual analog
scale was used to assess the severity of nausea. This objec-
tive instrument includes a 10 cm line with areas with a
definite beginning and the end and a specified range, on
which patients determine their health status. Scores zero
and ten are respectively indicative of the best and the
worst condition. Nausea intensity-recording visual scale
is a self-reporting measure, and since nausea is a sensa-
tion felt by patient, it is a highly appropriate technique
for measuring the related intensity; in addition, percep-
tion and education of recording manner is easy for the
study samples (15). To evaluate the severity of vomiting,
the frequency of vomiting and retching was counted.
Variables such as maternal age, gestational age, educa-
tion, occupation, place of residence, and BMI were also
assessed in terms of group matching. After getting the
information, the data were analyzed through descrip-
tive-analytical statistic by SPSS software. Demographic
characteristics (i.e., Age, BMI, Gestational age educational
level, Occupation, Place of residence) were summarized
to characterize the study population. Statistical analyses
were performed using t-test (i.e., mean of age, gestational
age, BMI), Chi Square (i.e., educational level, Occupation,
Place of residence), and repeated measurement (i.e., the
severity of nausea before, during, and after intervention
in the study groups, the severity of vomiting before, dur-
ing, and after intervention in the study groups) to deter-
mine potentially significant associations, and a p value
less than 0.05 was considered significant.
4. Results
The results showed similarity between the two groups
regarding the maternal age, gestational age, education,
occupation, place of residence, and BMI. The minimum
and the maximum ages were respectively 14 and 34 years
old, 45% of participants were in the age range of 20-25
years. Most of the samples (25%) were in their 8 weeks of
gestation ( Table 1 ).
Results showed similar intensity of nausea and vomit-
ing from 7 days before the intervention. The mean of nau-
sea and vomiting intensity was 4.78 ± 1.62, 4.85 ± 1.82 and
3.00 ± 2.19, 2.52 ± 2.4 in mint and saline groups (P value =
0.865, 0.389).
In the first to fourth days of intervention, the severity
of nausea showed a decreasing trend (especially in the
fourth night) in the mint and an increasing tendency in
the control group ( Figure 2 ).The mean of nausea inten-
sity in mint and saline groups was 3.50 ± 1.95, 4.38 ± 2.18
(P value = 0.140).The mean of vomiting intensity within 4
days the intervention in mint and saline groups was 2.23
± 1.88, 2.55 ± 2.55 (P value = 0.577).
Effect of Mint Oil on Vomiting During Pregnancy
Pasha H et al.
Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2012:14(11)746
150 were invited to participate in the study
Women Randomized into trial
(n=67)
Assigned to intervention
(n=33)
Assigned to control
(
n=34
)
Completed follow-up
(n=30)
Lost to follow-up
(n=3)
1 participate due to
intolerance to the
mint oil
1participiate for
using of other drugs
1 participate for not
returning the
q
uestionnaire
83 excluded:
50 women refused
to participate;
because of they
intended to begin
another treatment.
- 10 women
refused to
participate
-3 women were
multiple
pregnancies
-10 women were
the second
trimester
-2 sever
gestational nausea
and vomiting
8 were high risk
Completed follow-up
(n=30)
Lost to follow-up
(n=4)
2 participate for using
of other drugs
2 participate for not
returning the
questionnaire
Figure 1. Flow Diagram of Participants Through each Stage of Random-
ized, Controlled Trial
Table 1. Comparison of demographic characteristics between
two groups of mint oil and normal saline
Mint oil Normal
saline
P value
Age, Mean ± SD 24.8 ± 3.56 25.1 ± 4.76 0.783
BMI, Mean
± SD
24.84 ± 2.99 25.54 ± 3.81 0.434
Gestational
age, Mean ± SD
9.07 ± 1.31 9.73 ± 2.21 0.161
Education, No
(%)
0.530
< High school 9 (30) 10 (33.3)
High school 18 (60) 14 (46.7)
University 30 (10) 6 (20)
Occupation,
No (%)
0.646
Housekeeper 26 (86.7) 26 (86.7)
Employed 4 (13.3) 4 (13.3)
Place of resi-
dence, No (%)
0.602
Rental 15 (50) 15 (50)
Personal 15 (50) 15 (50)
4.233
4.367
4.267
4.333
3.833
3.733
3.367
3.067
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
1 day2 day3 day 4 day
Means of nausea
Date of intervention
Normal Sali
ne
Mint
Figure 2. The severity of nausea during the 4 days of intervention in nor-
mal saline and mint groups (4.30 ± 2.39, 3.59 ± 2.52)
It has also been observed that within 7 days after the
intervention, severity of nausea had a decreasing trend
in both groups; however, the intensity was lower in the
mint than the control but not statistically significant .No
meaningful relationship has been detected seven days af-
ter the intervention for the intensity of vomiting.
