ArticlePDF Available

Influence of probiotic supplementation on immune response of broiler chicks

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial probiotic supplementation (Bactocell® containing live bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici) on immunity of broiler chickens. A total of 800 Ross one day-old broiler chicks were grown over 42 days. Chicks were wing-banded, individually weighed and randomly allocated into four equally major groups each of two replicates. Chicks of group 1 (control group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that were not supplemented with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed control starter and finisher diets plus 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of probiotic per kg of feed, respectively for 42 days. The probiotic treatment groups showed significantly higher antibody levels against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) compared to the control group. A significant increase was recorded in the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius in all probiotic supplemented groups compared to the control one. There was a significant increase in the relative weight of spleen at 42 days of age in all probiotic treatment groups as compared to the control group. Probiotic supplementation significantly (p<0.05) increased the relative weight of thymus in all probiotic treatment groups at 28 and 42 days of age as compared to the control group. This indicates an enhancement effect of probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) on the immune system of broilers was detected.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Egypt. Poult. Sci. Vol (30) (I): (271-280)
INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON
IMMUNE RESPONSE OF BROILER CHICKS
By
A. Alkhalf
1
, M. Alhaj
2
, and I. Al-Homidan
3
1
Vet. Med. Dept., College of Agric and Veterinary Med, Qassim Univ.,
Saudia Arabia
2
Vet. Med. Dept., College of Agric and Veterinary Med, Thamar Univ.,
Yemen
3
Dept. of Animal Prod. and Breeding, College of Agric and Vet. Med.,
Qassim Univ., Saudia Arabia
.Received: 10/02/2010
Accepted: 22/02/2010
Abstract :The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a
commercial probiotic supplementation (Bactocell
®
containing live bacteria
Pediococcus acidilactici) on immunity of broiler chickens. A total of 800
Ross one day-old broiler chicks were grown over 42 days. Chicks were
wing-banded, individually weighed and randomly allocated into four
equally major groups each of two replicates. Chicks of group 1 (control
group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that were not supplemented
with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed control starter and
finisher diets plus 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of probiotic per kg of feed,
respectively for 42 days. The probiotic treatment groups showed
significantly higher antibody levels against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)
compared to the control group. A significant increase was recorded in the
relative weight of bursa of Fabricius in all probiotic supplemented groups
compared to the control one. There was a significant increase in the relative
weight of spleen at 42 days of age in all probiotic treatment groups as
compared to the control group. Probiotic supplementation significantly
(p<0.05) increased the relative weight of thymus in all probiotic treatment
groups at 28 and 42 days of age as compared to the control group. This
indicates an enhancement effect of probiotic (Pediococcus acidilactici) on
the immune system of broilers was detected.
A. Alkhalf, M. Alhaj, and I. Al-Homidan
272
INTRODUCTION
In most countries, poultry meat is the major animal protein produced
and consumed which necessitates intensive production of broilers to meet
all the needs. As a consequence, the use of antimicrobial agents became a
major concern to treat and protect broiler flocks from microbial diseases.
The deleterious effect of broad application of antimicrobials in poultry
industry on consumers have been well documented. Therefore, there is a
worldwide attempt to reduce antibiotic use in poultry production which
cause increased microbial resistance to antibiotics and residues in animal
products that can be harmful to consumers (van den Bogaard and
Stobberingh, 2000; Caprioli et al., 2000 and Pelicano et al., 2004). In order
to meet market and international health organization demands, the poultry
industry is seeking alternatives to antibiotics that could be both
economically feasible and maintain performance levels. The so called
probiotics can be listed among these products.
A probiotic is a live microorganism, which when consumed in
adequate amounts; confer a healthy effect on the host (Guarner and
Schaafsma, 1998). According to the currently adopted definition FAO and
WHO (2001), probiotics are: Live microorganisms which when
administered in adequate amounts confer a healthy benefit on the host.
While reports of probiotic effects on the immune response in chickens are
more limited compared with mammals, similar results have been described.
Panda et al. (2000) supplemented diet with various level of probiolac
probiotic (a commercial probiotic mixture of lactic acid bacteria, and
Aspergillus oryzae) and observed that a significant increase in antibody
production at 10 days of postimmunization when sheep red blood cells
(SRBCs) were injected in broiler chickens at 14 days of age and at 5 days of
postimmunization when SRBC were injected at age of 21 days. However,
after 28 days of age, no significant difference was found in the antibody
production at 5 and 10 days of postimmunization. Haghighi et al. (2005)
reported that probiotic-treated birds had significantly more serum antibody
(predominantly immunoglobulin M (IgM)) to SRBCs than the birds that
were not treated with probiotics. Rowghani et al. (2007) reported that
broiler chickens fed diet supplemented with probiotic had a significant
increase in the Newcastle antibody titers compared with those of control
group. Teo and Tan (2007) observed that the birds provided
feed
supplemented with Bacillius subtilis PB6 had a significantly
heavier
bursa
weights compared with the antibiotic supplementation and negative
control
groups. However, neither the studied treatments nor the control had any
Probiotic, Immune Response, Broiler.
273
effect on the relative weights of spleen. Willis et al. (2007) found that the
bursa and spleen relative weight significantly increased in male broiler
chickens receiving the probiotic supplementation. The present study was
planned to investigate the effects of supplementing diets with a monospecies
commercial probiotic (Bactocell
®
) on broiler immunity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Housing and experimental design:
A total number of 800, one day-old broiler chicks (obtained from
Alwadi Company for Poultry), were grown over 42-day period. Chicks were
wing-banded, individually weighed and randomly assigned to four treatment
groups following completely randomized design. There were 100 birds per
replicate and two replicates per treatment group. The chicks of each
replicate were kept in a separate pen measuring 3 m long and 3 m wide at
the Agricultural and Veterinary Experiment Station, College of Agriculture
and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University. Feed and water were provided
ad libitum. Ventilation, air condition and temperature in each room were
controlled by a DicamFSC2.2M master unit (Farm Energy and Control
Services Ltd “Farmex”, Pinewood, Reading RG 303VR, United Kingdom).
