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The Economic Impact of Hunting in the Northern Cape Province

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We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy) on South Africa's Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Northern Cape province. Data on biltong hunting were derived from a national survey conducted in 2007 and data on trophy hunting were derived from the Professional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). The results indicated that the direct economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province economy, resulting from increased expenditure, exceeded R696.1 million for 2007. This direct impact resulted in a total economic impact in the order of R774.3 million, and consequently, in a multiplier effect of 1.11. With regard to employment, it was estimated that some 9072 jobs plus those of the employees directly involved might be dependent on hunting in the province, thereby supporting the notion that this is a viable and important sector of the tourism industry.
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The economic impact of hunting in the
Northern Cape province
Melville Saayman1*, Peet van der Merwe1& Riaan Rossouw2
1Institute for Tourism, Wildlife Economics & Leisure Studies, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
2School of Economics, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Received 28 May 2009. Accepted 30 April 2010
We here estimate the economic impact of hunting (both biltong and trophy)on South Africa’s
Northern Cape province economy. This study used the input-output (social accounting
matrix) and multiplier analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunting in the regional
economy of the Northern Cape province. Data on biltong hunting were derived from a
national survey conducted in 2007 and data on trophy hunting were derived from the Profes-
sional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). The results indicated that the direct
economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape province economy, resulting from
increased expenditure, exceeded R696.1 million for 2007. This direct impact resulted in a
total economic impact in the order of R774.3 million, and consequently, in a multiplier effect
of 1.11. With regard to employment,it was estimated that some 9072 jobs plus those of the
employees directly involved might be dependent on hunting in the province, thereby
supporting the notion that this is a viable and important sector of the tourism industry.
Key words: hunting, biltong hunting, trophy hunting, tourism, economic impact, South Africa, social
accounting matrix.
INTRODUCTION
Nature-based tourism is attracting increasing in-
terest from governments, the tourism industry and
researchers, alike. This type of tourism includes
activities such as whale watching, safaris, bird
watching, fishing and hunting, to mention a few.
According to Higginbottom (2004), nature-based
tourism is widely considered as a growth sector
that can contribute substantially to the economy of
its host country.Most of the nature-based products
in the case of South Africa are based on govern-
ment-managed parks/reserves or on privately
owned game farms. It is on the latter that most of
the hunting in South Africa takes place, since
SANParks (SANParks Management Plan Policy
Framework 2006) restricts hunting in national
parks. In South Africa, hunting can be classified
into two main categories, namely trophy and
biltong hunting, even though various forms of hunt-
ing exist, for example bird hunting, bow hunting,
‘green hunting’ or ‘darting safaris’ (Van der Merwe
& Saayman 2004).
As indicated by Van der Merwe (2004), Damm
(2005) and Samuelson & Stage (2007), game
farms play an important role in nature-based tour-
ism and can be defined as land that is adequately
fenced, containing a variety of species that can be
used for hunting, meat production, live-game
sales, and to provide infra- and supra-structures
for eco-tourists. One of the main sources of in-
come for game farms in southern Africa is hunting,
of which biltong hunting generates the largest
percentage of income, followed by trophy hunting
(Van der Merwe
et al
. 2004). The latter defines
biltong hunting as a cultural activity where wildlife
is hunted by means of a rifle, bow or similar
weapon for the use of a variety of meat (venison)
products, such as biltong and salamis. Similarly,
trophy hunting is defined as an activity where
wildlife is hunted by means of a rifle, bow or
similar weapon primarily for their horns (measured
according to Rowland Ward and Safari Club Inter-
national) and/or the skin, in order to be displayed
as trophies (Saayman
et al.
2009).
In 2006, trophy hunting generated R331 million
(PHASA 2006), whereas biltong hunting gener-
ated R3.1 billion in 2005 (Van der Merwe &
Saayman 2005).However, in 2007, biltong hunting
generated R4.4 billion. This amount not only
shows a significant increase in revenue, but also
highlights the fact that hunting has the potential to
generate employment opportunities and spread
wealth to more rural areas of the country, since
most hunting products (game farms) are based in
these areas (Van der Merwe & Saayman 2008). To
this end, the purpose of this study is to determine
*To whom correspondence should be addressed.
