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Abstract

In this study, we examined the impact of mobile phone usage, during class lecture, on student learning. Participants in three different study groups (control, low-distraction, and high-distraction) watched a video lecture, took notes on that lecture, and took two learning assessments after watching the lecture. Students who were not using their mobile phones wrote down 62% more information in their notes, took more detailed notes, were able to recall more detailed information from the lecture, and scored a full letter grade and a half higher on a multiple choice test than those students who were actively using their mobile phones. Theoretical and pedagogical implications are discussed.

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... However, as stated in (Levine et al., 2007), the impact of ICTs is neither pre-ordained nor predictable; the counterproductive side effects of using these technologies mean that some users relegate certain interruptions, and pass them on to another user, who is then also interrupted. This means that not only have both users been interrupted, but what actually prompted the interruption is temporarily displaced (Kraushaar & Novak, 2010;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013). ...
... This signifies that not only does our productivity not increase, but it actually becomes worse (Kraushaar & Novak, 2010): in the case of our students, we commonly observe how they perform their tasks on the computer at the same time as they have their social networks open, and see that they frequently check their mobile phone notifications. Several studies (Kraushaar & Novak, 2010;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Purcell et al., 2013;Wammes et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2014;Xu, 2008) indicate that the use of laptops during a lecture distracts the student and those peers who have a direct view of the laptop, thus influencing their learning, since students engage in off-topic activities. What is more, Sana et al. (2013) states that the use of several types of electronic media among university students is the principal cause of low academic performance. ...
... The integration of concentration and mindfulness techniques in academic environments (Altmann et al., 2014;Damico & Whitney, 2017;Pidgeon & Keye, 2014;Yildirim & Dark, 2018), technological contexts (Elliott-Dorans, 2018;Fish et al., 2016;Salehzadeh Niksirat et al., 2017;Sana et al., 2013;Waite et al., 2018;Zhu et al., 2017) or those simply prone to interruptions (Elliott-Dorans, 2018;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Lyddy & Good, 2017) is also a topic that many authors have studied. Studies such as Altmann et al. (2014), Purcell et al. (2013), Wammes et al. (2019) and Xu (2008) have shown beneficial effects after mindfulness has been practised in academic environments. ...
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Technology has changed both our way of life and the way in which we learn. Students now attend lectures with laptops and mobile phones, and this situation is accentuated in the case of students on Computer Science degrees, since they require their computers in order to participate in both theoretical and practical lessons. Problems, however, arise when the students' social networks are opened on their computers and they receive notifications that interrupt their work. We set up a workshop regarding time, thoughts and attention management with the objective of teaching our students techniques that would allow them to manage interruptions, concentrate better and definitively make better use of their time. Those who took part in the workshop were then evaluated to discover its effects. The results obtained are quite optimistic and are described in this paper with the objective of encouraging other universities to perform similar initiatives.
... Grades, which are used as a measure of cognitive learning (Bloom et al., 1956), often suffer when a student is distracted. Multiple studies show student grades decline when students text, post to social media, or multi-task during schoolwork, due to the distractions inherent in these activities (Barks et al., 2011;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Martin, 2011;Sana et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). Together, the research suggests personal technology use in undergraduate classrooms can be detrimental to student learning. ...
... Although some students favor policies limiting device use to prevent distractions (McCoy, 2013), others indicate that notechnology environments are boring (Rosen, 2010). Students also value their autonomy and prefer not to turn off their devices in class (Santos et al., 2017), particularly if they are not distracting (Tindell & Bohlander, 2012), and believe their devices contribute to learning (Braguglia, 2008;Kay & Lauricella, 2011;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013). While students favor policies that allow access to personal technology, their reasons may not be wholly related to learning. ...
... Students themselves believe personal technology devices negatively affect sustained attention (Attia et al., 2017), and some students favor policies limiting device use to prevent distractions (McCoy, 2013). Additional studies find student grades suffer when they multitask with personal technology because it distracts them (Barks et al., 2011;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Martin, 2011;Sana et al., 2013;Wood et al., 2012). Personal device use also challenges students' ability to maintain attention while studying (Rosen et al., 2013), and when students shift attention between schoolwork and technology use, cognitive ability may be impaired and hinder academic performance (Leroy, 2009). ...
Article
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College instructors desiring classrooms free from learning distractions often enforce personal-technology-use policies to create what they think is an optimal learning environment, but students tend not to favor restrictive personal technology policies. Which type of personal technology classroom environment maximizes student satisfaction, learning, and attention? We surveyed 280 business communications students in two types of classrooms: a personal technology-restricted environment and a free-use environment. We evaluated student perceptions of cognitive learning, sustained attention, and satisfaction with the course as well as the technology policy governing their classrooms. Students believed they achieved greater cognitive learning in non-restricted personal technology classrooms and perceived no significant difference in sustained attention. Although students may be more satisfied with a free personal-technology-use policy in the classroom, overall satisfaction with the course did not significantly differ according to the classroom environment. We discuss the importance of sustained attention and policy satisfaction for enhancing student course satisfaction in classrooms with both technology policy types.
... In another study, Ellis et al. (2010) found that sending three texts during a class session led to an average of 16 points reduction in students' scores. In an experimental study, Kuznekoff and Titsworth (2013) discovered that students who used phones while watching a short video lecture scored 1.5 grades lower than those with no distraction. Similarly, Gingerich and Lineweaver (2014) reported that students who texted in class scored 14% lower than those who did not. ...
... In the related literature, the emphasis is on the two-faced nature of technology use. Some believe that it can lead to students' distraction if used for non-learning purposes and potentially hinder learning (Barak et al., 2006;Campbell, 2006;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013) On the other hand, it can potentially promote leaning if used appropriately (Freiermuth & Zarrinabadi, 2020). In this study, in the teacher technology policy scale, only the discouraging and encouraging policies were included and in the data collection phase, the use of wireless devices for socialization was removed from the scale. ...
... A study conducted by Bowman, Levine, Waite, & Gendron (2010) found that smartphone use amongst college students is becoming progressively predominant even in classrooms. Conferring to the cognitive theory of multimedia education and learning, off-task multitasking while learning (e.g., texting and social media use) could hinder a student's information processing, thus dropping learning performance (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013), smartphone addiction reduced academic grade (Lepp, Barkley, & Karpinski, 2015). This study disagrees with Bowman, Levine, Waite, & Gendron (2010); Kuznekoff & Titsworth (2013); Lepp, Barkley, & Karpinski (2015) findings and proposed that smartphones help students to accomplish their academic work by using smartphones. ...
... Conferring to the cognitive theory of multimedia education and learning, off-task multitasking while learning (e.g., texting and social media use) could hinder a student's information processing, thus dropping learning performance (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013), smartphone addiction reduced academic grade (Lepp, Barkley, & Karpinski, 2015). This study disagrees with Bowman, Levine, Waite, & Gendron (2010); Kuznekoff & Titsworth (2013); Lepp, Barkley, & Karpinski (2015) findings and proposed that smartphones help students to accomplish their academic work by using smartphones. One of the probable reasons is that because of the Covid-19 pandemic, both teachers and students are forced to impart and learn via smartphones. ...
Article
The unusual lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic has exploded globally, revealing the whole population and touching all areas in our lives: education, work, politics, entertainment, economy, markets, etc. Online teaching and learning during pandemics have exposed students to technology, ultimately resulting in ingesting of digital media. In this favor, the research aims to determine the use of smartphones among university students during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Therefore, this study aims to examine the use of smartphones by university students during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study collected 165 respondents from Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A central university), Lucknow. This study used survey techniques, questionnaire tools and stratified random sampling techniques for collecting data. Data screening, factor analysis and reliability tests were conducted to confirm the validity and reliability of the instruments, further mean value was calculated, then t-test and ANOVA test were carried out to check the stated hypotheses. Factor analysis yielded three factors, i.e., improved learning, sharing information and access to materials. The findings suggested that gender has a significant difference with improved learning (p=0.050) and respondent’s age has a substantial difference with access to materials (p=0.022).
... Its influence affects other basic activities of daily life, leading to negative consequences (Park & Lee, 2012). Most of the literature that examines the relationship between problematic smartphone use and academic performance reports varying levels of negative consequences (Durak, 2018;Jacobsen & Forste, 2011;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Li, Lepp, & Barkley, 2015;Longnecker, 2017;Mendoza, Pody, Lee, Kim, & McDonough, 2018;Olufadi, 2015;Rozgonjuk et al., 2018). Previous research suggests that excessive smartphone use in the classrooms can inhibit academic performance (Lepp, Barkley, and Karpinski (2014) found the negative effects of excessive smartphone use on students' academic performance through decreased GPA scores. ...