Chicks of group 1 (control group) were fed the starter and finisher diets that
were not supplemented with probiotic. The chicks of groups 2, 3, and 4
were fed the control starter and finisher diets plus 1.6 g, 1 g and 0.8 g of a
commercial probiotic (Bactocell
®
) per kg of ration, respectively. Diets were
formulated to provide the recommended requirements for broiler (without
added antibiotics, or growth promoters).The starter diet was replaced by the
finisher diet at 4 weeks of age.
Probiotic:
A probiotic commercially identified as Bactocell
®
was used as a test
feed additive in this study. Bactocell was purchased from Lallemand Animal
Health Company, France. The bacterial flora in the Bactocell probiotic has
mentioned to be Pediococcus acidilactici in a concentration of 10
9
CFU/g
(colony forming unit).
Evaluation of immune response:
Vaccination of chickens using Newcastle disease vaccine:
At 14 days, 20 birds from each group were vaccinated with killed
Newcastle disease virus vaccine (Merial Company, France). Vaccination
was carried out by intramuscular inoculation using automatic syringe.
Preparation and dosage of the vaccine was followed according to the
A. Alkhalf, M. Alhaj, and I. Al-Homidan
274
instructions of the manufacturer. Blood samples were collected
prevaccination at 14 days and postvaccination at 21, 28, and 42 days of age.
Detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in serum of
immunized chickens was performed by enzyme linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA) using commercial kits (BioChek B.V., Holland). The assay
was carried out as described by the manufacturer. Briefly, chicken serum
samples were diluted and added to the microtitre wells. Then anti-chicken
IgG labeled with enzyme alkaline phosphatase was then added to the wells.
After another wash to remove unreacted conjugate, substrate was added to
the appropriate wells in the form of pNPP (p-Nitrophenyle Phosphate)
chromogen and incubated at room temperature for 30 minutes. Stop solution
WAS ADDED TO STOP REACTION. FINALLY, THE ABSORBANCES
OF SAMPLES WERE recorded by microtitre plate reader.
Relative weights of lymphoid organs (thymus, bursa and spleen):
At days 7, 28 and 42 of age, 10 birds from each group were
sacrificed and their total body weights were recorded. Then birds were
opened and the lymphoid organs (thymus, bursa and spleen) were carefully
removed and individually weighed. The relative weights of the different
organs were calculated as percentage of live body weight.
Data were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance using GLM
procedure (SAS Institute, 1999).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Concerning immune response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the
probiotic supplementation had no effect on maternal antibody levels against
NDV. This was indicated by comparison between samples of probiotic-
supplemented chickens and control ones prior to immunization (at 14 days
of age). Findings of this study (Table1) demonstrate that probiotic had a
significant enhancement effect on antibody titres against NDV at 42 days of
age. This was met with the three levels of probiotic. Meanwhile, there were
no significant differences between samples taken at 21 and 28 days of age (7
and 14 days postimmunization).
These findings are in agreement with those of many preceding
studies. In one of those studies, Rowghani et al. (2007) reported that broiler
chickens fed a diet supplemented with probiotic had a significant increase in
the Newcastle antibody titers than control group. In another study by Lee et
al. (2007) described that probiotic containing Pediococcus acidilactici
enhanced serum antibody response to Eimeria acervulina. In a different
study, Koenen et al. (2004) described that Pediococcus acidilactici had
Probiotic, Immune Response, Broiler.
275
different effects on the gastrointestinal tract and immune system of birds
depending on their genetics and age, suggesting that the different types of
birds (layer versus broiler) may require different doses of probiotics at
different intervals.
The positive effect of feeding diet containing probiotic on the
immune response indicates the enhancement of the formulating bacteria on
an acquired immune response exerted by T and B lymphocytes. The direct
effect might be related to stimulate the lymphatic tissue (Kabir et al., 2004),
whereas the indirect effect may occur via changing the microbial population
of the lumen of gastrointestinal tract. Shoeib et al. (1997) reported that the
bursa of probiotic-treated chickens showed an increase in the number of
follicles with high plasma cell reaction in the medulla. Christensen et al.,
(2002) suggested that some of these effects were mediated by cytokines
secreted by immune system cells stimulated with probiotic bacteria.
Commensally, bacteria presented in intestinal microbiota are in close
contact with cells of the immune system. It has recently been demonstrated
that resident dendritic cells (DC) in the intestinal lamina propria have the
capacity to directly sample the gut lumen by projecting their dendrites
through the tight junctions of epithelial cells (Rescigno et al., 2001). The
recognition of commensal bacteria or their structural components by Toll-
like receptors (TLR) presented on surfaces of DC could lead to the
activation and maturation of these cells (Rakoff-Nahoum et al., 2004).
Differential activation of DC by commensal bacteria promotes the
establishment of T-helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th3 responses and the secretion
of cytokines, such as interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, and transforming growth
factor β, that are important for antibody production and isotype switching
(Christensen et al., 2002, Di Giacinto et al. 2005).