E-mail: melville.saayman@nwu.ac.za
South African Journal of Wildlife Research 41(1): 120–133 (April 2011)
the economic impact of hunting on the Northern
Cape province economy.
Ritchie & Goeldner (1994) define economic
impact as the net economic change in a host com-
munity that results from the spending of tourists
(hunters) in a given area. Therefore, the purpose
of an economic impact analysis is to measure the
economic benefits that a community receives
(Archer 1989; Fayos-Sola 1997; Van Heerden
2003). This will help to enhance the way of life, the
economy and environment of the host population,
in this case the Northern Cape province. The
magnitude of the economic impact of tourism
depends on the following (Saayman 2000):1) the
total number of tourists (hunters) who visit an
area/country; 2) the duration of the stay; 3) the
average spending of the tourists (hunters) in that
area/country; and 4) the circulation of tourism
expenditure through the country. The latter implies
the multiplier effect, which is normally explained in
terms of a direct, indirect and induced effect that
expenditure has on the regional economy. The
importance of this is that it shows the leakages
from the local economy – and the smaller the leak-
ages, the greater the economic impact.
Trophy hunters in South Africa are generally
regarded as foreign hunters, whereas biltong
hunters are mostly locals. Figure 1 illustrates a
conceptual framework for estimating the total
economic impact of hunting. To estimate economic
impacts, the additional ‘new money’ generated
for the local economy due to tourism is normally
considered (Gelan 2003). Within tourism, tourists
visiting a province or region usually create this
‘new money’. From a regional perspective, both
foreign and domestic tourists (hunters) visiting the
region represent ‘new money’, while day excur-
sions to the region are excluded. As hunters’
expenditure impacts on various sectors of the
economy makes it important, especially in pre-
dominantly rural provinces such as the Northern
Cape. Saayman
et al.
(2009) lists many reasons
hunting has advantages that contribute to the
forward and backward linkages which is also why it
has become an important economic driver in rural
provinces in South Africa.
Economic impact analyses have been imple-
mented in various fields of study, including areas
as diverse as sport tourism (
e.g.
Kang & Perdue
1994; Gelan 2003; Saayman & Rossouw 2008),
regional and country economic impacts (
e.g.
Kottke 1988; Randall & Warf 1996; Saayman &
Saayman 1997; Zhou
et al
. 1997; Fretchling &
Horvath 1999; Rhodes 2000; Walpole & Goodwin
2000), the economic impact of events (
e.g.
Fayos-Sola 1997; Van Heerden 2003; Saayman &
Saayman 2004;Van der Merwe & Saayman 2008),
and, increasingly, wildlife tourism (
e.g.
Tisdell &
Wilson 2004; Nijkamp 2004; Getzner
et al
. 2005).
With regard to economic studies in the hunting
fraternity, the only studies found were on biltong
hunting in South Africa conducted by Van der
Merwe & Saayman in 2005, as well as a follow-up
study in 2007 (Van der Merwe & Saayman 2008).
A similar study was also conducted in Namibia
by Barnes
et al.
(2009). Therefore, no economic
impact studies have been done concerning hunt-
ing (including both trophy and biltong hunting)
from a provincial or regional point of view as far as
the literature review could establish.
METHODS
Expenditure data
This research makes use of secondary data.
Data concerning biltong hunting in South Africa
were obtained from the Institute for Tourism and
Leisure Studies. Data on trophy hunting were
obtained from the South African Professional
Hunting Association (PHASA) and represent par-
ticipation and expenditures for 2007. In 2007, the
Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies con-
ducted a national questionnaire survey in which all
hunting associations participated. The question-
naire consisted of three sections. In Section A,
demographic details were surveyed (marital
status, age and province of origin) while Section B
focused on spending behaviour and motivational
Saayman
et al.
: Economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape 121
Fig. 1. Conceptual framework for determining the economic value of hunting
factors (number of persons paid for, number of
times the park has been visited, length of stay and
amount spent). Section C of the questionnaire
consisted of more detailed information concerning
the consumers’ general behaviour (preferred
magazines/newspapers/hunting techniques). For
this paper we used Sections A and B.