... These results reveal that sending text messages, talking and chatting, multitasking in-class, and texting and socializing negatively affect students' academic performance. Findings from this meta-analysis align with results from several studies that found negative effects of text messages in the classroom (Dietz & Henrich, 2014;Harman & Sato, 2001;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;MacDonald, 2013), multitasking in-class (Jacobsen & Forste, 2011;Junco & Cotten, 2012), and socializing (Junco & Cotton, 2012;Lee, 2015;Kirschner & Karpinski, 2010;Rozgonjuk et al., 2018) on students' academic performance. This result reveals that students need to maintain high levels of attention and self-regulation in their academic pursuits to achieve high academic excellence. ...
Article
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Research on smartphone use among college students is extensive. Although numerous studies have examined the relationships between mobile phone use and academic achievements, many such studies have yielded mixed findings. Hence, the overarching goal of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively synthesize existing research to investigate the effects of smartphone addiction on learning. The authors included 44 studies (45 effects) in the analysis yielding a sample size of N = 147,943 college students from 16 countries. The results show that smartphone addiction negatively impacts students' learning and overall academic performance (Q (43) = 711.87, p < .001, r = −0.12). Further, findings suggest that the greater the use of a phone while studying, the greater the negative impact on learning and academic achievement. Additionally, the results suggest that skills and cognitive abilities needed for students’ academic success and learning are negatively impacted. Implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations for future research are delineated.
... According to one study, students interrupt their learning due to modern technologies like smartphones or computers every 6 min (Rosen et al., 2013). This is considered a problem, because interruptions may impair learning or memory performance (Conard & Marsh, 2014;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Oulasvirta & Saariluoma, 2004). Nearly all German households (96.7%) own at least one mobile phone (Destatis, 2018) and especially in the age group of 14-49 year olds, smartphones (over 95% users) have become indispensable (VuMa, 2019). ...
... With regard to the existing research (Conard & Marsh, 2014;Karpinski et al., 2013;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Oulasvirta & Saariluoma, 2004;Rosen et al., 2013), it is unexpected that no significant difference was found between the group that could read the text without distraction and the group playing on the smartphone while reading. It is noteworthy that the quiz scores and reading times cannot be declared as equal (see equivalence tests), either. ...
Article
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In this study, we investigated whether the use of smartphone games while reading a text reduces learning performance or reading speed. We also examined whether this is affected by push notifications. Ninety-three students were randomly assigned to three learning conditions. In the gaming group (G), participants played a game app for 20 s at 2-min intervals while reading. In one subgroup, the game app sent push notifications (GN+); in the other subgroup, no notifications (GN−) were sent. In the control group (C), participants did not play a game. After the reading, participants took a multiple-choice quiz. We compared quiz scores and reading times of the groups (G) and (C) and within the gaming group (GN+, GN−) and observed no differences. Since the statistical non-significance of these tests does not entail the absence of an effect, we conducted equivalence tests, which did not demonstrate equivalence either. The experiment ensured high internal validity, yet remained inconclusive. Reasons for the similarity of performance in all groups could be non-specific exercise effects (all participants owned a smartphone), low similarity between the tasks, low variance of participants’ ability and motivation (high achieving, low ADHD scores) or low game complexity. Future research should address these questions.
... Social media could distract learning occurring in the classroom (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013). Students who often texted while lessons were ongoing did not write good notes and performed badly in exams because of their inability to remember a lot of information due to minimal attention they gave in class (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013). ...
... Social media could distract learning occurring in the classroom (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Sana, Weston & Cepeda, 2013). Students who often texted while lessons were ongoing did not write good notes and performed badly in exams because of their inability to remember a lot of information due to minimal attention they gave in class (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013). In this study, some participants admitted attending to social media messages while in class. ...
Article
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This study makes an original contribution to the literature on social media usage for learning purposes through the phenomenological approach of enquiry. It examined the general motivations for social media usage; how social media is used to meet academic needs; perceived academic benefits; and how social media usage disrupts studies. A total of 24 undergraduate students were engaged in rigorous focus group discussions. Results showed that social media has been adapted to suit the academic needs of users through the process of appropriation. It was found that although social media could be a viable platform for inter-university-collaborative-learning, respondents hardly engaged in that. It was suggested that students create inter-university social media groups for collaborative learning. There were accounts of negative implications of using social media, like addiction and distractions. Students must adopt tactics to handle distractions which could prove helpful in out-of-school settings like the workplace.
... In another study, Ellis et al. (2010) found that sending three texts during a class session led to an average of 16 points reduction in students' scores. In an experimental study, Kuznekoff and Titsworth (2013) discovered that students who used phones while watching a short video lecture scored 1.5 grades lower than those with no distraction. Similarly, Gingerich and Lineweaver (2014) reported that students who texted in class scored 14% lower than those who did not. ...
... In the related literature, the emphasis is on the two-faced nature of technology use. Some believe that it can lead to students' distraction if used for non-learning purposes and potentially hinder learning (Barak et al., 2006;Campbell, 2006;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013) On the other hand, it can potentially promote leaning if used appropriately (Freiermuth & Zarrinabadi, 2020). In this study, in the teacher technology policy scale, only the discouraging and encouraging policies were included and in the data collection phase, the use of wireless devices for socialization was removed from the scale. ...
Chapter
This chapter reports on a qualitative and longitudinal investigation into the willingness to communicate (WTC) of Iranian migrants in their past Iranian English classrooms, in their present New Zealand pre-university classrooms, and in the community outside. By means of questionnaires, observations, stimulated recall, and multiple interviews with these learners and their classroom teachers, the question is addressed as to whether their past learning experiences affected their present WTC, and which elements of classroom and community context facilitate or inhibit their readiness to speak. In the process of this investigation, the relevance of dynamic systems theory and the usefulness of an ecological framework are explored in order to describe the nature of their WTC, ranging from the micro context of the classroom to the macro context of the wider society of Iran and New Zealand. Factors which affect their past English language learning experiences in Iran were family influence, type of school, and teacher expertise, whereas now in New Zealand their relationships with their classmates, opportunities to speak in and out of class, and the effect of different types of curriculum are revealed.
... In another study, Ellis et al. (2010) found that sending three texts during a class session led to an average of 16 points reduction in students' scores. In an experimental study, Kuznekoff and Titsworth (2013) discovered that students who used phones while watching a short video lecture scored 1.5 grades lower than those with no distraction. Similarly, Gingerich and Lineweaver (2014) reported that students who texted in class scored 14% lower than those who did not. ...
... In the related literature, the emphasis is on the two-faced nature of technology use. Some believe that it can lead to students' distraction if used for non-learning purposes and potentially hinder learning (Barak et al., 2006;Campbell, 2006;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013) On the other hand, it can potentially promote leaning if used appropriately (Freiermuth & Zarrinabadi, 2020). In this study, in the teacher technology policy scale, only the discouraging and encouraging policies were included and in the data collection phase, the use of wireless devices for socialization was removed from the scale. ...
Chapter
This study investigated the effects of teachers’ immediacy, self-disclosure, and technology policy on developing students’ willingness to communicate (WTC) in an Iranian EFL classroom context. The sample included 220 EFL learners in a private language institute in Isfahan, Iran. Four questionnaires were administered to assess the participants’ WTC as well as their teacher’s immediacy, self-disclosure, and technology policy. The collected data were then analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of SEM showed that teacher immediacy, self-disclosure, and technology policy positively predict students’ WTC. This study has some pedagogical implications for teaching English to EFL learners.
... On the one hand, the amount of information about social affairs has increased exponentially. Most mobile users in China have 56 applications installed on their smartphone (Cao, 2019) and it is reasonable to assume that this leads to more notifications and messages that divide personal attention, distract routines, and increase cognitive overload (Kuznekoff and Titsworth, 2013). On the other hand, information use is more self-directed than that of social use because users can control the pace of information encoding, storage, and retrieval to restrain information within their own cognitive capacity. ...
Preprint
Smartphone ownership is growing rapidly in China. Using a national sample of smartphone users, this study examined how different uses of the smartphone were related to emotional and psychological well-being, while examining the mediating role of perceived information overload. Results showed that social use, informational use, and entertainment use of the smartphone were positively associated with various indicators of well-being, while social use of the smartphone was also related to perceived information overload. Moreover, perceived information overload mediated the relationship between social use and psychological well-being. Findings point to the important role of perceived information overload in attenuating the potential positive effects of social uses of the smartphone on well-being. Keywords: smartphone uses, social use of the smartphone, information overload, emotional well-being, psychological well-being SMARTPHONES IN CHINA AND WELL-BEING 2
... On the one hand, the amount of information about social affairs has increased exponentially. Most mobile users in China have 56 applications installed on their smartphone (Cao, 2019) and it is reasonable to assume that this leads to more notifications and messages that divide personal attention, distract routines, and increase cognitive overload (Kuznekoff and Titsworth, 2013). On the other hand, information use is more self-directed than that of social use because users can control the pace of information encoding, storage, and retrieval to restrain information within their own cognitive capacity. ...