5. Discussion
According to findings of the present study, mint oil aro-
matherapy has not been effective in reducing gestational
nausea and vomiting; although it led to decline in nau-
sea intensity during the intervention in the mint group
(especially on the fourth night) and after intervention in
both groups (more in the mint group), the difference was
not statistically meaningful, that it could be probably
due to the small sample size used in the study.
Different results have been brought about by studies
conducted on the effect of mint on nausea and vomit-
ing. Some studies have suggested that aromatherapy
can relieve nausea or vomiting in the first trimester of
pregnancy and also during the labor (9,16,17). Researches
indicate an increasing percentage of mint administra-
tion and support it for relieving nausea and vomiting
during pregnancy; in other studies, mint has been used
to reduce the morning sickness during pregnancy in 41%
of cases (18). However, owing to the use of other medica-
tions by patients for symptoms alleviation, no precise
scientific connection was found between aromatherapy
and nausea abatement (11,19).
Other investigations have presented ineffectiveness
of peppermint on gestational nausea and vomiting.In
the same study showed that although ginger, mint and
cannabis have been beneficial to treat nausea and vom-
iting caused by other conditions such as chemotherapy
and surgery but only ginger was as the anti-nausea
drug in pregnancy (20). Similar to the present study,
mint has been ineffective on nausea and vomiting dur-
Effect of Mint Oil on Vomiting During Pregnancy
Pasha H et al.
747
Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2012:14(11)
ing pregnancy in this research. Likewise, Anderson and
colleagues (2004) has reported that peppermint oil has
been effectively useful to reduce the severity of nausea
after the surgery, in which mint was compared with iso-
propyl alcohol and placebo (saline), positive effects of
aromatherapy have been suggested to be mainly associ-
ated to the controlled breathing than the aromatherapy
itself since reducing effect of saline was similar to that of
peppermint and alcohol (21).
On the other hand, Noureddini (2005) demonstrated
that oral use of peppermint essential oil contributes to
reversible reduction in gastric acid secretion in rats and,
therefore, recommended it to patients with gastrointesti-
nal problems (22). The reason behind such a controversy
between the mentioned survey and the present research
may be for types of the study samples used. Due to differ-
ences in the mechanisms existing in human and animals
and, more importantly, dependence of nausea on psy-
chological factors and individual condition, the same
results cannot be observed in animal studies and human
researches. Among the many limitation of the study, par-
ticipants' different responses to mint oil aromatherapy
can be enumerated as it was very pleasant to some and
disgusting to others. Basically, in aromatherapy, each
patient needs to smell a particular odor based on his/
her own social and psychological conditions and reacts
to a specific aroma. Not measuring the hormones level
plausibly affecting the gestational nausea and vomiting,
such as estrogen, progesterone and HCG, was another
constraint of the study; albeit, the probable effect of this
limitation was tried to be declined through the measure-
ment of nausea and vomiting 7 days prior to the interven-
tion. Considering the decreasing trend of the intensity of
nausea during the intervention, and lower rates of nau-
sea 7 days after the intervention in the mint group, more
precise findings can be achieved by further investiga-
tions and larger sample size.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to appreciate Research Deputy
of Babol University of Medical Sciences for financially
supporting the project, and all who sincerely cooperated
in the study.
Funding/Support
None declared.
Financial Disclosure
None declared.
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... As a result, many pregnant women prefer to use non-pharmacological treatment to treat the symptoms. Several studies have shown that some non-pharmacological treatments were effective for treating nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, including acupuncture, extract of ginger, mint and lemon (Farzaneh et al., 2013;Ozgoli, Goli, & Simbar, 2009;Heitmann Nordeng, & Holst, 2013;Pasha, Behmanesh, Mohsenzadeh, Hajahmadi, & Moghadamnia, 2012). ...