It was decided to select all the members of the
South African Hunting and Game Conservation
Association (SAHGCA) (
n=
21 000), PHASA (
n
=
1039) and the Confederation of Hunters Associa-
tions of South Africa (CHASA) (
n
= 8000), which
provides a total population of ~40 000. Non-
probability sampling was applied using conve-
nience sampling. Two approaches were used to
distribute the questionnaire. Firstly, questionnaires
were mailed to the members of the SAHGCA
along with their monthly magazine (
SA Hunters/
Jagters
) during November/December 2007. Sec-
ondly, an interactive questionnaire was loaded
onto the websites of SAHGCA, PHASA and
CHASA during the months of September/October
2007. In total, 676 questionnaires were returned
by e-mail, fax and mail. Cooper & Emory (1995)
stated that, for general research activities, a sam-
ple size (
S
) of 384 for a population of 100 000 –
384/10 0000= 0.00384 is scientifically acceptable.
Singel (2002) states that 674 respondents from a
population of 50 000 is seen as representative and
results in a 95% level of confidence with a ±3%
sampling error.
Expenditure data of both biltong and trophy hunt-
ers related to the Northern Cape is captured in
Table 1. The data show South African hunters
(biltong hunters) form the core of the hunting
industry in the Northern Cape province. Fifteen
per cent of all biltong hunters in South Africa hunt
in the Northern Cape.
It is estimated these hunters, in 2007, spent
R696 million (see Table 1) on licences, travel, sup-
plies and services directly connected with hunting
in the province. Of the total expenditures by hunt-
ers (see column 2 in Table 1), biltong hunters (see
column 4 in Table 1) spent an estimated 95% of the
total amount, whereas trophy hunters (see column
3 in Table 1) spent 5%. Food and accommodation
accounted for approximately 16% of total expendi-
ture, new equipment 8%, fuel/transportation 8%
and meat processing services 6%. Expenditure on
game/species by hunters accounted for 56%. All
other expenditure accounted for approximately
8% of the total expenditure for 2007. On average,
biltong hunters spent an estimated R661.7 million,
while trophy hunters spent R34.3 million to hunt in
the Northern Cape province, in 2007.
SAM multiplier analysis
In this study the authors used a SAM (based on
2006 prices) for the Northern Cape province,
developed by Conningarth Consultants (2006a),
which distinguishes 46 sectors, 12 household
types and four ethnic groups. The analysis is
122 South African Journal of Wildlife Research Vol. 41, No. 1, April 2011
Tab le 1. Expenditure directly related to hunting in the Northern Cape Province, 2007 (including game;in South Afr ican
rand).
Category Hunters Trophy hunters Biltong hunters
Accommodation 62 316 409.62 3 303 409.62 59 013 000.00
Fuel 54 850 859.02 1 778 759.02 53 072 100.00
Food 34 123 519.20 2 006 119.20 32 117 400.00
Meat processing 29 166 264.54 1 310 664.54 27 855 600.00
Ammunition 23 718 965.12 534 965.12 23 184 000.00
Gear 20 875 678.50 1 096 678.50 19 779 000.00
Daily fees 17 910 671.52 1 203 671.52 16 707 000.00
Beverages 18 202 177.04 735 577.04 17 466 600.00
Butchery facilities 13 395 753.20 334 353.20 13 061 400.00
Clothes 11 046 182.56 267 482.56 10 778 700.00
Toiletries 3 487 741.28 133 741.28 3 354 000.00
Medicine 3 416 418.90 93 618.90 3 322 800.00
Tobacco 1 323 163.66 173 863.66 1 149 300.00
Other 13 709 823.84 401 223.84 13 308 600.00
Game/Species 388 499 947.00 20 925 847.00 367 574 100.00
Total 696 043 575.00 34 299 975.00 661 743 600.00
Source of data: ITLS 2008 National profile and economic impact of biltong hunters in South Africa.
based on two models. The first is a standard
input-output Leontief model for which input coeffi-
cients and Leontief multipliers (
M
L) were calcu-
lated (Hajnovicova & Lapisakova 2002):
M
L= (
E
A
)–1,
where
A
is a matrix of input (technical) coefficients.