Preprint
Smartphone ownership is growing rapidly in China. Using a national sample of smartphone users, this study examined how different uses of the smartphone were related to emotional and psychological well-being, while examining the mediating role of perceived information overload. Results showed that social use, informational use, and entertainment use of the smartphone were positively associated with various indicators of well-being, while social use of the smartphone was also related to perceived information overload. Moreover, perceived information overload mediated the relationship between social use and psychological well-being. The findings point to the important role of perceived information overload in attenuating the potential positive effects of social uses of the smartphone on well-being.
... Overuse of digital devices in class for non-class purposes seems to interfere with the learning experience and students' ability to focus (Froese et al., 2012;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;McCoy, 2016). One of the reasons students cite for overusing their devices is a constant need to stay connected -also referred to as FOMO (fear of missing out) -which is a form of anxiety that borders on obsession or compulsion (Rosen & Samuel, 2015). ...
Chapter
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New technologies have become pervasive in the way people live, work, learn and communicate, challenging our values and norms in education and literacy. This chapter argues that along with the traditional access inequalities, there is a new and increasingly concerning digital divide that separates those who have the literacies to use technology in a critical, responsible and sophisticated manner and those who do not. After exploring the impact of this disparity on students, this chapter introduces a Digital Literacies (DLs) framework and explores the role of English Language Teaching (ELT) in bridging the gap. Finally, the principles underlying the integration of DLs into language education contexts are laid out along with practical considerations of what this may involve.
... Kuznekoff and Titsworth [19] examined the impact of mobile phone usage during a class lecture on student learning in three different study groups (control, low-distraction and high-distraction). Students who were not using their mobile phones had better intellectual performance: they wrote down 62% more information in their notes, took more detailed notes, were able to recall more detailed information from the lecture, and scored a full letter grade and a half higher on a multiple-choice test than students who were actively using their mobile phones. ...
Article
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Our study aims to identify students’ attitudes towards the use of mobile technologies (MT) during learning activities in higher education. Data were collected using the Mobile Technologies Questionnaire/MTQ, a ten-item brief questionnaire that was designed to determine attitudes towards the use of mobile technologies in the learning process among university students and academic staff. The MTQ was completed by 575 students from a state university in the northeastern region of Romania. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed two latent factors: MT facilities for study resources and communication and MT facilities for learning. Along with general analysis of the statistical indicators regarding the attitude towards the use of MT, the relationships between the use of MT and five socio-demographic variables (gender, age, place of residence, year of study, academic status and study program) were analyzed. Comparative data showed some statistically significant differences but with small or modest effect sizes, depending on age, year of study, place of residence, academic status and the study program in which the students were enrolled. This study provides additional support for the construct validity of a brief tool that was designed to measure students’ attitudes towards the use of MT during learning activities carried out in higher education.
... Conversely, some studies focused on problems mobile phone use creates in EFL classrooms. Kuznekoff and Titsworth (2013) discovered that student mobile phone use during a video lecture negatively affected students' note taking performance, which eventually led to poorer assessment results. Dubon's study (2018) considered detrimental psychological factors: due to the constant use of mobile phones, Dubon found that when students are denied access during class time negative effects to mood or anxiety occurred that proved detrimental to their learning. ...
Article
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The use of smartphones among university students is like a double-edged sword (Qi, 2019), on the positive side, it can boost academic performance; on the negative side usage (or the restriction of it) can detract from learning. The studies offered seem to create a dichotomy: smartphone use during class is either positive or negative. This paper, however, aims to reveal how students’ smartphone use in the classroom is an intricate, conflicting picture that has several layers of complexity creating a confusing picture for the instructor as to how, when, or why to use smartphones in the classroom. In order to explore Taiwanese university students’ potential conflicting viewpoints on the smartphone uses during class time, this study collects both quantitative and qualitative data for data analysis. All the questionnaire respondents used their smartphones during class time. The main reason they do so is due to learning purposes (e.g., check English words online, participate in class activities). However, it is interesting to note that the most frequent uses for the students are for personal reasons, e.g., check the time, check personal messages. Moreover, quantitative data shows that 2/3 of the participants in this study believed that it is all right to use their smartphone during the class, because being able to check information online aids their learning during the class. On the other hand, about 1/3 of the students believed that cellphone use is a distraction for them during the class. Semi-structured interviews also reveal that the interviewees expressed that they have mixed feelings about the appropriateness of the use of smartphones during class. Hopefully, these data can shed light on how teachers approach students’ smartphone uses policy in class.
... This negative correlation remained after controlling for GPA, ACT score, and attendance. In another experimental study, Kuznekoff et al. (2013) divided participants in three groups (non-multitasking, low-distraction, and high-distraction) and had them watch a video lecture while taking notes. To evaluate the learning performance, they were asked to complete assessments. ...
Article
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Aim/Purpose: This article aimed to design and evaluate a pedagogical technique for altering students’ classroom digital multitasking behaviors. The technique we designed and evaluated is called course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE). With this technique, the students wrote a research article based on a multitasking experiment that the instructor conducted with the students. The students conducted a literature review, developed their own research questions, they analyzed experiment data, and presented results. This study evaluated the how the CURE contributed to student multitasking behavior change. Background: Multitasking is defined as doing more than one thing at a time. Multitasking is really the engagement in individual and discrete tasks that are performed in succession. Research showed that students multitasked very often during courses. Researchers indicated that this was a problem especially for online teaching, because when students went online, they tended to multitask. Extant research indicated that digital multitasking in class harmed student performance. Multiple studies suggested that students who multitasked spent more time finishing their tasks and made more mistakes. Regardless of students’ gender or GPA, students who multitasked in class performed worse and got a lower grade than those who did not. However, little is known about how to change students’ digital multitasking behaviors. In this study, we used the transtheoretical model of behavior change to investigate how our pedagogical technique (CURE) changed students’ digital multitasking behaviors. Methodology: Using a course-based undergraduate research experience design, a new classroom intervention was designed and evaluated through a content analysis of pre- and post-intervention student reflections. As part of the course-based undergraduate research experience design, the students conducted a literature review, developed their own research questions, they analyzed experiment data, and presented results. This study evaluated the how teaching using a course-based undergraduate research experience contributed to student multitasking behavior change. Transtheoretical model of behavior change was used to investigate how our pedagogical technique changed students’ digital multitasking behaviors. Contribution: The paper described how teaching using a course-based undergraduate research experience can be used in practice. Further, it demonstrated the utility of this technique in changing student digital multitasking behaviors. This study contributed to constructivist approaches in education. Other unwanted student attitudes and behaviors can be changed using this approach to learning. Findings: As a result of CURE teaching, a majority of students observed the negative aspects of multitasking and intended to change their digital multitasking behaviors. Sixty-one percent of the participants experienced attitude changes, namely increased negative attitude towards multitasking in class. This is important because research found that while both students and instructors believed off-task technology use hinders learning, their views differed significantly, with more instructors than students feeling strongly that students’ use of technology in class is a problem. Moreover, our study showed that with teaching using CURE, it is possible to move the students on the ladder of change as quickly as within one semester (13 weeks). Seventy-one percent of the students reported moving to a higher stage of change post-intervention. Recommendations for Practitioners: Faculty wishing to curb student digital multitasking behaviors may conduct in-class experimentation with multitasking and have their students write a research report on their findings. Course-based undergraduate research experiences may make the effects of digital multitasking more apparent to the students. The students may become more aware of their own multitasking behaviors rather than doing them habitually. This technique is also recommended for those instructors who would like to introduce academic careers as a potential career option to their students. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers should explore changing other unwanted undergraduate student behaviors with course-based undergraduate experiences. Researchers may use the transtheoretical model of change to evaluate the effectiveness of techniques used to change behaviors. Impact on Society: The negative outcomes of digital multitasking are not confined to the classroom. Digital multitasking impacts productivity in many domains. If techniques such as those used in this article become more common, changes in multitasking intentions could show broad improvements in productivity across many fields. Future Research: This paper constitutes a pilot study due to the small convenience sample that is used for the study. Future research should replicate this study with larger and randomized samples. Further investigation of the CURE technique can improve its effectiveness or reduce the instructor input while attaining the same behavioral changes.
... For many students phones are disturbing and distract in making concentration. 16 Additionally, medical education include bedside, clinical subjective teaching programs and in some departments hands-on practical session and field visits in community medicine. This practical aspect of teaching highly restricted in online education. ...