... Another non-pharmacological treatment that often used by pregnant women and considered safe for pregnancy is lemon essential oil. One to two drops of lemon cotton essential oil or near the bed was found to be effective to reduce nausea and vomiting (;Kim, Lee, Yang, & Hur, 2011;Pasha et al., 2012). As many as 40% of women use lemon scent to treat nausea and 26.5% of them reported it was effective to control the symptom (Parisa et al., 2014;Mahmoud & Ahmed Ibrahim, 2013). ...
... Aromatherapy using peppermint was found to be not effective to treat nausea and vomiting. This might be due to the small number of samples (Pasha et al., 2012). The placebo group was not effective in reducing nausea and vomiting, which contained almond oil. ...
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... Ibu hamil yang mengalami mual muntah masih tinggi, yaitu hampir 80% (Pasha, et al, 2012). Gejala yang dialami dari ringan sampai dengan berat hingga muntah hebat yang memerluan rawat inap dan apabila terjadi terus menerus dapat menyebabkan depresi bahkan sampai ingin mengakhiri kehamilannya. ...
... Pregnant women who experience nausea and vomiting are still high, which is almost 80% (Pasha, et al, 2012). Symptoms experienced from mild to severe to extreme vomiting that require hospitalization and if they occur continuously can cause depression and even want to end the pregnancy. ...
... Risiko terhadap ibu hami dan janin bisa dikurangi dengan memebrikan jahe dengan kadar yang lebih sedikit. (Pasha et al., 2012) ...
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... The Personal Information Form and the Turkish version of PUQE-24 were applied by a researcher to 90 pregnant women using the self-report method (Dennis and Faux 1999). Furthermore, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), used in many studies to evaluate the severity of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (Vutyavanich et al. 2001;Sripramote and Lekhyananda 2003;Ensiyeh and Sakineh 2009;Ozgoli et al. 2009;Narenji et al. 2012;Pasha et al. 2012;O'Donnell et al. 2016;Abdolhosseini et al. 2017), was used to evaluate concurrent validity. All pregnant women were called by phone one week later for a retest, and it was ensured that they filled in the scale again. ...
... VAS has been used in many studies to evaluate the severity of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (Vutyavanich et al. 2001;Sripramote and Lekhyananda 2003;Ensiyeh and Sakineh 2009;Ozgoli et al. 2009;Narenji et al. 2012;Pasha et al. 2012;O'Donnell et al. 2016;Abdolhosseini et al. 2017). ...
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... Our results also reported that nausea in the experimental group significantly decreased throughout the intervention. Other studies also indicated that the severity of nausea in pregnant women [28,29] and cancer patients [30] decreased more significantly when the number or the duration of the intervention (the use of other essential oil) increased. These studies indicate the significance of adherence to aromatherapy intervention over time. ...
Article
Objectives: Nausea is one of the most important symptoms of patients undergoing chemotherapy. This study aims to determine the effects of aromatherapy with sour lemon on nausea in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 50 patients undergoing chemotherapy were randomly assigned to experimental and placebo (control) groups. The two groups completed the visual analogue scale for nausea before and the first to the fourth week after starting the intervention. The intervention was performed during chemotherapy. Using a dropper, a paper towel was saturated with 3 drops of sour lemon essential oil; however, for the control group, 3 mL of water as a placebo was spread on a paper towel. The intervention in the experimental and control groups was performed once a week for 4 weeks during weekly chemotherapy sessions. Results: At the beginning of the study, no significant difference was observed between the mean score of nausea in the two groups (P>0.05). The first to the fourth week after starting the intervention, significant differences were observed between the mean score of nausea in the two groups (P<0.05). The results of the repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that the mean score of nausea changed over time in the experimental group, indicating a gradual decrease in the mean score of nausea (P<0.05). Discussion: Our findings indicated that aromatherapy with sour lemon can be effective in reducing nausea in patients undergoing chemotherapy.
... On ne sait donc pas si l'aromathé rapie a permis d'amé liorer les nausé es et les vomissements ou si cela é tait dû à l'é volution naturelle de la maladie. Pasha et al. n'ont pas retrouvé de diffé rence significative dans leur é tude sur 67 patientes comparant l'aromathé rapie à un placebo [44]. ...