Concerning the relative weights of lymphoid organs (spleen, bursa
and thymus) as indicative parameters, results are presented in Table 2. It
could be concluded that there were no significant changes on the relative
weight of spleen nearly at all ages except at 42 days of age, where there was
a significant increase in all probiotic treatment groups compared to the
control group. This may indicate the delayed response of spleen to the effect
of probiotic as it is a secondary lymphoid organ that develops its proper
functions with age. The increase in the relative weight of spleen at 42 days
A. Alkhalf, M. Alhaj, and I. Al-Homidan
276
of age is in agreement with the findings of Willis et al (2007) who found
that the feeding broilers on probiotic caused increases in the relative weights
of spleen of treatment group. In contrast, Teo and Tan (2007) found no
significant differences in the relative weights of the spleen in broilers fed
the diet containing probiotic compared with control groups. The final
diversification and affinity maturation of chicken
B cells in spleen germinal
centers was studied by Arakawa et al.,(1996). Following stimulation by
antigen, postbursal
B cells were able to generate somatic variants in splenic
germinal
centers. The size of these germinal centers was maximized by
day
7 of the primary response and had begun to wane by 14 day. The results
obtained in this work revealed clearly that there is a significant increase in
the relative weight of bursa of Fabricious in some probiotic treatment
groups than the control group. Moreover, the probiotic treatment groups of
levels (1.6 and 1 g/kg ration) exhibited higher increase on the relative
weight of bursa than the other group receiving probiotic of 0.8 g/kg ration at
28 and 42 days of age (Table 3).Increased in the relative weight of bursa
may be attributed to increase the number of immune cells. Findings
encountered in this study is in agreement with that of Shoeib et al. (1997)
who found that the bursa of Fabricious in probiotic- treated group showed
an increase in the number of follicles with high plasma cell reaction in the
medulla. Meanwhile, Teo and Tan (2007) observed that birds provided
feed
supplemented with Bacillus. subtilis PB6 had a significantly
heavier
bursa
weight compared with control
groups.
The effect of probiotic on the relative weight of thymus was also
investigated in this study as shown in Table (2). Probiotic supplementation
significantly has increased the relative weight of thymus in all probiotic
treatment groups at 42 and 28 days of age compared to control group.
Increase in the weight of thymus may be due to the effect of probiotic
bacteria on the functional activities of the immune system responses which
led to increase in the number of lymphocytes in the primary lymphoid
organs. There were no publications found to compare the current results
with other work that has investigated the effect of probiotic (pediococcous
acidilactici) on relative weight of thymus. This work is the first document in
the effect of probiotic on the relative weight of thymus in broiler chickens.
Probiotic, Immune Response, Broiler.
277
In conclusion, early supplementation of the probiotic (Pediococcus
acidilactici) to broiler diet enhances their immune response.
Table1. Antibody titres to Newcastle disease virus in chickens fed on
rations containing different concentration of probiotic
Week of
treatment
Antibodies titer against Newcastle disease by ELISA
Probiotic supplementation (g/kg diet)
Control
1.6 g/kg
1 g/kg
0.8 g/kg
673.6 ± 93.38
a
819.8 ± 93.38
a
685.6 ± 93.38
a
597.4 ± 93.38
a
2114.4 ± 87.25
a
1958.5 ± 87.25
a
1941.2 ± 87.25
a
1912.8 ± 87.25
a
2781.3 ± 150.19
a
3201.5 ± 150.19
a
2843.7 ± 150.19
a
3063.0 ± 150.19
a
2675.9 ± 247.15
b
3518.5 ± 247.15
a
3601.0 ± 247.15
a
3504.6 ± 247.15
a
Means within rows with no common letters are significantly different (P<0.05).
Table 2. Relative weight of lymphoid organs of chickens fed on rations
containing different concentration of probiotic.
Age in
week
Treatment groups
The relative weight of lymphoid organs
Spleen
Bursa
Thymus
1
control
0.123 0.002
a
0.347 0.01
a
0.360 0.01
a
1.6 g/kg
0.12 0.002
a
0.341 0.01
a
0.364 0.01
a
1 g/kg
0.12 0.002
a
0.34 0.01
a
0.360 0.01
a
0.8 g/kg
0.121 0.002
a
0.351 0.01
a
0.379 0.01
a
4
control
0.164 0.004
a
0.219 0.01
b
0.379 0.02
b
1.6 g/kg
0.172 0.004
a
0.243 0.01
ba
0.428 0.02
a
1 g/kg
0.170 0.004
a
0.243 0.01
ba
0.413 0.02
a
0.8 g/kg
0.175 0.004
a
0.265 0.01
a
0.429 0.02
a
6
control
0.146 0.005
b
0.050 0.002
b
0.339 0.01
b
1.6 g/kg
0.154 0.005
ba
0.059 0.002
a
0.412 0.01
a
1 g/kg
0.155 0.005
ba
0.059 0.002
a
0.43 0.01
a
0.8 g/kg
0.162 0.005
a
0.056 0.002
ba
0.419 0.01
a
Means within rows with no common letters are significantly different (P<0.05).
A. Alkhalf, M. Alhaj, and I. Al-Homidan
278
REFERENCES
Arakawa, H., S. Furusawa, S. Ekino, and H. Yamagishi (1996):
Immunoglobulin gene hyperconversion ongoing in chicken splenic
germinal centers. EMBO J. 15:25402549.
Caprioli A, Busani L, Martel JL, Helmuth R (2000): Monitoring of
antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin: epidemiological and
microbiological methodologies. International Journal of Antimicrobial
Agents. 14:295-304.
Christensen, H. R., H. Frokiaer, and J. J. Pestka (2002): Lactobacilli
differentially modulate expression of cytokines and maturation surface
markers in murine dendritic cells. Journal of immunology. 186:171-178.
Di Giacinto, C., M. Marinaro, M. Sanchez, W. Strober, and M.
Boirivant (2005): Probiotics ameliorate recurrent Th1-mediated
murine colitis by inducing IL-10 and IL-10-dependent TGF-beta-
bearing regulatory cells. J. Immunol. 174:32373246.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World
Health Organization (2001): Evaluation of health and nutritional
properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic
acid bacteria. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO October 2001.