Article
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COVID-19 may have changed the 'physical classroom', but learning doesn’t stop. In global perspective, digitalization played a major role in medical education of forensic medicine and other subjects when COVID-19 lockdown forced. Physical classroom were not possible due to safety norms so as to maintain social distancing. Post lockdown continuing digital transformation got more momentum. Challenges and opportunities started coming in front for students and faculties. This study was done to analyze impact of transition of teaching methodology to students in medical institutions.
... The use of smartphone technologies has been researched in different educational aspects, such as preparation for examination [2] and enhancing students' vocabulary development [3]. Other scholars have investigated the use of mobile technologies and applications in student learning [4][5][6], mobile blended learning [7], enhancing learner participation and transforming pedagogy [8], to conduct student voting and the enhancement of engagement and participation [9]. Some scholars have looked at smartphone applications in the medical field [10,11] and those of engineering and technical education [12]. ...
Article
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Recent years have seen an increasingly widespread use of online learning technologies. This has prompted universities to make huge investments in technology to augment their position in the face of extensive competition and to enhance their students’ learning experience and efficiency. Numerous studies have been carried out regarding the use of online and mobile phone learning platforms. However, there are very few studies focusing on how university students will accept and adopt smartphones as a new platform for taking examinations. Many reasons, but most recently and importantly the COVID-19 pandemic, have prompted educational institutions to move toward using both online and mobile learning techniques. This study is a pioneer in examining the intention to use mobile exam platforms and the prerequisites of such intention. The purpose of this study is to expand the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by including four additional constructs: namely, content quality, service quality, information quality, and system quality. A self-survey method was prepared and carried out to obtain the necessary basic data. In total, 566 students from universities in the United Arab Emirates took part in this survey. Smart PLS was used to test the study constructs and the structural model. Results showed that all study hypotheses are supported and confirmed the effect of the TAM extension factors within the UAE higher education setting. These outcomes suggest that the policymakers and education developers should consider mobile exam platforms as a new assessment platform and a possible technological solution, especially when considering the distance learning concept. It is good to bear in mind that this study is initial and designed to explore using smartphones as a new platform for student examinations. Furthermore, mixed-method research is needed to check the effectiveness and the suitability of using the examination platforms, especially for postgraduate higher educational levels.
... However, pedagogical decisions that appreciably add to student screen time must be considered carefully. Kuznekoff and Titsworth (2013) found adverse effects of cell phone use on concentration among university students and Acharya, Acharya, and Waghrey (2013) noted that university students in their study experienced anxiety, irritation, and insomnia, as well as headaches and eye strain. Xreading. ...
Conference Paper
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The value of extensive reading (ER) for English language learners is well-documented in improving students’ reading comprehension and reading speed (Beglar & Hunt, 2014), vocabulary and spelling (Pigada & Schmitt, 2006), students’ motivation to read (Judge, 2011), and their writing readiness (Tudor & Hafiz, 1989; Park, 2016). However, in introducing ER into existing university curricula, educators face numerous challenges. These include competing curricular demands, accessing suitable materials, and monitoring student progress. Furthermore, Beglar and Hunt (2012) found that over a year, students needed to read at least 200,000 words in order to realize gains in reading speed and comprehension. That threshold bears “the time-on-task principle” (Nation, 2007) in ER in which “the more time you spend doing something, the better you are likely to be at doing it” (p.1).
... Other ways in which information and communication technology can be used in education as stated by Kuznekoff & Titsworth (2013) include: Supporting conventional classroom work; the teacher could ask his/her students to use information and communication technology approach. Helping in the design and development of learning materials. ...
Article
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This study focused on the negative influence of information and communication technology on child education in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state. Four specific purposes and four research questions were posed for the study. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Population of the study consist of 520 school teachers and headmistresses in the 18 public primary schools in Awka South Local Government Area. The study utilized disproportionate stratified sampling technique to select 230 respondents (10 headmistresses and 220 teachers). A 16-itemed structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three (3) experts while a reliability coefficient value of 0.82 was obtained which indicates a high reliability index. 230 copies of the questionnaire were distributed while 212 retrieved, which yielded 92% return rate. The research questions were answered using mean. The decision rule was analyzed with mean score above 2.50 regarded as agreed, while any mean score below 2.50 was regarded as disagreed. The findings of the study showed that computer addiction is one of the most influential negative effects of information and communication technology on child education with the responses exceeding the stated benchmark. The study concluded that information and communication technology usage if not properly supervised, can be detrimental to child education. The study therefore recommended that parents and teachers should supervise their wards usage of information and communication technology devices in order to effectively checkmate its negative effects.
... Multitasking with mobile phones can disrupt both classroom learning and studying (for review, see Chen & Yan, 2016). In one study, participants who were assigned to not use their phones during a video lecture took more detailed notes and performed better on a multiple-choice exam than participants who were allowed to use their phones (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013). Findings such as these have also led many instructors to ban the use of mobile phones in class. ...
Chapter
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Digital technologies have changed the everyday use of human memory. When information is saved or made readily available online, there is less need to encode or maintain access to that information within the biological structures of memory. People increasingly depend on the Internet and various digital devices to learn and remember, but the implications and consequences of this dependence remain largely unknown. The present chapter provides an overview of research to date on memory in the digital age. It focuses in particular on issues related to transactive memory, cognitive offloading, photo taking, social media use, and learning in the classroom.
... Some studies focused on negative impacts of smartphones on students' learning in higher education. Specifically, texting, a behavior admitted by 92% students during class time (Tindell & Bohlander, 2012), and posting to a social network site were proved to impair students' note-taking behaviors and subsequent performance on exams (Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013), both frequency and attention to texting and social media were positively related to classroom distractions (David et al., 2014;Langmia & Glass, 2014;Lepp et al., 2015). The increasing use of or addiction to smartphones in the classroom would lead to decreasing academic performance (Hong et al., 2012;Jacobsen & Forste, 2011;Kim et al., 2019;Lepp et al., 2015;Tossell et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The increasing prevalence and use of smartphones among college students have changed the teaching and learning arena, leading to a surge in research on integration of smartphones in education, especially language education. While most studies focused on the use of smartphones after class for language learning, this study aimed at identifying factors affecting students’ satisfaction with and perceived learning performance in the practice of integrating smartphones in EFL classrooms. The partial least squares structural equation modeling technique was used on data gathered from a sample of 278 college students in a Chinese university. The proposed research model exhibited high predictive power and relevance, confirming nine hypotheses out of twelve. Students’ continuance intention towards the practice of integrating smartphones in EFL classrooms were positively and significantly influenced by social influence, facilitating conditions, perceived enjoyment and learner control. Continuance intention, together with perceived enjoyment, and learner control showed a significantly positive impact on students’ satisfaction. Both continuance intention and satisfaction were determining factors in students’ perceived learning performance. All these factors should be carefully considered in teaching design with extensive use of smartphones in EFL classrooms.
... On the one hand, the amount of information about social affairs has increased exponentially. Most mobile users in China have 56 applications installed on their smartphone (Cao, 2019) and it is reasonable to assume that this leads to more notifications and messages that divide personal attention, distract routines, and increase cognitive overload (Kuznekoff and Titsworth, 2013). On the other hand, information use is more self-directed than that of social use because users can control the pace of information encoding, storage, and retrieval to restrain information within their own cognitive capacity. ...
Article
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Smartphone ownership is growing rapidly in China. Using a national sample of smartphone users, this study examined how different uses of the smartphone were related to emotional and psychological well-being, while examining the mediating role of perceived information overload. Results showed that social use, informational use, and entertainment use of the smartphone were positively associated with various indicators of well-being, while social use of the smartphone was also related to perceived information overload. Moreover, perceived information overload mediated the relationship between social use and psychological well-being. Findings point to the important role of perceived information overload in attenuating the potential positive effects of social uses of the smartphone on well-being. Keywords: smartphone uses, social use of the smartphone, information overload, emotional well-being, psychological well-being
... Other ways in which information and communication technology can be used in education as stated by Kuznekoff & Titsworth (2013) include: Supporting conventional classroom work; the teacher could ask his/her students to use information and communication technology approach. Helping in the design and development of learning materials. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on the negative influence of information and communication technology on child education in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state. Four specific purposes and four research questions were posed for the study. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Population of the study consist of 520 school teachers and headmistresses in the 18 public primary schools in Awka South Local Government Area. The study utilized disproportionate stratified sampling technique to select 230 respondents (10 headmistresses and 220 teachers). A 16-itemed structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three (3) experts while a reliability coefficient value of 0.82 was obtained which indicates a high reliability index. 230 copies of the questionnaire were distributed while 212 retrieved, which yielded 92% return rate. The research questions were answered using mean. The decision rule was analyzed with mean score above 2.50 regarded as agreed, while any mean score below 2.50 was regarded as disagreed. The findings of the study showed that computer addiction is one of the most influential negative effects of information and communication technology on child education with the responses exceeding the stated benchmark. The study concluded that information and communication technology usage if not properly supervised, can be detrimental to child education. The study therefore recommended that parents and teachers should IJSER
... In turn, other researchers emphasize their positive role in promoting different skills: information searching, learning process, reading and writing, besides strengthening the social capabilities, ( see Motiwalla, 2007;Rau et al. 2008;Holley and Dobson, 2008;and Frimpong et al., 2016). In either case, the possibilities of the mobile devices as a support in the learning process, also known as mobile learning (see O'Malley et al., 2005), have not been entirely explored, particularly in the higher education context (see Kuznekoff and Titsworth, 2013;and Krull and Duart, 2017). The use of different gamification techniques in the educational methodologies has been extensively studied as an alternative to the traditional ones, promoting active attention of the students, increasing the engagement and enhancing their motivation (see Deterding et al., 2011;Lee and Hammer, 2011;Seaborn and Fels, 2015;Subhash andCudney, 2018 andVillagrasa et al., 2018). ...