Article
Résumé Objectif : Proposer une prise en charge pour les femmes avec Nausées/vomissements du 1er trimestre et hyperémèse gravidique. Méthode : Consensus formalisé d’experts selon la méthode DELPHI modifiée à deux tours. Résultats : L’hyperémèse gravidique se distingue des nausées et vomissements gravidiques par une perte de poids > 5% ou des signes de déshydratation ou un score PUQE > 7. Une hospitalisation est proposée lorsqu’il y a au moins un des critères suivants : Perte de poids > 10%, un ou des signes cliniques de déshydratation, score PUQE (Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis and nausea) > 13, hypokaliémie < 3.0 mmol/L, hyponatrémie < 120 mmol/L, élévation de la créatininémie > 100 μmol/L ou résistance au traitement. Il est conseillé d’arrêter les vitamines prénatales et la supplémentation en fer sans arrêter la supplémentation en acide folique. Le régime alimentaire et le mode de vie seront adaptés en fonction des symptômes. L’aromathérapie n’est pas à utiliser. Si le score PUQE < 6, et même en l’absence de preuve de leur bénéfice, il est possible d’utiliser le gingembre, la pyridoxine (vitamine B6), l’acupuncture ou l’électrostimulation même en l’absence de preuve de leur bénéfice. Il est proposé que soient toujours choisis pour des utilisations en 1ère, 2ème ou 3ème intention, les médicaments ou les associations de médicaments associés aux effets secondaires les moins sévères et les moins fréquents, compte-tenu de l’absence de supériorité d’une classe médicamenteuse par rapport à une autre pour réduire les symptômes des nausées et vomissements de la grossesse et de l’HG. De la vitamine B1 doit être systématiquement administrée en cas d’hyperémèse gravidique justifiant une réhydratation parentérale afin de prévenir la survenue d’une encéphalopathie de Gayet Wernicke. Les patientes hospitalisées pour hyperémèse gravidique ne doivent pas être mise l’isolement (mise dans le noir, confiscation du téléphone portable ou interdiction de visites…). Un soutien psychologique est à proposer à toutes les patientes atteintes d’hyperémèse gravidique ainsi qu’une information de l’existence d’associations de patientes investies dans l’accompagnement de ces femmes et de leur entourage. Lors du retour à domicile après hospitalisation, la prise en charge s’organisera autour d’un médecin référent. Conclusion : Ce travail devrait contribuer à l’amélioration de la prise en charge des femmes avec hyperémèse gravidique. Cependant, compte tenu de la pauvreté en nombre et qualité de la littérature, les soignants/chercheurs doivent investir le champ des NV et HG pour identifier les stratégies permettant d’améliorer la qualité de vie des femmes ayant des NV ou une HG.
... In these studies, mint has been used to lessen morning sickness during pregnancy. As studies in rats indicated that peppermint essential oil's oral intake reversibly decreases gastric acid secretion, thus, recommending it to patients with gastrointestinal problems could be beneficial [44]. ...
Article
İdeal beslenme hamileliğin tüm evrelerinde çok önemlidir. Bununla birlikte, tüketilen tüm yaygın gıdalar, bitkisel ürünler, tamamlayıcı ve alternatif tıp (TAT) ve besleyici değeri olmayan maddelerin güvenilirliği tartışılabilir. Bitkiler her ne kadar doğal olsalar da, hamilelik sırasında tüm bitkilerin tüketimi güvenli olmayabilir. Zencefil ve nane gibi bitkiler, hamilelik döneminde en sık dört ile altıncı haftaları arasında görülen gebelik kusma ve bulantıları için güçlü, güvenli ve etkili tedavi olarak tanımlanırlar. Preeklampsi ve yüksek tansiyon önemli gebelik komplikasyonlar arasında yer alır. Hamile kadınlarda çay içmek preeklampsi riskini artırabilirken, sarımsak tüketimi ile yüksek tansiyon düşürülebilir. Hamilelik sürecinde kan şekeri seviyesi ve glikojen depolanması en az kan basıncı kadar önem taşımaktadır. Zerdeçal, kan şekeri seviyesini düzenleyip kontrol ederken kırmızı biber vücutta glikojenin depolanmasını artırır. Sitokrom P450 sistemi ile etkileşim, birçok gıda-ilaç etkileşimine yol açar. Bu sistemi etkileyen ve yaygın olarak kullanılan bitkilerden biri olan sarı kantaronun hamilelik döneminde dikkatli alınması gerekir. Hamilelik döneminde tüketiminde ihtiyatlı olunması gereken bir diğer bitki de papatyadır. Papatya yan etkileri sebebiyle pıhtılaşma bozukluğu olan bireyler tarafından dikkatli tüketilmelidir. Rezene emzirme döneminde güvenli bir bitki olarak tanımlansa da, hamilelikte bilinçli ve akıllıca kullanılmalıdır. Rezene östrojen benzeri özellikler içerdiğinden, hamilelik döneminde fetal gelişimi ve doğum ağırlığını etkileybilir. Bitkisel ürünler değişken ve belirsiz etkiler gösterebildiği için çeşni, tatlandırıcı veya içecekler olarak dikkatli tüketilmelidir.