Guarner F and Schaafsma GJ (1998): Probiotics. International Journal of
Food Microbiol. 39: 237-238.
Haghighi, H.R. J. Gong, C.L. Gyles, M. A. Hayes, B. Sanei, P. Parvizi,
H. Gisavi, J.R. Chambers and S. Sharif (2005). Modulation of
Antibody-Mediated Immune Response by Probiotics in Chickens.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 12:1387-1392.
Kabir SML, Rahman MM, Rahman MB and Ahmed SU (2004): The
dynamics of probiotics on growth performance and immune response
in broilers. International Journal of Poultry Science, 3: 361-365.
Koenen, M.E., J. Karmer, R. van der Hulst, L. Heres, S.H. Jeurissen
and W.J. Boersma, 2004. Immunomodulation by probiotic lactobacilli
in layer and meat-type chickens. Br. Poult. Sci., 45: 355-366.
Lee S, Lillehoj HS, Dalloul RA, Park DW, Hong YH, Lin JJ (2007):
Influence of Pediococcus-based probiotic on coccidiosis in broliler
chickens. Poultry science. 86:63-66.
Probiotic, Immune Response, Broiler.
279
Panda, A.K., M.R. Reddy, S.V.R. Rao, M.V.L.N. Raju and N.K.
Praharaj, 2000. Growth, carcass characteristics, immunocompetence
and response to Escherichia coli of broilers fed diets with various
levels of probiotic. Archiv fur Geflugelkunde., 64: 152-156.
Pelicano ERL, Souza PA, Souza HBA, Leonel FR, Zeola NMBL and
Boiago MM (2004): Productive traits of broiler chickens fed diets
containing different growth promoters. Brazilian Journal of Poultry
Science. 6:177-182.
Rakoff-Nahoum, S., J. Paglino, F. Eslami-Varzaneh, S. Edberg, and R.
Medzhitov (2004) : Recognition of commensal microflora by Toll-like
receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis. Cell 118:229241.
Rescigno, M., M. Urbano, B. Valzasina, M. Francolini, G. Rotta, R.
Bonasio, F. Granucci, J. P. Kraehenbuhl, and P. Ricciardi-
Castagnoli (2001) : Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and
penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat. Immunol.
2:361367.
Rowghani, E. M. Arab and Akbarian, A (2007): Effects of a Probiotic
and Other Feed Additives on Performance and Immune Response of
Broiler Chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science 6: 261-265.
SAS Institute. 1999. SAS User’s Guide. Version 8. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.
Shoeib HK, Sayed AN, Sotohy SA, and Abdel Ghaffar SK (1997):
Response of broiler chicks to probiotic (pronifer) supplementation.
Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 36: 103-116.
Teo AY and Tan HM (2007): Evaluation of the Performance and
Intestinal Gut Microflora of Broilers Fed on Corn-Soy Diets
Supplemented With Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CloSTAT). Journal of
applied poultry. 16:296-303.
van den Bogaard AE, and Stobberingh EE (2000) : Epidemiology of
resistance to antibiotics. Links between animals and humans.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 14:327-335.
Wegmann TG and Smithies O (1966): A simple haemagglutination system
requiring small amounts of red cells and antibodies. Transfusion. 6:
67-75.
Willis WL, Isikhuemhen OS, and Ibrahim SA (2007): Performance
assessment of broiler chickens given mushroom extract alone or in
combination with probiotics. Poultry Science. 86:1856-60.
A. Alkhalf, M. Alhaj, and I. Al-Homidan
280



1

2

3
1
2
3

Bactocell
Pediococcusacidilactici
80042
200
1
2341.610.8
42

NDV

42

0.052842


... A significantly higher weight of immune organs (bursa of Fabricius) has been shown in animals fed with fermented canola meal and canola meal supplemented with probiotics compared with the weight in other treatment groups and control group [36]. The increase in the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius is likely due to an increase in the lymphocyte levels induced by the addition of probiotic microbiota to stimulate the immune response of chickens [26,42]. The weight of other immune organs, such as the spleen and thymus, was not significantly different among treatment groups [36]. ...
... However, after probiotic administration, weighing lymphoid organs (spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus) showed a significant change in the spleen relative weight on 42 days of age compared to the control group. This might be because the function of lymphoid organs develops with the developmental age of chickens [42]. However, different results were also obtained [43], showing no significant effect on the spleen weight of probiotics addition in chicken feed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aim: With the increased concerns about global protein supply, chicken meat, especially from male layer chicken, constitutes an alternative in terms of quality and carcass traits. Probiotics have been proposed for replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), which have been prohibited as poultry supplement feeds. The present study aimed to determine the efficacy of dietary supplementary probiotics during the starter period on growth performances, carcass traits, and immune organs of male layer chicken. Materials and methods: In this study, one hundred and eighty 1-day-old male chicks from the strain ISA brown were used. They were divided into six groups according to the feed: 100% basal feed (T0), basal feed+2.5 g AGP/kg feed (T1), basal feed+probiotics 1 mL/kg feed (T2), basal feed+probiotics 3 mL/kg feed (T3), basal feed+probiotics 4 mL/kg feed (T4), and basal feed+probiotics 5 mL/kg feed (T5). Probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bifidobacterium spp.) were given at a concentration of 1.2×109 colony-forming unit/mL. Virginiamycin was used as AGP. ISA brown layer chicken was treated for 21 days. Growth performances (body weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio [FCR]), carcass traits (weight at slaughter, weight of the carcass, breast muscles, liver, lungs, kidneys, and heart), immune organs (spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius), and non-edible organs (head, legs, and wings) were analyzed. Results: Probiotic supplementation at 4 and 5 mL/kg feed (T4 and T5) during the starter phase improved the body weight, FCR, and feed consumption. The weight at slaughter, weight of the carcass, breast muscles, and liver from the T4 and T5 groups were significantly greater than those in the other treatment groups. In addition, the weight of the heart, lungs, and kidneys was increased in the T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 groups compared with that measured in the T0 group. Furthermore, there were significant differences regarding the immune organs between the T0 and the other treatment groups. The weight of the head, legs, and wings was also greater in the probiotic and AGP supplementation groups (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) than that in the basal feed group (T0). Conclusion: Probiotic (L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, and Bifidobacterium spp.) supplementation at 4 and 5 mL/kg feed during the starter period can be used to improve the growth, carcass traits, and weight of immune organs in male layer chicken.