Conference Paper
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New technologies, such as mobile devices, must not remain outside the world of engineering education. In most cases, teachers perceive mobile devices as a problem and not as a potential learning tool. In this paper, a useful methodology for incorporating mobile devices during class lectures on different bachelor degrees in engineering is presented. This methodology focuses on solving online quizzes. As a result, the students enjoy doing a gamified learning activity while teachers gain valuable information about the learning process of the subject. This proposal has been welcomed and followed by the students. The level of satisfaction among the students who followed the activities is also quite positive.
... In addition to these, the inclusion of students in multiple tasks aimed at the course leading to focus problems, it also leads to the lack of necessary care required by courses requiring more detailed content, a drop in participation in multitasking and a drop in the tendency to remain on task, a drop in cognitive performance personally, and lack of free time to learn new things and participate in different activities (Wood, et al., 2012;Bellur, et al., 2015). In addition, performing activities such as writing messages, reading and commenting via social media during online lessons can be distracting for students (Wei, et al., 2012;Kuznekoff and Titsworth, 2013). Another negative aspect of the use of social media tools in terms of educational and academic performance is that the rate of use of internet and social media tools outside the objectives of the students increases and this situation causes the students to lose motivation and their academic grades to decline (Michikyan, et al., 2015;Giunchiglia, et al., 2018;Chang, et al., 2019;Evers, et al., 2020;Spence, et al., 2020;Whelan, et al., 2020). ...
... Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013]. Another research published by the University of Chicago found that even if cell phones are turned off, turned face down or put away, their mere presence reduces people`s cognitive capacity[Adrian et al, 2017]. ...
Article
Mobile technology has a tremendous capacity to connect people. It also brought a revolutionary change in day-to-day activities and in various sectors such as entertainment, health, agriculture, employment, revenue earning and social change. It has also some negative impacts like cellphone addiction, wasting time, distraction and radiation-related health issues. This paper focuses on the impacts of mobile technology in Bangladesh perspective. Both secondary and primary data have been used to conduct this survey. The result shows that mobile phone technology and their providers make a significant contribution to GDP and directly and indirectly generated 0.80 million jobs in Bangladesh. The most important finding is young people prefer internet or social sites to television, and the duration of spending leisure in mobile phone is increased significantly whether spending time with family, reading newspaper-books decreased remarkably. Result also shows that the internet has more negative impacts on younger people than on older ones. The effect of radiation from mobile device and mobile tower, and ways to reduce its risk have been discussed in this paper.
... According to the findings, the majority of RS (85.71 %) and PG students (82.22 %) read books to gain knowledge, whereas less than two-thirds of RS (61.42 %) and PG students (62.22 %) read for exams. People began using mobile phones for reading after they were launched [30][31] , and many students are becoming increasingly distracted as a result of this [32][33][34] , thus half of the RS (55.71 %) and PG students (52.22 %) read for pleasure. Only 42.22 per cent of PG students read to keep themselves updated, even though almost two-thirds of RS (68.57 ...
Article
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This study examined the reading habits among Research scholars and Postgraduate (PG) students in Pondicherry University. Out of the 13 schools of Pondicherry University, 6 schools were selected for the study based on simple random sampling. The purposes of using the various types of reading materials, the accessibility and the use of the Internet and online reading materials and the problems faced while reading were looked at in this study. The survey method and questionnaire tool are used in conducting this study. The findings highlighted some of the factors related to reading habits and interest in Pondicherry University. The study is expected to stimulate further in-depth studies that may help improve reading habits and interests and increase the value of the Central library of Pondicherry University. The findings also revealed that their reading habits changed after joining the university. Most respondents enjoy reading for pleasure and read 2-3 hours during weekends and 4-6 hours during exam days, preferably during the night. While reading, they took small breaks and their break time varied from 5-20 minutes. The majority of them are reading to gain knowledge, preparing for exams. Most of them also confirmed that their reading certainly impacted their academic performance and helped in their vocabulary, learning new facts, and gaining more knowledge. It is observed that the majority of the Research Scholars and PG Students stated the main reasons that are negatively affecting their reading habits is because of their busy schedule of classes. The majority of the respondents indicated that due to lack of concentration, they are not able to read well.
... Digital distraction hinders learning in the classroom. Experimental research has consistently shown that students who multitask with their digital devices during ongoing lectures take fewer notes (Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Kuznekoff et al., 2015;Waite et al., 2018) and perform worse on posttests immediately following those lectures (Demirbilek & Talan, 2018;Flanigan & Titsworth, 2020;Ravizza et al., 2014) than their peers who do not engage in off-task behavior. Moreover, digital distraction affects long-term retention of lecture information. ...
Chapter
Student use of digital devices for non-class purposes has become ubiquitous in college classrooms across the globe—a phenomenon commonly referred to as digital distraction. The purpose of the chapter is to provide readers with an overview of the prevalence of student digital distraction in college classrooms, an understanding of the factors that contribute to student digital distraction, and a summary of the outcomes experienced by students who succumb to digital distraction during class. The reviewed research indicates that mobile phones and laptop computers are the devices used most for off-task purposes during class. Environmental and person-centered factors appear especially consequential for the motivational interference potential of mobile devices in college classrooms. Unfortunately, student digital distraction has deleterious effects on student learning and the quality of student-instructor rapport in college classrooms. The chapter concludes with descriptions of five strategies college instructors can use to curb student digital distraction in their classrooms.
... Today, the way mobile phones are used has become a big issue. A study found that students who did not use their mobile phones during lectures wrote down 62% more information in their notes, took more detailed notes, could recall more detailed information from the lecture, and scored a full letter grade and a half higher on a multiple choice test than students who used their mobile phones actively 2) . Again, 7172 questionnaires from students from 17 Universities of 10 Eastern and Southern Europe countries were gathered and processed with the results showing that there is indeed a statistical connection 3) . ...
Research
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Objective: This study investigated mobile phone utilization and health information-seeking behaviour among economics education students in selected Nigerian Universities in Southeast Nigeria. Method: This cross-sectional study employed convenience sampling technique to study a sample of 300 economics education students across different levels of study. Data was collected using a questionnaire assessing students mobile phone utilization and health information-seeking behaviour. Frequency and percentage were used for analysis of data. Results: Results show that 40% of the students surveyed said they greatly use mobile phones for academic purposes and seeking of academic-related information. Others indicated using mobile phones moderately for these purposes. Also, 60% of the students said they greatly use mobile phones for social media communication and internet surfing for information related to their health. Recommendation: Feasible measures are required to assist these students to live a balanced life in terms of how they use mobile phones for academic and other non-academic purposes. KEY WORDS mobile phone utilization, health information-seeking behavior, economics education students
... We did not find any significant differences in reading time or quiz performance between participants who repeatedly used a gaming app while reading and participants who did not. Given the previous research on interruptions on learning performance (Conard & Marsh, 2014;Kuznekoff & Titsworth, 2013;Oulasvirta & Saariluoma, 2004), this result was unexpected. One possible explanation that could not be addressed within the previous study, was that participants did perhaps not miss any information during the game because they had stopped reading to play and then started reading again at the same point in the text. ...