... In this study, peppermint aromatherapy was administered by inhalation by mixing four drops of peppermint aromatherapy with 20 ml of warm water into a mini diffuser for 5-10 minutes. It was in accordance with research from Pasha et al (2012) that peppermint aromatherapy could be inhaled twice a day for 10 minutes for four days. The intervention in this study was carried out in the morning and afternoon for four days. ...
... Besides, EO is also being practiced to treat pain and ailments (Lakhan, Sheafer and Tepper, 2016;Hutapea, 2016;Apay et al., 2012;Setzer, 2016). Recent trend shows that the study of EO usage is meant to relieve pregnancy discomfort symptoms and to reduce labour pain among women (Pasha et al., 2012;Namazi et al., 2014). In addition, there are many cases reported of clinical aromatherapy which is used for relaxation, release stress and uplift the emotional concern (Hongratanaworakit, 2011;Bekhradi and Vakilian, 2016;Sanchez-Vidana et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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The examine Public- Private Partnership as a tool for sustainable development in Benue state, Nigeria. The study adopted the Social Contract theory. The design adopted for the study is descriptive survey with the population of 584, where the sample size of 237 was selected using Taro Yamane’s formula, both primary and secondary data were used. Data was collected via researcher’s designed questionnaires which were administered personally by the researcher. The study uses regression analysis to test the hypotheses with the aid of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The researcher found that; a significant number of infrastructural projects are largely funded by private companies or entities under public private partnerships agreements; public private partnerships lead to an increase in employment generation due to the creation of job vacancies which spring up as a result of several and big projects embarked upon by private companies; and there is significant effect of public private partnerships on education as a unit increase in public private partnerships will lead to a significant increase in education. The study concluded that the creation of public private partnerships significantly affects specific development goals which have far reaching influence on sustainable development. Public private partnerships specifically and significantly influence infrastructural development, create room for employment generation and induce education. This is possible because PPP provides the needed finances, expertise and skilled workforce from the private sector for key infrastructural development. Thus public private partnerships serve as a reliable strategy for sustainable development. The study recommended that; project should be well researched, structured and backed by credible, experienced players in order to attract the needed finance; There should be provision for enabling laws to be domesticated in each state of the federation on infrastructure development and employment; Government should as a matter of urgency improve the trust of the private sector and the general public on PPP policy issues through adherence to contractual agreements and a genuine commitment towards improving infrastructure and the lives of the people especially through job creation. Key words: Public, Private, Partnership, Sustainable Development
... No obstante se le hacen críticas con respecto a los resultados que se obtuvieron del estudio, porque no hubo control en aspectos como: la edad, la raza, el nivel educativo y estado laboral de las participantes (15). Igualmente, en otra investigación de tipo experimental, los resultados demostraron que en el grupo experimental al cual se le aplicó el aceite esencial de menta, obtuvo mejoría en la primera semana, pero semanas después la sensación de náuseas fue igual tanto para el grupo control como para el experimental (16). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introducción: Algunas mujeres, durante su gestación pueden padecer de sintomatología molesta que interfiere con su cotidianidad, molestias como náuseas, vómitos, dolores lumbares, y fluctuaciones emocionales. Tales molestias podrían manejarse con técnicas como la aromaterapia, propendiendo por ofrecer bienestar sin posibles efectos adversos para el binomio madre e hijo. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar los beneficios que produce la aromaterapia en la gestación mediante una revisión documental. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos científicos en bases de datos como: Science direct, google academic, EBSCO, Pubmed, Gale Power Search, BASE (Bielefeld academic search engine), Proquest; utilizando los DECS Aromatherapy, Pregnancy, Lavandula, Citrus, Jengibre y Rosa en inglés y español, usando el conector booleano AND, de esta búsqueda se obtuvo 50 artículos de investigación que cumplían con el objetivo propuesto. Resultados: se identificó la utilización de la aromaterapia como recurso para las náuseas, vómitos y el dolor, además de lograr mejorar el sueño y disminuir la fatiga. Conclusiones: Se determina entonces que los aceites esenciales usados en los estudios fueron eficaces disminuyendo síntomas molestos en la mayoría de las gestantes participantes de los estudios analizados
Article
This case study examines a variety of aromatherapy treatments offered to twenty-five patients suffering from the symptom of nausea in a hospice and palliative care program, using a synergistic blend of Pimpinella anisum (aniseed), Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce (sweet fennel), Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) and Mentha x piperita (peppermint). Outcomes were measured using the Bieri scale, a visual-numeric analogue. A majority of patients who used the aromatherapy treatments reported relief. However, all patients in this study were also using a variety of other treatments for their symptoms. While it is therefore impossible to establish a clear scientific link between the aromatherapy treatments and the nausea relief, this case study suggests that the oils used in this aromatherapy treatment were successful complements to the relief of this symptom.