... The main beneficial effects of probiotics relate primarily to their raising of feed digestibility and bioavailability, stimulation of the immune system, improvement of health, and provision of superior organoleptic properties and chemical composition of carcasses [38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46]. ...
... Probiotic bacteria also exhibit strong immunomodulatory effects, improving the local immune mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. For example, their regular and occasional uses in poultry have been shown to have an immunostimulating effect on interferon production; activities of macrophages, heterophiles, lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells; and the production of specific antibodies [38,39,41,42,44]. In addition, it was previously concluded that probiotics exert a non-specific effect on the stimulation of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), but as antigens with relatively low immunogenicity, they do not contribute to the excessive development of the inflammatory reaction nor activate the immunological mechanisms aiming at their complete elimination [43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Campylobacter spp. are widely distributed microorganisms, many of which are commensals of gastrointestinal tract in multiple animal species, including poultry. Most commonly detected are C. jejuni and C. coli. Although infections are usually asymptomatic in poultry, poultry meat and products represent main sources of infection with these bacteria to humans. According to recent EFSA report, campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported zoonotic disease. In 2018, EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards indicated that use of feed and water additives is the second most likely strategy that can be successful in minimizing Campylobacter spp. colonization rate in broiler chickens. One of those feed and water additives are probiotics. From numerous research papers it can be concluded that probiotics exhibit plenty of mechanisms of anti-Campylobacter activity, which were evaluated under in vitro conditions. These results, to some extent, can explain the efficacy of probiotics in in vivo studies, although different outcome can be observed under these two laboratory conditions. Probiotics are capable of reducing Campylobacter spp. population count in poultry gastrointestinal tract and they can reduce carcass contamination. Potential modes of anti-Campylobacter activity of probiotics, results of in vivo studies and studies performed at a farm level are widely discussed in the paper.
... Hence, the possibility of the antibiotic as a growth stimulant ceasing to be used for poultry and the concern about the side effects of its use as a therapeutic agent has created an environment in which consumers and manufacturers are searching for alternatives. Probiotics are considered to fill this gap, and some farmers already use them, preferably to antibiotics [2][3][4]. ...
... The O27 strain of E. coli supplementation did not influence (p > 0.05) the hematological and biochemical parameters in the two groups (Groups 2 and 3), and also group 1 exhibits normal hematological parameters. These results typically agreed with Alkhalf et al. [2] and Kumar et al. [42], who recorded that The hematological and biochemical parameters were not affected (p > 0.05) by the dietary supplementation of probiotics. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the molecular characteristics of naturally mutant non-pathogenic O27 strain of Escherichia coli and its efficacy as probiotic in broilers and determine the best age at which it can be administered. Materials and methods: A total of 24 virulence genes using 24 sets of primers were detected using the polymerase chain reaction technique. For probiotics experiments, 60 chicks (day 1 old) were divided into three groups, 20 per group, and reared for 4 weeks. The first group was considered as a negative control. The second group was treated orally with O27 strain at first day of life for three successive days and repeated at day 21. The third group was administered orally with O27 strain at day 10 old, and repeated at day 21 old. Results: The data revealed that type 1 fimbrial adhesion, salmochelin siderophore receptor, and sigma factor-binding protein were detected in O27 strain, but temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin, hemolysin secretion gene, pyelonephritis-associated Pili gene, polysaccharide capsule synthesis gene, Shiga-toxin1 gene, Shiga-toxin2 gene, Brain microvascular endothelial cell invasion, E. coli attaching and effacing gene, heat-stable enterotoxin, heat-labile enterotoxin, east 1 toxin, colicin V, verotoxin type 2, necrotizing cytotoxic factor type 1, colonization factor antigen I, colonization factor antigen III, coli surface 2, coli surface 4, serine protease pic autransporter, vacuolating autotransporter toxin, and serine protease EspP precursor were not detected in O27 strain. Group 2 performance parameters were significantly better (p < 0.01) than groups 3 and 1. Hematological and biochemical parameters did not be influenced (p > 0.05) by the administration of O27 strain. Antibody titers of infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus in groups 2 and 3 were improved as compared to group 1. Group 2 had significantly higher titers than group 3. Histopathologically, all groups showed normal histopathological pictures. However, jejunum in groups 2 and 3 showed more tall, intact, and densely packed microvilli and more crypt depth than the control group. Conclusion: The O27 strain of E. coli is non-pathogenic bacteria. Its effects on growth performances and enhancement of immunity in broilers match with the same impact of probiotics, and these candidates will fit to be a good probiotic in the future. The results revealed that the effects of O27 strain at the day 1 old of life for three successive days and repeated at day 21 old are better for improving the performance and immunity of the birds. More research works about the characterized non-pathogenic E. coli strain O27 are required for field and commercial use.
... In the spleen weight of the broilers treated with the synbiotic no differences were found. Similar results were reported by Alkhalf et al. (2010), who found no difference in the spleen weight of broilers treated with a probiotic. This may indicate that the spleen develops its proper functions with age [34]. ...