Article
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Many university students use mobile phones during study tasks for unrelated activities. It is known that using social networking while studying reduces the learning performance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether using smartphone games during a lecture reduces the learning performance, and whether this is influenced by receiving push notifications. Ninety-three students were randomized to three conditions: In two gaming conditions (G), participants played a custom-made gaming-app (20 s) at 2-min intervals while watching a video mimicking a lecture. In one subgroup (GN+), the game app sent push notifications; in the other (GN-), no notifications were sent. Participants in the control group (C) watched the lecture without playing. Subsequently, participants answered multiplechoice questions and estimated their own quiz performance. Comparing the quiz scores and subjective performance estimates of the three groups showed that the learning performance in GN+ was lower than in C (d = 0.51); no other differences were observed. Participants’ subjective performance estimations remained unaffected by the experimental condition. Possible implications of the divergence of the subjective estimate and objective performance are discussed, as well as limitations, such as the low complexity of the game used and the short lecture duration, not reflective of typical lectures.
Book
This paper takes a look at blogging and mobile learning, the two technologies that underpin the learner's experience of technology-enhanced learning. Each technology is critically discussed in terms of how it supports teaching and learning and judged against its strength and weaknesses in specific contexts. Based on concrete evidence, including the author's design of the learning activity, key recommendations were given to other practitioners as to how they can use each technology for teaching. One finding is that, as traditional classrooms change, blogging can help students develop the necessary educational skills, but more research is needed to understand the changing nature of teaching and learning as a result of using blogs. To overcome many obstacles related to mobile technology, a solid strategy was recommended. In conclusion, the author found the concept of individual and collaborative learning useful, especially in understanding the experience of learners in a given context. Key Words : Use of Blog in Learning, Online and Distance Education, Mobile Learning, Students and Teachers’ Experience with Technology, Web 2.0 Tools, Individual and Collaborative Learning, Learning Design and Specification. https://www.grin.com/document/1012752
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the reading habits among Research scholars and Postgraduate (PG) students in Pondicherry University. Out of the 13 schools of Pondicherry University, 6 schools were selected for the study based on simple random sampling. The purposes of using the various types of reading materials, the accessibility and the use of the Internet and online reading materials and the problems faced while reading were looked at in this study. The survey method and questionnaire tool are used in conducting this study. The findings highlighted some of the factors related to reading habits and interest in Pondicherry University. The study is expected to stimulate further in-depth studies that may help improve reading habits and interests and increase the value of the Central library of Pondicherry University. The findings also revealed that their reading habits changed after joining the university. Most respondents enjoy reading for pleasure and read 2-3 hours during weekends and 4-6 hours during exam days, preferably during the night. While reading, they took small breaks and their break time varied from 5-20 minutes. The majority of them are reading to gain knowledge, preparing for exams. Most of them also confirmed that their reading certainly impacted their academic performance and helped in their vocabulary, learning new facts, and gaining more knowledge. It is observed that the majority of the Research Scholars and PG Students stated the main reasons that are negatively affecting their reading habits is because of their busy schedule of classes. The majority of the respondents indicated that due to lack of concentration, they are not able to read well.
Chapter
Mobile devices are the necessary part of equipment for the busy life of modern people. Recent studies revealed that students use mobile phones in the educational environment more and more often. But there is a gap in empirical works related to the issue of what exactly do Russian students do with their smartphones during the class and how is this smartphone use connected to their academic motivation. In this study authors aimed to examine different aspects of smartphone usage by Russian university students during class in association with academic motivation, satisfaction with education, and indicators of problematic smartphone use. The study involved 437 participants aged between 17 and 34 years, 70,02% female. The findings revealed that students who used smartphones for academic purposes had expressed intrinsic academic motivation and learning achievements. Generally, students had sooner positive intentions towards smartphone use during the class and tended to disclaim distracting forms of smartphone use. Results have shown that students who actively used smartphones while learning, less satisfied with their education. Problematic smartphone use had a strong association with distracting forms of smartphone use during the class.
Article
Purpose The autonomous governments of two regions in Spain established mobile bans in schools as of the year 2015. Exploiting the across-region variation introduced by such a quasi-natural experiment, this study aims to perform a comparative-case analysis to investigate the impact of this non-spending-based policy on regional Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores in maths and sciences and bullying incidence. Design/methodology/approach The authors apply the synthetic control method and diff-in-diff estimation to compare the treated regions with the rest of regions in Spain before and after the intervention. Findings The results show noticeable reductions of bullying incidence among teenagers in the two treated regions. The authors also find positive and significant effects of this policy on the PISA scores of the Galicia region that are equivalent to 0.6–0.8 years of learning in maths and around 0.72 to near one year of learning in sciences. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first empirical study analysing the impact of mobile phone bans in schools on bullying cases, exploiting variation across regions (or other units), years and age intervals. Besides, the scarce formal evidence that exists on the consequences of the mobile phones use in students’ academic achievement comes from a micro perspective, while the paper serves as one more piece of evidence from a macro perspective.
Article
Post-pandemic exigencies such as isolation, technology fatigue, and financial pressures can be embraced as opportunities to return to, and strengthen, core values in honors involving student agency and community. This essay considers the pedagogical benefits of receding from technology in the classroom. Drawing on recent empirical research concerning the deleterious effects of tech in the lives of students, particularly as they relate to community and agency, authors make the case for providing students with tech-minimal experiences. The essay presents several examples of tech-minimal experiences from the authors’ own teaching inside and outside of the classroom—including Tech Shabbats, communal reading, and contemplative walks. Survey data and student reports indicate the positive effects of these experiences and an efficacy for bolstering community and student agency. Authors suggest that the temptation to go tech heavy in a pandemic (and post-pandemic) classroom must be reconsidered, especially in light of the amplified role tech already plays in students’ lives. Authors conclude that at a time when financial pressures threaten to constrain what honors programs can do, tech-minimal experiences are inexpensive ways to enrich students’ lives and make what is best about honors education flourish.
Chapter
Students are distracted by mobile technology in the classroom when learning from lectures and outside the classroom when studying. Students are susceptible to distractions because they are not fully engaged in learning. In the classroom, they record notes mindlessly that capture just one-third of important lesson ideas. When they study outside the classroom, they study information in a piecemeal fashion and employ mindless repetition strategies. These weak and unengaging learning strategies open the door for digital distractions. One potential means to engage students in meaningful learning and to offset digital distractions is an integrated strategy system called SOAR, which stands for select, organize, associate, and regulate. This chapter describes SOAR and how instructors can maximize SOAR's components to curb digital distractions by improving student note taking in the classroom and study behaviors outside the classroom. The chapter concludes by specifying how instructors can teach students to SOAR on their own.
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Teacher emotions are important yet understudied in the classroom. The current study explores how teachers manage their emotions in the classroom. More specifically, we apply the five feeling rules that describe how college instructors’ emotional labor performances shape their experiences in the classroom. Through a qualitative theoretical thematic analysis, we found support for the five rules: (1) having affection for students, (2) showing enthusiasm for subject matter, (3) handling “dark” emotions, (4) loving their work, and (5) having a sense of humor. In addition, a sixth feeling rule, using emotions as learning tools, is also prominent in the data. Overall, the study adds to conceptual and theoretical knowledge about how college teachers perform emotional labor while teaching.
Chapter
https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-69094-6?page=1#toc Quality and efficiency in Social Work? Do we assure the preconditions for quality through licensing, regulation, accreditation and standards? Should we focus more on the efficiency of social workers’ activity? Entry into “legality” of social service providers by obtaining accreditation as providers and by licensing for social services offered is a process that is not easy to go but mandatory in present. Our research analyses the accreditation of social service providers and the licensing process of residential centers for elderly in Romania. Taking into consideration the legal minimal standards we examined the way these are put in practice and we identified different ideas for improvement.
Chapter
The smartphone use is increasing at an unprecedented pace all around the world. Researchers try to reveal its influence on people, particularly the students. The present qualitative research study aims to enlighten smartphone influence on architecture students in Design Studio I (DS I) in an educational perspective. One hundred and thirty-three architecture students coming from different nations attended the present study. The students were in their second semester of architecture department. They answered two open-ended questions. Data is analyzed through content analysis. Except for few applications variation in nationality did not manifest to a significant difference. Students’ smartphone use reasons emerged in eight categories, while their self-critics emerged in three categories, and finally recommendations for efficient use of the smartphone in six. Students use the smartphone both for academic and non-academic reasons. Students’ success of assignments in the studio I course depends on both academic and nonacademic smartphone uses. Students use the smartphones frequently and would like to use more often. Students would like to use their smartphones to access on-point information, easily, and rapidly without putting in much effort. Students urged actions from their teachers and department managers accordingly, but criticize their use as well. The students may not be aware of the critical targets of DS I. Students need guidance and motivation while using smartphones for DS I to fulfill targets. Recommendations for smartphone use were presented.