The second extends the linear Leontief model to
a SAM framework by partitioning the accounts
into endogenous and exogenous accounts and
assuming that the column coefficients of the
endogenous accounts are all constant (Pyatt &
Round 1985).
Multipliers calculated from the SAM are the sim-
ple indicators comprising the important informa-
tion about the structure of the Northern Cape
province economy. They are calculated from the
matrix of expenditures shares (general techni-
cal coefficients) after excluding the exoge-
nous accounts. The computed multipliers will be
sensitive to the choice of exogenous accounts
and express the sensitivity of the endogenous
accounts to changes in demand for exogenous
accounts (Hajnovicova & Lapisakova 2002). SAM
multipliers (
M
S) are calculated as:
M
S
= (
E
M
)–1,
where
M
is the matrix of expenditures shares of
endogenous accounts.
Comparing the multipliers calculated from the
input-output and SAM models introduces new
aspects into the economic analysis. The SAM
multipliers are much larger than the corresponding
input-output multipliers.Because value-added is a
leakage, only intermediate demand serves as a
multiplier in the input-output analysis. By contrast,
value-added and incomes generate demand link-
ages in the SAM approach. SAM multipliers cap-
ture the different multiplier effects of exogenous
accounts on productive activities, factors and insti-
tutions. On the basis of the partition of the endoge-
nous section of the SAM into three categories of
accounts (activities/commodities, factors and
institutions), the matrix of multipliers can be
decomposed into four components: initial injec-
tion, transfer effects, open-loop effects and
closed-loop effects. Many versions of this decom-
position have been used (Hajnovicova & Lapisa-
kova 2002).
In analysing the productive sphere of the econ-
omy, a decomposition of multipliers by Pyatt &
Round (1985) was used. The matrix
M
S
which is
reduced to the Leontief multiplier matrix
M
L
corre-
sponds only to the production accounts. To per-
form the impact analysis, the
M
S
matrix is
truncated to conform to the dimension of the matrix
M
L
.
The differences between the multiplier matrices
M
S
and
M
L
measure the induced effects due to the
added endogeneity, while the direct and indirect
effects are measured by
M
L
. Matrix
M
S
can be de-
composed into three components:
(
M
S
M
L
), which measures induced effects,
(
E + A
), which measures direct effects,
(
M
L
– E – A), which measures indirect effects,
where
M
S
= (
M
S
M
L
) + (
E
+
A
) + (
M
L
E
A
).
A vast array of inputs was required for the anal-
ysis. These were obtained from surveys con-
ducted by Statistics South Africa and published in
their Supply and Use Tables. Detailed information
on the economic composition of each sector in the
economy was obtained from these tables and
formed part of the basic exogenous inputs needed
to calculate the various multipliers. Additional
information about labour numbers and capital
used was obtained from the 2001 Census (Stats
SA 2001) and the South African Reserve Bank
Quarterly Bulletin, respectively (Conningarth Con-
sultants 2006a). The exogenous input data
(shocks) were calculated and drawn from inde-
pendent surveys conducted during 2007 by the
Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies and from
South African professional hunting statistics.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The data show that the profiles of biltong hunters
and trophy hunters are similar regarding gender,
provinces where they prefer to hunt, number of
species hunted and preferred hunting area (Table
2). There was, however, a difference in length of
stay and the main reason for hunting.Most biltong
hunters are from Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and the
Free State, whereas trophy hunters are mostly
from countries such as the United States, Sweden,
Norway, France and Germany (Table 2).
Economic impact analysis
The goal of an economic impact analysis is to
measure the economic activity attributable to
some activity or event. It is typically measured in
terms of gross output or production, value added
or income, employment, and tax revenues gener-
Saayman
et al.
: Economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape 123
ated by expenditures made because of the activity
or event (DuWors
et al
. 1999).
An economic impact analysis views the econ-
omy as a system of interrelated sectors. The sys-
tem is driven by the demands for final goods and
services. Initial expenditures (
e.g.
by hunters) are
generally called the direct costs of an activity
and their effects on the economy are direct effects.