... Similar results were reported by Alkhalf et al. (2010), who found no difference in the spleen weight of broilers treated with a probiotic. This may indicate that the spleen develops its proper functions with age [34]. However, it has been reported an increase in the size and weight of chickens' spleens treated with probiotics and synbiotics [35,36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Synbiotic consumption can modulate immune response. This work involves studying the effect of a synbiotic on lymphoid organs and IgA of broilers infected with Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium perfringens. A total of 258 one-day-old male broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus), line COBBAvian48 (free of growth-promoting antibiotics), were distributed into eight treatment groups. A symbiotic mix comprising Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5 M as probiotics and 4.5% (0.045 g g−1) of Agave tequilana fructans as prebiotic per dose (one milliliter) was administered through drinking water the first day of life. Bursa, spleen and thymus were analyzed. Broilers treated with the synbiotic, whether or not infected with pathogens, had bigger bursa follicles than the non-treated (p < 0.05), and the ones from the synbiotic group had more lymphocytes than the control group (p < 0.05). Thymus follicles of the synbiotic group were bigger than the control group (p < 0.05). Lesions associated with Salmonella infection were found in the bursa, however, in the broilers treated with the synbiotic, the lesions were less intense and were not present after 32 days of life. The synbiotic mix can stimulate the bursa, increasing the size of their follicles and promoting the ability to resist infections caused by S. typhimurium in broilers.
... Probiotics have a significant impact on the immunity system of poultry against invading pathogens. Probiotics induce both innate immunity and adaptive immunity via regulation of Toll-like receptors expression, activation both dendritic cells and natural killer cells, in addition increasing the responses of T-helper cells, induction cytokines production and immunoglobines secretion like IgM, IgG and IgA (Alkhalf et al. 2010;Janardhana et al. 2009;Tsai et al. 2012). Probiotics increase the number of lymphocytes in gut associated lymphoid tissues like payer's patches and intestinal mucosal cells thereby providing the local immunity by IgA secretion producing plasma cells (Haghighi et al. 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Provide a healthy diet is one of the major health challenges in the world to maintain health and nutritional status of populations. In this reason, new control strategies such as probiotics have been applied as prophy-lactic and therapeutic instead of antibiotics. In the same line, probiotics have antagonistic effects to various microorganisms proposed in several mechanisms including improvement of gut epithelial barrier function, competition on adhesive receptors, competition on available nutrients, antibacterial effects, degradation and neutralization of toxins and immunomodulatory effect. Furthermore, probiotics have significant impacts on biochemical parameters and could be used as substitutional supplements do health benefits including hypo-cholesterolemia and reduction of blood glucose. Probiotics have been explained to hypocholesterolemia and hypoglycemia through several mechanisms. Moreover, the use of probiotics in feeds enhances the protein utility in feedstuff. Thus, this review was attempted to spot generally insight on the modes of action of pro-biotics and its importance biochemically.
Article
Globally, poultry production has been an integral part of human activities, providing a major source of livelihood and food to humans. The continuous increase in the world population with an attendant rise in the demand for safe poultry products requires a global strategy for sustainable poultry production. With growing concerns over antimicrobial resistance, abolition or reduction in the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), and rising consumer demand for chemical or antibiotic-free products, identifying and applying safe, natural and economical alternatives including prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics for sustainable poultry production has become imperative. The beneficial effects of the dietary inclusion of prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics as AGP alternatives in poultry production include improved poultry health, growth performance and feed efficiency. Generally, the mechanisms through which prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics exert beneficial effects on poultry include competitive exclusion and antagonism of pathogens, modulation of intestinal microbiota, production of antimicrobial substances, stimulation of immune system, and enhancement of nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology development. The properties and beneficial effects of these emerging alternatives suggest their contribution to the improvement of poultry health, through the stimulation of diverse physiological functions (although not entirely elucidated) with better growth performance and feed efficiency. This review discusses the concept, impacts and mechanisms of the application of prebiotics, probiotics and postbiotics in sustainable poultry production. Their general acceptance and application in the poultry industry will undoubtedly result in more sustainable, safe and economic poultry production for feeding the world.
Article
Full-text available
Effect of BioGrow Feed bio-product on some technical-economic indicators of J-Dabaco broilers The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of BioGrow Feed bio-product (Lactobacillus plantarum DB1 ≥ 108, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DB2 ≥ 107 CFU/ml and Bacillus subtilis DBH5 ≥ 107 CFU/ml) supplementation on some technical-economic indicators of broilers. Total of 240 J-Dabaco chickens, 4 weeks of age, were randomly assigned into 4 groups with 3 replications to receive 4 different diets (Control diet (DC) fed basal diet and three experimental diets including KS diet fed DC supplemented with 50 mg/kg Chlortetracycline, BGFD diet fed DC with supplemental BioGrow Feed bio-product in drinking water, and BGFF diet fed DC fermented by BioGrow Feed bioproduct). The results indicated that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) final body weight and average daily gain (TKL) among diets at 4-8 weeks of age. However, at 12-14 and 4-14 weeks of age, chickens fed diet supplemented with BioGrow Feed bio-product had higher final body weight and TKL compared with DC diet (P<0.05). No changes in meat were observed among experimental diets (P>0.05). Moreover, BioGrow Feed supplementation reduced E. coli and Salmonella sp. amounts in ileum and feces and increased Lactobacillus amount in ileum of broiler. In contract, chlortetracycline decreased Lactobacillus amount in the caecum site. Villus height and villus width in the duodenum and jejunum sites were higher in chickens fed BioGrow Feed supplemented diets. The results proved BioGrow Feed bio-product had positive effects on intestinal microbiota and epithelium and performance of broiler.