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Students with learning disabilities in reading often have difficulty with comprehension. Four participants with learning disabilities, ages 16 and 17, were assessed in listening comprehension to determine the effects of two treatments, text-to-speech and human reader. Results of this single subject, alternating treatments study indicate that student mean scores on excerpts and multiple-choice listening comprehension quizzes from a required grade level reading were greater during the human reader treatment. Implications and conclusions of this study revealed that text-to-speech may benefit students with learning disabilities who struggle with reading and comprehension when used as a supplement to explicit teacher instruction; however, the text-to-speech was not as effective as a human reader on listening comprehension for students with learning disabilities.
Article
Laptop use within college courses has been a topic of debate for nearly two decades. Completely banning laptops from college classes may seem appealing given the potential drawbacks, but these policies may have unintended consequences. One seemingly successful intervention that can address these conflicting goals is the use of laptop zones and laptop-free zones which allows students who want to use their laptops to continue to do so, without hindering the performance of those who do not. We examine the efficacy of this intervention through the lens of the theory of self-regulated learning. We implemented laptop(-free) zones in two large college courses with a total of 168 students, 60 of whom reported sitting in a laptop-zone. Students sitting in the laptop-free zone performed better on objective measures of learning on the day of learning new material, but this difference was not significant five days later on a measure of retention. Further, there were no differences between these groups on self-rated performance at the point of retention. By examining open-ended responses regarding their motivation to sit in the laptop-free zone or the laptop-zone, we found students who sat in the laptop-free zone typically reported wanting to avoid distractions and enhance their memory of the material/class performance compared to those who sat in the laptop zone. Also, more individuals who sat in the laptop zone reported doing so to ensure completeness of their notes, to look up extra course-related material, and to complete non-course related tasks while listening to the lecture. Lastly, we pose of set of future directions aimed at learning more about the use of laptops in and outside of class, and how we can help students be successful using laptops for learning.
Article
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Media multitasking became increasingly popular over the past decade. As this behavior is intensely taxing cognitive resources, it has raised interest and concerns among academics in a variety of fields. Consequently, in recent years, research on how, when, and why people media multitask has strongly emerged, and the consequences of the behavior for a great variety of outcomes (such as working memory, task performance, or socioemotional outcomes) have been explored. While efforts are made to summarize the findings of media multitasking research until date, these meta, and literature studies focused on specific research subdomains. Therefore, the current study adopted a quantitative method to map all studies in the broad field of media multitasking research. The bibliometric and thematic content analyses helped us identifying five major research topics and trends in the overall media multitasking domain. While media multitasking research started by studying its prevalence, appearance, and predictors, early research within the domain was also interested in the impact of this media consumption behavior on individuals' cognitive control and academic performance. Later on in 2007, scholars investigated the implications of media multitasking on the processing of media- and persuasive content, while its impact on socioemotional well-being received attention ever since 2009. Our analyses indicate that research within the field of media multitasking knows a dominant focus on adolescents, television watching, and cognitive depletion. Based on these findings, the paper concludes by discussing directions for future research.
Chapter
Students increasingly control their learning as university instructors shift away from lecture formats, courses are offered online, and the internet offers near infinite resources for student-controlled informal learning. Students typically make effective choices about learning, including what to learn, when to learn, and how to learn, but sometimes make less-than-optimal study choices, including trying to study while multi-tasking. Dividing attention among various tasks impairs both learning and learners' control over their learning because secondary tasks divert cognitive resources away from learning and metacognition. This chapter reviews recent studies explaining how dividing attention affects students' metacognition, including their assessments of their own learning and the study choices that they make. This chapter reviews the fundamentals of metacognition, describes the impact of dividing attention on the effectiveness of learners' metacognition, and provides suggestions about how to enhance the efficacy of metacognition when students' attentional resources are limited.
Chapter
This chapter examines the distractive potential of digital devices and summarizes existing scholarly work in this area. The chapter begins with a background on the overall problem of distractions caused by digital devices and how this problem has changed over time. This is followed by a detailed accounting of the digital distractions research, emphasizing the role of message relevance in this process, as well as discussion of research that has examined the interplay between note-taking and digital distractions. The last major section summarizes scholarly work and additional sources that provide examples of how mobile devices, and technology more broadly, can be used in the classroom to help support student learning.
Chapter
The words we use to describe technology in the college classroom matter and should be carefully selected and defined at the onset of any fruitful discussion of the subject. This chapter frames the discussion of technology in the classroom by defining and redefining salient terms, as well as exploring metaphors through which technology in the classroom can be more deeply understood. The constructs of phubbing, presence, interpersonal attraction, immediacy, and rapport are discussed; additionally, tool, text, system, ecology, and drug are evaluated as potentially instructive metaphors. Ultimately, this chapter aims to not only describe mobile technology and its effects in the classroom, but also to aid the reader in examining his or her own thought processes in understanding it. The presence of technology in the classroom is a complex, multifaceted, and still emergent phenomena, and warrants robust consideration on the part of each individual instructor.
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OBJECTIVES: Smartphone addiction is a growing concern that can impact social, psychological, and health, while contributing to functional impairments. This study aimed to determine the relationship between smartphone addiction and the grade point average (GPA) of undergraduate college students in the U.S. METHODS: This descriptive study consisted of 53 undergraduate college students. The Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) and overall grade point average (GPA) was gathered via survey. The data was analyzed through Pearson’s correlation to demonstrate the association between these variables. FINDINGS: While not statistically significant at the α = .05 level, the results suggest an almost statistically significant negative correlation (r = -0.210, p = .066) indicating a weak but noteworthy association between smartphone addiction and GPA. CONCLUSION: Smartphone addiction is a growing concern that has shown to impact quality of life in Asian countries. These results suggest further research with larger samples in the U.S. is needed to inform college students of the risks smartphone addiction can have on academic success.
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A pesar de su potencial, en muchas ocasiones, los dispositivos móviles son vistos como elementos de distracción en las instituciones educativas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar en qué medida se puede mejorar la actitud de los estudiantes de primer grado de bachillerato acerca del uso de los dispositivos móviles en el aprendizaje a través de una investigación-acción. Para ello, se realizaron tres fases: a) diagnóstico, b) intervención y c) evaluación. Los resultados revelaron que la investigación-acción tuvo un impacto positivo en la opinión de los estudiantes con respecto a la utilización académica de los dispositivos móviles (70 a 80); utilización práctica de las redes sociales (58 a 72); identidad digital (39 a 73) y uso reflexivo de las TIC (de 73 a 77). Esto permite concluir que la aplicación de la metodología investigación-acción puede ser una herramienta eficaz para la resolución de problemas en el ámbito educativo. Palabras clave: aprendizaje móvil, investigación social, sociedad del conocimiento, tecnología educacional, TIC.
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Even though research studies have consistently found that personal cell phone usage during classes has a deleterious impact on learning, faculty are often unwilling to ban the activity because of strong student resistance and a desire to maintain a positive student-instructor relationship. This paper presents a successful strategy for eliminating student cell phone use in the classroom while avoiding the ill-will and resistance usually associated with attempts to regulate student use of electronic devices during class.
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As more secondary students with learning disabilities (LD) enroll in advanced content‐area classes and are expected to pass state exams, they are faced with the challenge of mastering difficult concepts and abstract vocabulary while learning content. Once in these classes, students must learn from lectures that move at a quick pace, record accurate and complete notes, and then demonstrate their mastery of the content on tests. This article provides an overview of the challenges faced by students with LD in content‐area classes and discusses the problems that students have learning from lectures and recording notes. Further, the article discusses theory and research related to note‐taking and presents note‐taking interventions that teachers can use to help students improve their note‐taking skills, and ultimately, improve their achievement in these classes.
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In this on-road experiment, drivers performed demanding cognitive tasks while driving in city traffic. All task interactions were carried out in hands-free mode so that the 21 drivers were not required to take their visual attention away from the road or to manually interact with a device inside the vehicle. Visual behavior and vehicle control were assessed while they drove an 8 km city route under three conditions: no additional task, easy cognitive task and difficult cognitive task. Changes in visual behavior were most apparent when performance between the No Task and Difficult Task conditions were compared. When looking outside of the vehicle, drivers spent more time looking centrally ahead and spent less time looking to the areas in the periphery. Drivers also reduced their visual monitoring of the instruments and mirrors, with some drivers abandoning these tasks entirely. When approaching and driving through intersections, drivers made fewer inspection glances to traffic lights compared to the No Task condition and their scanning of intersection areas to the right was also reduced. Vehicle control was also affected; during the most difficult cognitive tasks there were more occurrences of hard braking. Although hands-free designs for telematics devices are intended to reduce or eliminate the distraction arising from manual operation of these units, the potential for cognitive distraction associated with their use must also be considered and appropriately assessed. These changes are captured in measures of drivers' visual behavior.