Article
To investigate the patterns of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use among pregnant women in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan. Women who gave birth in Taiwan in 2006 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Claims for reimbursement following TCM ambulatory visits by these women were analyzed. In total, 20.9% of women in the study who gave birth in 2006 used TCM during pregnancy, with older women more likely to utilize this form of care (23.9% of women >35 years of age vs 16.2% of women <20 years of age). There was an increase in the use of TCM for pregnancy-related problems such as hypertension (194 women before pregnancy vs 2163 during) and nausea/vomiting (220 women before vs 1648 during). The predominant modality (88.4%) of TCM treatment during pregnancy was herbal preparation. Traditional Chinese medicine, with the exception of acupuncture, is popular among pregnant women in Taiwan. In addition to its efficacy, the safety of TCM during pregnancy requires future investigation.
Article
More than 70 percent of all pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, and 28 percent report that symptoms cause them to change their usual activities. We investigated the magnitude of problems that nausea and vomiting impose on the lifestyle of pregnant women and their families. Twenty-seven women who were experiencing different degrees of nausea and vomiting were selected from 147 pregnant women and asked to participate in semistructured telephone interviews. All participants reported changes in family, social, or occupational functioning as a result of these symptoms. Nausea and vomiting can impose substantial lifestyle limitations on pregnant women that can have short- and long-term consequences for them and their families. Both the duration and severity of symptoms were greater for many participants than is generally believed. All participants reported that recumbent rest or dietary alterations provided relief. Caregivers should recognize and validate the need for pregnant women to make changes in lifestyle that will enable them to achieve comfort.
Article
Fifty-nine women completed a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) for the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Thirty-one patients received vitamin B6, 25-mg tablets orally every 8 hours for 72 hours, and 28 patients received placebo in the same regimen. Patients were categorized according to the presence of vomiting: severe nausea (score greater than 7) or mild to moderate nausea (score of 7 or less). The severity of nausea (as graded on a visual analogue scale of 1-10 cm) and the number of patients with vomiting over a 72-hour period were used to evaluate response to therapy. Twelve of 31 patients in the vitamin B6 group had a pre-treatment nausea score greater than 7 (severe) (mean 8.2 +/- 0.8), as did ten of 28 patients in the placebo group (mean 8.7 +/- 0.9) (not significant). Following therapy, there was a significant difference in the mean "difference in nausea" score (ie, baseline - post-therapy nausea) between patients with severe nausea receiving vitamin B6 (mean 4.3 +/- 2.1) and placebo (mean 1.8 +/- 2.2) (P less than .01). In patients with mild to moderate nausea and in the group as a whole, no significant difference between treatment and placebo was observed. Fifteen of 31 vitamin B6-treated patients had vomiting before therapy, compared with ten of 28 in the placebo group (not significant). At the completion of 3 days of therapy, only eight of 31 patients in the vitamin B6 group had any vomiting, compared with 15 of 28 patients in the placebo group (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The principal aim of the study was to examine the contribution of aromatherapy to the promotion of maternal comfort during labor and as a tool to improve the quality of midwifery care. Evaluative study. Delivery suite in a large British teaching hospital with approximately 6,500 deliveries per annum. A total of 8,058 mothers were evaluated between 1990 and 1998. Women were offered aromatherapy to relieve anxiety, pain, nausea and/or vomiting or to strengthen contractions. Routine data collected on the use of aromatherapy over the period were analyzed. Data from the unit audit were used to provide a comparison group of mothers not given aromatherapy (n = 15,799) from the study center. Outcome measures include mothers' ratings of effectiveness, outcomes of labor, use of pharmacologic pain relief, uptake of intravenous oxytocin, reported associated symptoms, and annual costs. The use of aromatherapy during childbirth was an increasingly popular care option with mothers and midwives. More than 50% of mothers rated it as helpful, and only 14% found it unhelpful. The use of aromatherapy was not confined to low-risk mothers. Sixty percent of the sample were primigravidae, and 32% overall had had their labor induced. The administration of aromatherapy in childbirth did appear to reduce the need for additional pain relief in a proportion of mothers. More than 8% of primigravidae and 18% of multigravidae used no conventional pain relief during labor after using essential oils. During the years of the study, the use of pethidine in the study center declined from 6% to 0.2% of women. The study also showed that aromatherapy may have the potential to augment labor contractions for women in dysfunctional labour. A very low number of associated adverse symptoms were reported (1%). This study represents a successful example of the integration of a complementary therapy into mainstream midwifery practice and forms a basis for future research.