Purchases by suppliers (
e.g.
tourist outfitters,
hotel and restaurant owners, charter operators) of
the final goods and services of materials and sup-
plies to sustain the original purchases are called
indirect effects. Induced effects occur when work-
ers in the sectors stimulated by direct and indirect
expenditures spend their additional income on
consumer goods and services (DuWors
et al
.
1999). The direct plus indirect plus induced effects
equal the total effect.
Two popular methods to derive the indirect and
induced effects are Input-Output Analysis and
Social Accounting Matrices, which deliver multi-
plier effects (Wagner 1997).In addition, the use of
Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models
has gained ground in recent years, with studies by
Zhou
et al
. (1997) and Dwyer
et al
. (2004), which
have the advantage of modelling additional price
effects. However, the Input-Output (I-O) models
and Social Accounting matrices (SAMs), together
with the multiplier analysis that they generate,
remain some of the most popular methods of
estimating the economic impact of activities or
events. Multiplier analysis is conducted using
economy-wide consistent data on a particular
economy, as is normally contained in a Social
Accounting Matrix (SAM). A SAM consists of data
from input-output tables, national income statis-
tics, and household income and expenditure
statistics. Contrary to national accounts, ‘… a SAM
attempts to classify various institutions to their
socio-economic backgrounds instead of their
economic or functional activities’ (Chowdhury &
Kirkpatrick 1994). The SAM is based on I-O
models, since an I-O model forms part of the SAM,
but the SAM has the advantage of including addi-
tional information on income distribution within an
economy (Wagner 1997).
At each step of the spending chain, some
demand will be directed at goods and ser-
vices produced outside the immediate economy
(DuWors
et al
. 1999). Imports of goods and
services produced in other provinces and coun-
tries are leakages from the Northern Cape prov-
ince’s economy. Likewise, at each step of the
spending chain, some expenditure is absorbed by
indirect taxes. Both imports and indirect taxes will
reduce the size of indirect effects. Similarly, leak-
124 South African Journal of Wildlife Research Vol. 41, No. 1, April 2011
Table 2. Profile of hunters surveyed.
Category Trophy hunters Biltong hunters
Gender Male Male
Language English speaking Afrikaans speaking
Age Not available 40–64 years of age
Province/country of residence United States (53%), Europe (41%; Gauteng (35%)
consisting of: Sweden, U.K., Norway, KwaZulu-Natal (14%)
France, Germany, Spain, Denmark, Free State (12%)
Belgium and Austria)
Group size Average size:1–2 persons Average size: 4.1 persons
Times gone hunting Not available 4.2 times per year
Preferred provinces Limpopo (29%) Limpopo (27%)
Eastern Cape (17%) Northern Cape (15%)
Northern Cape (13%) NW, KZN, and EC (12%)
Average length of stay 7.42 days 4 days
Average number of species hunted 3.81 species 4.4 species
Main reason for hunting Trophy Biltong
Leisure
Preferred hunting area Bushveld Bushveld
Hunting method Stalking Stalking
Sources: PHASA (2007); van der Merwe & Saayman (2008).
ages in the form of direct taxes and household
savings limit the size of the induced effects.
Hunters spend money on a variety of goods and
services for trip-related and equipment-related
purchases. Trip expenditures include food, accom-
modation, transportation and other incidental
expenses. Equipment expenditures consist of
rifles, ammunition, hunting gear, camping equip-
ment, special hunting clothing, and other costs. By
having ripple effects throughout the economy,
these direct expenditures are only part of the eco-
nomic impact of hunting.
The effect on the economy in excess of direct
expenditures is known as the multiplier effect. For
example, an individual may purchase ammunition
to use while hunting. Part of the purchase price will
stay with the local retailer. The local retailer, in turn,
pays a wholesaler who in turn pays the manufac-
turer of the ammunition. The manufacturer then
spends a portion of this income to pay businesses
supplying the manufacturer. In this sense, each
rand of local retail expenditures can affect a variety
of businesses.