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Computer-mediated classrooms are proliferating and instructors are finding creative ways to reach the digital learners of today. But with all these technology tools, making decisions that are guided by solid pedagogical practices are vital. This study relies on instructional communication, multicommunication practices, and interactivity research and how they play key roles when creating a participatory classroom environment. The tool used to address the problems outlined in this case study is webconferencing-a synchronous Web-based platform that allows the instructor to share slides, create real-time surveys (polls), and provide text chat opportunities for students who are co-located or dispersed. By leveraging the webconferencing tools and the desires of the Net Generation, the classroom in this study became more inclusive, communicative, and interactive.
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In this study, we examined the relationship between perceived technology policies and perceived teacher credibility, as well as the extent to which teachers' use of power bases mediates this association. Participants included 294 undergraduate students from a private university in the Southwest. Results revealed that policies encouraging technology use for educational purposes are related to all three dimensions of teacher credibility (i.e., competence, character, and caring), whereas failing to establish clear technology policies is associated with reduced credibility. Further, teacher power mediates the relationship between perceived teacher technology policies and perceived teacher credibility. Results suggest that instructors should have clear technology policies in place, regardless whether the policies permit or restrict wireless communication technology in the classroom.
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This study investigated whether texting during class influences students' cognitive learning. A theoretical model was proposed to study the relationships among college students' self-regulation, texting during class, sustained attention to classroom learning, and cognitive learning (i.e., grade-oriented academic performance and experience-oriented cognitive learning). Using a cross-sectional survey sample (N=190), structural equation modeling analyses showed that texting during class partially mediates the effect of students' self-regulation on their sustained attention to classroom learning. In addition, students' sustained attention fully mediates the effect of their texting during class on experience-oriented learning. Thus, the results also suggest that self-regulated students are less likely to text during class and are more likely to sustain their attention to classroom learning, which, in turn, facilitates cognitive learning.
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This study examined the impact of mobile communications on interpersonal relationships in daily life. Based on a nationwide survey in Japan, landline phone, mobile voice phone, mobile mail (text messaging), and PC e-mail were compared to assess their usage in terms of social network and psychological factors. The results indicated that young, nonfamily-related pairs of friends, living close to each other with frequent face to-face contact were more likely to use mobile media. Social skill levels are negatively correlated with relative preference for mobile mail in comparison with mobile voice phone. These findings suggest that mobile mail is preferable for Japanese young people who tend to avoid direct communication and that its use maintains existing bonds rather than create new ones.
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Lecture listening is one of the most common classroom experiences for college students. Unfortunately, students are relatively inefficient notetakers in these situations; in fact, students record less than 40% of the information from lectures. This experiment explored the effects of two lecture cues, immediacy and organizational statements, on students' (n = 104) notetaking effectiveness. Results indicated that students recorded more details and organizational points when listening to lectures with prominent organizational cues, and they also recorded more details when listening to lectures with lower levels of immediacy. The number of details and organizational points recorded in students notes were strongly related to learning outcomes as measured by three separate tests.
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This experiment used scripted, videotaped lectures to test the effects of teacher immediacy (high vs. low), use of organizational cues (with cues vs. no cues) and student notetaking (took notes vs. no notes) on students' cognitive learning. 223 students enrolled in the basic communication course at a large Midwestern university participated in the study. Results indicated that learning immediately after viewing a lecture is greater when the lecture contains organizational cues and students take notes. Also, delayed retention is greater when students take notes and view lectures containing organizational cues and immediate behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This experiment investigated 3 newly classified note-taking functions: encoding (take notes/no review), encoding plus storage (take notes/review notes) and external storage (absent self from lecture/review borrowed notes), relative to 3 note-taking techniques (conventional, linear, matrix). Results pertaining to note-taking functions indicated that encoding plus storage was superior to encoding and to external storage for recall performance and superior to encoding for synthesis performance. External storage was also superior to encoding for synthesis performance. Results pertaining to note-taking techniques indicated that matrix notes produced greater recall than conventional notes. Results were explained by variables relating to repetition, generative processing, the completeness of notes, and the potential of note-taking techniques to facilitate internal connections. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Taking notes is of uttermost importance in academic and commercial use and success. Different techniques for note-taking utilise different cognitive processes and strategies. This experimental study examined ways to enhance cognitive performance via different note-taking techniques. By comparing performances of traditional, linear style note-taking with alternative non-linear technique, we aimed to examine the efficiency and importance of different ways of taking notes. Twenty-six volunteer adult learners from an information management course participated in this study. Cognitive performance scores from a traditional linear note-taking group were compared with another group by using a commercially available non-linear note-taking technique. Both groups were tested in two settings: after a classroom lecture and a panel forum discussion. Tasks included measures on story comprehension, memory, complexity of mental representations and metacognitive skills. Data analysis revealed that the non-linear note-takers were significantly better than the linear group both in terms of the quantity and the quality of the learned material. This study demonstrates the importance of using cognitively compatible note-taking techniques. It identifies the cognitive mechanisms behind effective note-taking and knowledge representation. Using such techniques enables deeper understanding and more integrated knowledge management.
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Notetaking and review are positively related to academic achievement, but many students record too few notes to benefit fully from these activities. This paper presents ten factors that may constrain notetaking and review, and provides corresponding implications for improving these study behaviors and for conducting further research. Some instructional implications are that students should record more extensive and conceptual notes and that instructors can help students by organizing their presentations, reducing lecture rate, pausing for notetaking, emphasizing key ideas and encouraging alternate frameworks for notetaking and review. Instructors can also facilitate learning by providing learners with notes for review and with knowledge about testing. In addition, instructors should consider the cognitive processing differences among students because certain learners are likely to find notetaking dysfunctional relative to other means of acquisition. The implications for research focus on determining the optimal notetaking and review activities.
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Previous research has shown that providing written organizational lecture cues boosts notetaking and that boosting notetaking raises achievement. Lecture learning literature, however, is silent on whether spoken organizational lecture cues boost notetaking and achievement. To find out, participants listened to a lecture that contained or did not contain spoken organizational lecture cues. Participants either recorded lecture notes or refrained from notetaking while listening to the cued or uncued lecture. Results showed that spoken organizational lecture cues boosted the number of noted organizational points and details by 39 and 35%, respectively. Results also confirmed that lecture cues and notetaking work to raise achievement. Notetaking resulted in about 13% higher test achievement than not taking notes. Cueing raised test achievement 15–45% versus noncueing. Educators are encouraged to use spoken organizational cues while presenting lectures.
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College students viewed a videotaped lecture with or without taking notes. Average performance between the two groups did not differ on an immediate test. The encoding effect of note taking was therefore unsupported. Two days later, note takers reviewed their notes while listeners reviewed the instructor's notes in preparation for the delayed exam. Subjects who reviewed the instructor's notes achieved significantly more, on factual items, than did subjects who reviewed their own relatively brief and unorganized notes. Thus, listening to a lecture and subsequently reviewing the instructor's notes prior to a delayed exam leads to relatively higher achievement than does the traditional method of taking and reviewing personal lecture notes.
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With the advent of new technology in vehicles, drivers can access information in many different forms (email, address books, Web pages) and from many information sources (cell phones, PDAs, driver support systems). With these new information sources finding their way into cars comes increasing concern about the potential adverse effects resulting from drivers' interactions with such multi-function devices. This paper examines the disruptive impact of complex, interactive, hands-free cell phone communications upon the visual awareness of drivers proceeding through high volume intersections. The present study documents changes in driver visual behavior, resulting from cognitive distraction of speech-based interactions, that may contribute to intersection crashes. The results of this research raise significant HCI implications for the design of interactive Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) within the automotive sector.
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This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.
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Behavioral studies have shown that engaging in a secondary task, such as talking on a cellular telephone, disrupts driving performance. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the impact of concurrent auditory language comprehension on the brain activity associated with a simulated driving task. Participants steered a vehicle along a curving virtual road, either undisturbed or while listening to spoken sentences that they judged as true or false. The dual-task condition produced a significant deterioration in driving accuracy caused by the processing of the auditory sentences. At the same time, the parietal lobe activation associated with spatial processing in the undisturbed driving task decreased by 37% when participants concurrently listened to sentences. The findings show that language comprehension performed concurrently with driving draws mental resources away from the driving and produces deterioration in driving performance, even when it does not require holding or dialing a phone.
Now you see it: How the brain science of attention will transform the way we live, work, and learn
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Davidson, K. N. (2011). Now you see it: How the brain science of attention will transform the way we live, work, and learn. New York, NY: Viking.
Facebook statistics Teacher power mediates the effects of technology policies on teacher credibility
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Examining the affects of student multitasking with laptops during the lecture The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data
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