Article
Full-text available
This research was conducted to evaluate the impact of dietary or drinking water Ruminococcus sp. supplementation and/or heat stress (HS) on the growth, serum biochemistry, tissue antioxidant, phagocytic assay, histopathology, and bursa gene expression of broilers. Day-old broiler chicks were allotted into six groups according to HS and/or Ruminococcus with or without enzyme supplementation. The first group was the control one, with a formulated diet and normal environmental temperature but without any supplement. The second group fed on Ruminococcus-supplemented diet (1 kg/kg diet). The third group fed on a formulated diet without supplement, and Ruminococcus and digestive enzymes were given in drinking water (0.1 ml/L). The fourth one was the heat stress group, with a normal formulated diet. The fifth and the sixth groups served as second and third groups, respectively, but with heat stress. The results of this experiment indicated that thermal temperature negatively affected the parameters of growth performance, serum biochemical, tissue antioxidants, and phagocytic assay. Moreover, heat stress led to pathological lesions in the internal organs and affected the expression of some genes related to heat stress, including proapoptotic genes such as caspase8 and bax, inflammatory genes such as NF-κβ1, and heat shock protein such as HSP 70 in the bursal tissue. These bad effects and abnormalities were mitigated by Ruminococcus alone or with enzyme supplementation, which improved all the above-mentioned parameters.
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of lactobacillus acidophilus on infected broiler chicks with E.coli. The study included 80 broiler chicks that are one day old which were divided into four equal groups (n=20). Group 1 one was given the lactobacillus acidophilus at one day old in dose of 1×10 8 CFU/0.1 orally while group 2 was given the same dose but at 21 day old. Group 3 was given the highly pathogenic E.coli at dose of 1×10 9 CFU/ml at 35 day old and was regarded as the positive control. Group 4 was given the physiological saline solution and was regarded as the negative control. All three groups were exposed to heat stress, at the age of 31day old 50% of the total number were killed and the lymphoid tissue were extracted, these include: cecaltonsils, thymus gland and Harderain gland which were fixed in 10% neutral formalin. The remaining chicks were injected with E.coli in a dose of 1×10 9 CFU/ml at the age of 35 days. All birds were scarified at the age of 38 days to investigate the lymphoid tissue and for their fixation in formalin. The result for the positive control showed that there were sloughing of the mucosal layer at the cecal tonsil in addition to heterophil infiltration of sub mucosa of Harderain gland and vacculation of epithelail cell lining of the Harderain gland, the thymus gland showed heavy lymphocytic infiltration in 2 nd group while group 1 showed moderate hyperplasia of the lymphatic tissue. We concluded that lactobacillus acidophilus play an important role in the protection against E.coli infection under heat stress especially when they are given after the development of the immune system. ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﻭﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻝﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻌﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻝﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﺤﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻝﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﺸﺭﻴﺸﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻌﻔﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻝﺢ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﺍل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻁﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ / ‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺭﺍﺥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻝﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺸﺭﻴﺸﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺜﻴﻡ‬. ‫ﺍﺸـﺘﻤﻠﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ 80 ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻝﺤﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴـﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠـﺎﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺒﻌﺔ‬) n=20 .(‫ﺃﻋﻁﻴـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺠﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬ 1×10 8 CFU /0.1 ‫ﻓﻴﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﻴـﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻝﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻭﻋﺔ‬ 21 ‫ﻴﻭﻡ‬. ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻤﺭ‬ 35 ‫ﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﺜﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﻴﺸﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻀﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻝﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ 1×10 9 CFU/ml ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬. ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺴﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻝﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﻀﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺇﻝ‬ ‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ 31 ‫ﻗﺘل‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻡ‬ 50 % ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﻤﻔﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ : ‫ﻝـﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺩﺓ‬ ، ‫ﺒﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻔﻭﺭﻤﺎﻝﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺜﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ 10 % ، ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻓﻘـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻘﻨـﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻭﻝﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺸﺭﻴﺸﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺭﺍﺜﻴﻡ‬ 1×10 9 CFU/ml ‫ﻭﺒﻌﻤﺭ‬ 35 ‫ﻴﻭﻡ‬. ‫ﺠﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﻗﺘل‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓـﺭﺍﺥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤـﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨـﺩ‬ 38 ‫ﻴـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻔﻭﺭﻤﺎﻝﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺜﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﻤﻔﺎﻭﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﺨﻼﻴـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺴﻼﺨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﺸﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻋﻭﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻁﺎﻨﺔ‬
Article
Full-text available
In this study, broilers provided feed containing 109 cfu/t Bacillus subtilis PB6 in the finisher phase had a FCR similar to those on Zn bacitracin and significantly better than that of broilers provided nonmedicated feed with no added B. subtilis PB6 (P < 0.05). Over a 42-d period, broilers provided feed with B. subtilis PB6 had comparable feed intake and FCR as the antibiotic control. The counts of Lactobacillus species and Bifidobacterium species of broilers provided feed supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 were not significantly different from the number of these bacteria recovered from broilers provided feed supplemented with antibiotics. Numerically, up to 1- to 2-log10 reduction in the number of Clostridium species recovered was observed in broilers provided feed supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 when compared with both negative and antibiotic controls. In terms of immunological response, birds provided feed supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 had significantly heavier bursas, heterophils with higher in vitro phagoctyosis for Escherichia coli, and lower ileal E. coli populations, indicating a potentiating role of B. subtilis PB6 as a probiotic on the chicken innate immune system.