Thus, expenditures associated with hunting can
ripple through the economy by affecting economic
activity, employment, and household income. To
measure these effects, a regional input-output
modelling method (the estimates for total industry
output, employment, and employment income
were derived using a regional social accounting
matrix and input-output model) is utilized to derive
estimates for gross output, value-added, employ-
ment, and labour income associated with hunting.
Estimated economic impact of hunting in the
Northern Cape
Every year, thousands of people take to the field
to hunt. Among them are biltong and trophy hunt-
ers who pursue game in the various provinces of
South Africa. Hunters are having an increasing
economic impact on local, provincial, and national
economies, more so than the average eco-tourist/
visitor (Van der Merwe 2004). Since 2005, the
average expenditure (excluding game) per season
by hunters has increased rather significantly by
137%, whereas the total expenditure on game
during the same period has increased by 7%.
During this same period, the number of hunting
days increased by 28%. However, the economic
impact of hunters in the region goes beyond
the direct spending of these hunters, due to the
indirect effects that it generates in employment
and income. A considerable part of the spending of
the hunting community and hunters themselves
takes place in the region, and it will trigger incre-
ments both in the production of goods and in
the delivery of services (Silva & Santos 2001). It is
important to quantify this income and employment
generation effect in the Northern Cape province
economy.
The estimation of the direct, indirect and induced
impact of hunters was made using the multipliers
(derived from the Northern Cape SAM) discussed
above. The multipliers convert spending into
the associated increase in production, jobs and
income and estimate secondary effects as the
hunter spending circulates through the provincial
economy. To do this, it is necessary to ‘correct’
the direct impact (
i.e.
to avoid double counting)
by the multiplier effect. The direct spending used
in the analysis in this study was, however, not
‘corrected’, which might result in slightly inflated
results being obtained.
The economic impact of a given level of expendi-
ture depends, in part, on the degree of self-
sufficiency of the area under consideration. An
area with a high degree of self-sufficiency (out-of-
area imports are comparatively small) will gener-
ally have a higher level of impacts associated with
a given level of expenditures than an area with
significantly higher imports (a comparatively lower
level of self-sufficiency). Thus, the economic
impacts of a given level of expenditures will gener-
ally be less for rural and other less economically
integrated areas compared with other, more eco-
nomically diverse areas or regions.The impacts in
the Northern Cape province are only those
impacts that occur within the province, and the
province’s multiplier is typically smaller than the
multiplier for South Africa. Furthermore, to quan-
tify the economic and social effects of hunting on
the study area, it is important to consider the
current economic structure in the Northern Cape
province, based on the underlying framework
(SAM) used. Making use of the data in Table 1 and
the latest SAM for the Northern Cape province
(Conningarth Consultants 2006a,b), the esti-
mated share of expenditure in the study area can
be determined (using the multiplier concept). In
Table 1, the real spending by hunters (biltong and
trophy, domestic and foreign) on goods and ser-
vices in the province is highlighted.
The information included in the SAM enables the
identification of the impacts of hunting on different
household groups, different components of the
labour force, and income inequality (Blake
et al
.
Saayman
et al.
: Economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape 125
2008). The expenditure figures of hunters in Table
1, recorded in surveys, are used to estimate the
share of total expenditure in the study area result-
ing from hunting (see Table 1 and the discussion
thereof).
Based on these expenditure figures, as docu-
mented in Table 1, it can be expected that the
manufacturing and service industries catering
directly for hunters will experience the greatest
direct impact resulting from the hunting activity.
Conversely, the industries indirectly supplying
hunting-related activities will likely be the least
affected industries in the economy (subject also to
the ‘backward linkages’in the regional economy).
Direct, indirect and induced impact of
hunting
Trophy hunters
The quantification of the direct, indirect and
induced impact of expenditure by trophy hunters in
the region (Northern Cape) in 2007 is summarized
in Table 3. As this expenditure is in part applied by
foreign trophy hunters in the purchase of goods
and services in the region, this represents an
inflow of money in the region, mobilizing economic
activity, generating employment and generating
additional revenues for the province. ‘Production’
is an indication of the total turnover generated by
each sector in the regional economy. As such,
production comprises two components: demand
for intermediate inputs (resources) by an activity
(domestically produced and imported goods and
services), and total value added generated by an
activity (Conningarth Consultants 2006b). Table 3
reflects the effects on production (using the pro-
duction multipliers) by foreign and local expendi-
ture resulting from trophy hunting in 2007.