Article
A literature survey investigating the use of herbs to treat morning sickness, with particular reference to what is known about their safety. All major English language medical, nursing and scientific databases as well as 300 World Wide Web sites, Internet newsgroups, books and magazines were searched for information about the use and safety of herbs in pregnancy. A search of medical databases failed to locate any articles which specifically reported investigations of the safety of herbs used during pregnancy. Of 300 non-medical sources studied 75 cited the use of herbs in pregnancy. The most commonly cited herbs for morning sickness were ginger, chamomile, peppermint and raspberry leaf (55, 37, 44 and 63% cited respectively). There was no consensus in the popular literature about whether or not each of these herbs was safe for use in pregnancy. Seven sources (6%) cited chamomile and peppermint as unsafe, while 16 (12%) cited the use of ginger and 11 (15%) the use of raspberry leaf as unsafe during pregnancy. Herbal remedies are often seen as safe, 'drug-free' treatments for morning sickness. However, the contradictory information and dearth of original research related to their safety indicates that these compounds should be used with caution.
The authors report the process and results of an evaluation of a midwifery aromatherapy service for mothers in labour: This study of 8058 mothers in childbirth, is the largest research initiative in the use of aromatherapy within a health-care setting. The study involved a wide range of participants, from mothers who experienced a low risk, spontaneous labour and birth, to those whose labour was induced, and those who had vaginal operative delivery and Caesarean section. The study-took place over a period of 8 years, which enabled a more challenging test of the effect of aromatherapy on intrapartum midwifery practice and outcomes. In the study a total of 10 essential oils were used, plus a carrier oil, which were administered to the participants via skin absorption and inhalation. The study found little direct evidence that the practice of aromatherapy per se reduces the need for pain relief during labour, or the incidence of operative delivery. But a key finding of this study suggests that two essential oils, clary sage and chamomile are effective in alleviating pain. The evidence from this study suggests that aromatherapy can be effective in reducing maternal anxiety, fear and/or pain during labour. The use of aromatherapy appeared to facilitate a further reduction in the use of systemic opioids in the study centre, from 6% in 1990 to 0.4% in 1997 (per woman). Aromatherapy is an inexpensive care option. In 1997 when 1592 mothers used aromatherapy, the total cost was 769.17 Pounds. The study reports a minimal incidence of associated symptoms. Out of 8058 mothers, 1% (100) recorded an associated symptom. These were mild in nature. The successful model of integrated practice that this aromatherapy study presents, offers a useful example for other units to consider.
The majority of North American pregnant women experience some degree of nausea and vomiting, usually in the first few months of pregnancy. Women utilize many coping strategies, including self-treatment with herbal medicine and other alternative therapies. In a qualitative study of self-care in pregnancy, birth and lactation within a non-random sample of 27 women in British Columbia, Canada, 20 women (74%) experienced pregnancy-induced nausea. Ten of these women used anti-emetic herbal remedies, which included ginger, peppermint, and Cannabis. The safety and efficacy of each of these herbal remedies is discussed here. Only ginger has been subjected to clinical trials among pregnant women, though all three herbs were clinically effective against nausea and vomiting in other contexts, such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and post-operative nausea. While safety concerns exist in the literature for all three herbs with regards to their use by pregnant women, clinical evidence of harm is lacking.