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the performance of broilers. One-day-old male broiler chicks from the Cobb strain (n=1,260) were randomly distributed in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, considering 3 probiotics and 3 prebiotics sources. Nine treatments with 4 repetitions and 35 birds per parcel were used. The results showed that there was no influence of treatment on feed intake at the different rearing phases. Better weight gain (p
Article
Full-text available
Penetration of the gut mucosa by pathogens expressing invasion genes is believed to occur mainly through specialized epithelial cells, called M cells, that are located in Peyer's patches. However, Salmonella typhimurium that are deficient in invasion genes encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) are still able to reach the spleen after oral administration. This suggests the existence of an alternative route for bacterial invasion, one that is independent of M cells. We report here a new mechanism for bacterial uptake in the mucosa tissues that is mediated by dendritic cells (DCs). DCs open the tight junctions between epithelial cells, send dendrites outside the epithelium and directly sample bacteria. In addition, because DCs express tight-junction proteins such as occludin, claudin 1 and zonula occludens 1, the integrity of the epithelial barrier is preserved.
Article
Full-text available
The research work was conducted on "Hubbard Isa Starbro" broilers to evaluate the dynamics of probiotics relating to live weight gain, carcass yield, weight of cut up meat parts and immune response. Day old broiler chicks were divided into four groups as group A (Vaccinated probiotics fed group), B (Nonvaccinated probiotics fed group), C (Vaccinated conventional fed group) and D (Nonvaccinated conventional fed group). Groups C and D were taken as control birds fed with commercial ration and groups A and B as experimental birds were fed with commercial ration with the addition of 2gm probiotics (Protexin<sup>®</sup> Boost)/10 litres drinking water upto 6th week of age. The result evidenced the following information: (a) The live weight gains obtained were significantly (p<0.01) higher in experimental birds as compared to control ones at all levels during the period of 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th weeks of age, both in vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. (b) A significantly (p<0.01) higher carcass yield occurred in broiler chicks fed with the probiotics on the 2nd, 4th and 6th week of age both in vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. The weight of leg was found significantly (p<0.01) greater for experimental birds as compared to control ones on the 2nd, 4th and 6th week of age. A significantly (p<0.01) higher breast weight in broiler chicks fed with the probiotics was observed on the 4th and 6th week of age. Analogously a significantly (p<0.05) higher breast portion weight was found in experimental birds as compared to control ones during 2nd week of age. (c) The antibody production was found significantly (p<0.01) higher in experimental birds as compared to control ones. Significant differences were also observed in the weight of spleen and bursa due to probiotics supplementation. The results of the study thus revealed that probiotics supplementation promoted significant influence on live weight gain, high carcass yield, prominent cut up meat parts and immune response.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of dietary supplementation of a probiotic, Toxiban, Formycine and probiotic-Toxiban mixture on performance and immune response of broiler chicks were investigated. In a completely randomized design, one hundred fifty 14-days-old broiler chicks were assigned to 5 treatments with 5 replicates and 6 chicks in experimental unit. The experimental treatments were added to basal (starter and finisher) diets as follow: T (1): control group (C) that received starter and finisher diets, T (2): C plus 0.15 percent probiotic, T (3): C plus 0.1 percent Toxiban, T (4): C plus 0.1 percent Formycine and T (5): C plus mixture of 0.15 percent probiotic with 0.1 percent Toxiban. Additives except Toxiban, significantly (p<0.05) increased blood Newcastle antibody titer compared with the control group. Regarding Influenza antibody titer, there was significant differences between treatments except Formycine feeding. Only probiotic caused a significant (p<0.05) increased in blood Bronchitis antibody titer. Consumption of Formycine and probiotic+Toxiban mixture resulted in a significant decrease in blood Gamboro antibody titer (p<0.05). Chicks fed diets supplemented with Toxiban significantly (p<0.01) had higher body weight and better Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) than other treatments. Results indicated that, consumption of Toxiban had the most positive effect on performance and probiotic alone or combination of probiotic and Toxiban had the best effect on blood antibody titers of broiler chicks.
Article
Full-text available
It has been believed that the peripheral lymphocytes in chickens proliferate by self-renewing amplification of the preimmune repertoire generated in bursa. We amplified rearranged immunoglobulin variable (V) region genes from the single germinal centers induced by immunization. The sequence analysis of these genes revealed that most were derived from distinct B-cell clones which expanded locally, generating somatic antibody mutants at a high rate. Somatic hypermutations included unlinked base changes and the linked base modifications interpreted as unidirectional transfer of sequences from V region pseudogenes. This finding demonstrates the ongoing post-bursal diversification of B-cells in splenic germinal centers by templated gene conversion as well as untemplated point mutations.
Article
An experiment was conducted on three hundred and twenty broiler chicks to evaluate the influence of dietary supplementation of probiotic on immunocompetence, response to E. coli, growth and carcass characteristics in broilers. The chicks were placed on one of the four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were a basal diet (control), and three other diets which were same in composition as that of basal diet but supplemented with three levels of probiotic (Probiolac; 100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg per kg diet). Supplementation of probiotic 100 mg per kg diet significantly improved the body weight gain (0-4 wks) but no difference was observed subsequently. Probiotic supplementation of diet did not influence feed consumption or feed conversion ratio. There was significantly higher antibody production in the 100 mg probiotic supplementation group at 10 days and 5 days of post inoculation in response to SRBC antigen when injected at 14 days and 21 days of age respectively, compared to control. The birds fed probiotic were less susceptible to E. coli challenge compared to control, however no difference was observed in the weight of bursa and spleen due to probiotic supplementation. Supplementation of probiotic had no influence on dressing percentage or weight of internal organs like liver; heart and gizzard.
Article
A method is described which permits dilute red cell suspensions (1/32%) to be used in plastic microtiter plates for detecting hemagglutinins at unusually high dilutions. The use of suitable additives to the hemagglutination mixture enables excellent settling patterns and a high sensitivity to be obtained. Direct agglutination, inhibition, enzyme promoted agglutination, and Coombs tests can all be performed. Quantitative studies demonstrate the discriminatory powers of the technic. The method may be useful for economizing in the consumption of reagents in blood grouping.