The spending of foreign and local trophy hunters
was predominantly expenditure on agricultural
activities (of which expenditure on game/species
is a part, hence the relative large impact). From
Table 3 it is clear that the largest direct impact is on
agriculture (60%), manufacturing (15%), trade and
accommodation (9%), and community/general
services (7%). Through the ‘backward linkages’,
large indirect and induced impacts are also experi-
enced in the agricultural sector, reflecting an
indirect impact of R11.6 million and an induced
impact of R6.4 million. Note that if the authors
ignore the direct effect in the financial and busi-
ness services sectors, 53% of the total increase in
production is because of ‘backward linkages’, with
direct foreign expenditure representing only 47%.
A more detailed (disaggregated) analysis of the
various sectors can be made, but due to insuffi-
cient expenditure data, it falls beyond the scope of
this study.
All the acquirements of goods and services from
non-regional suppliers were included in the analy-
sis and, therefore, might have exerted a significant
direct or indirect effect on the regional economy.
By including this indirect impact, although small in
significance, the authors are presenting a more
comprehensive estimate of the impact of trophy
hunting in the region.
The value of the purchases of goods and ser-
vices made to regional suppliers was then classi-
fied using the sector aggregation of the South
African Reserve Bank/Statistics South Africa,
and its distribution by activity sector is presented in
Fig. 2.
126 South African Journal of Wildlife Research Vol. 41, No. 1, April 2011
Table 3.Impact through production multipliers (rand 2006 prices) – trophy hunters.
Sector Direct impact Indirect impact Induced impact Total impact Percentage
(total)
Agriculture 20 925 847.0 11 572 779.4 6 424 307.0 38 922 933.3 59.9
Mining 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Manufacturing 4 982 175.2 3 752 026.2 1 221 097.8 9 955 299.2 15.3
Electricity and water 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Construction 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Trade and accommodation 3 303 409.6 1 959 911.9 851 367.4 6 114 689.0 9.4
Transport and communication 1 745 011.1 997 267.7 541 223.4 3 283 502.2 5.0
Financial and business services 1 203 671.5 915 125.9 429 008.4 2 547 805.7 3.9
Community services 2 139 860.5 982 667.8 1 082 807.1 4 205 335.3 6.5
Total 34 299 975.0 20 179 778.8 10 549 811.0 65 029 564.8 100.0
Source of data: authors’ own calculations based on multiplier analysis.
In terms of the analysis of the expenditure by
foreign and local trophy hunters in 2007, the first
conclusion is that the direct effect represents 53%,
the indirect effect 31% and the induced effect 16%
of the total increase in foreign and local expendi-
ture. The second conclusion is that the activity sec-
tors that benefited most from the expenditure of
trophy hunters in 2007 were agriculture, manufac-
turing, and trade and accommodation. The
regional expenditure by trophy hunters in these
sectors in 2007 surpassed R65 million, and repre-
sented only 5% of the total expenditure made by all
hunters (including trophy hunters) in the region
(Table 4).
Biltong hunters
Based on the expenditure data, the authors esti-
mated that the direct impact in the region resulting
Saayman
et al.
: Economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape 127
Table 4.Impact through production multipliers (rand 2006 prices) – biltong hunters.
Sector Direct impact Indirect impact Induced impact Total impact Percentage
(total)
Agriculture 367 574 100.0 203 282 283.1 112 846 512.3 683 702 895.4 54.8
Mining 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Manufacturing 108 835 921.4 73 563 355.0 25 912 345.9 208 311 622.4 16.7
Electricity and water 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Construction 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Trade and accommodation 59 013 000.0 35 012 395.5 15 209 056.9 109 234 452.3 8.8
Transport and communication 52 065 178.6 29 755 065.7 16 148 258.4 97 968 502.7 7.9
Financial and business services 16 707 000.0 12 701 976.8 5 954 650.2 35 363 626.9 2.8
Community services 57 548 400.0 26 555 262.5 29 007 680.3 113 111 342.7 9.1
Total 661 743 600.0 380 870 338.5 205 078 504.0 1 247 692 442.5 100.0
Source of data: authors’ own calculations based on multiplier analysis.
Fig. 2. Trophy hunters’ expenditure in the region by activity sector (source of data: authors’own calculations based on
multiplier analysis).
from the biltong hunters’ expenditure amounts to
approximately R661.7 million, distributed among
the nine activity sectors, as presented in Fig. 3.
The activity sectors that benefited most from
expenditure by biltong hunters in relation with
biltong hunting were agriculture, manufacturing,
community/general services, trade and accommo-
dation, and to a lesser extent transport and
communication. Given that the expenditure
patterns of biltong and trophy hunters are closely
related, it is understandable that a similar distribu-
tion in expenditure between the various activity
sectors is experienced (Fig. 3). It is important to
note that the direct impact of the biltong hunters’
expenditure (R661.7 million) represents almost
95% of the total expenditure of hunters (R696
million) to the Northern Cape province in 2007.
The quantification of the direct, indirect and
induced impacts of biltong hunters’ expenditure in
the region is summarized in Table 4. The results
show that the largest direct impact is on agriculture
(54.8%; of which expenditure on game/species is
a part), and on manufacturing (16.7%). Through
the ‘backward linkages’, large indirect and induced
impacts are also experienced in the commu-
nity/general services sector (despite a less signifi-
cant direct impact), reflecting an indirect impact of
R26.6 million and an induced impact of R29.1
million. If the direct effect on the community/
general services sector is ignored, 49% of the total
increase in production is as a result of ‘backward
linkages’, with direct local and foreign expenditure
representing 51% of the total impact.
Regarding the analysis of the expenditure by
biltong hunters in 2007, it can be concluded that
the direct effect represents 52%, the indirect effect
32% and the induced effect 16% of the total
increase in expenditure.By including the expendi-
ture that would have occurred in the region inde-
pendent of the existence of biltong hunting, less
conservative figures for the economic impact are
estimated. However, since hunting demand is rela-
tively price inelastic, this effect is likely to be small.
Moreover, local hunters would be likely to spend at
least some of their income on other recreational
pursuits. It is reasonable to expect that in the
absence of biltong hunting, the available revenue
from these biltong hunters would have been less
and, as such, its volume of expenditure in the
region would also have been less.
128 South African Journal of Wildlife Research Vol. 41, No. 1, April 2011
Fig. 3. Biltong hunters’expenditure in the region by activity sector (source of data: authors’own calculations based on
multiplier analysis).
Total impact of spending by all hunters
The analyses carried out in each of the three
previous sections allow the authors to come to an
estimate for the direct impact of hunters in the
Northern Cape region, through the expenditure of
the trophy and biltong hunters.However, in order to
evaluate the total impact of hunting in the region, it
is necessary to ‘correct’ the direct impact by the
multiplier effect (Silva & Santos 2001).Hence, as a
way of estimating the total impact of hunting in the
region, production multipliers were used for each
one of the activity sectors. The multiplication of the
direct impact in each activity sector for the specific
production multipliers gives the total impact of the
hunters for each of the regional economic sectors,
as indicated in Table 5. The sum of the impacts in
each of the sectors gives an estimate of the total
impact of hunters in the region (Table 5).
Table 5 depicts the economic effect of expendi-
tures by hunters in 2007. Their trip and equipment
expenditures totalling R696.1 million, as shown in
Table 1, generated R774.3 million in total output in
the Northern Cape province. Total output includes
the direct, indirect, and induced effects of the
expenditures associated with hunting.
The analysis of the results indicates that the
direct economic impact of hunters in the region
(which is in the order of R696.1 million), can result
in an additional R78.3 million of indirect and
induced impact, giving a total annual impact in the
region in excess of R774.3 million. That is equiva-
lent to an aggregated production multiplier in the
order of 1.11. Therefore, for each rand spent by
hunters in the region, 11 cents are generated addi-
tionally in terms of indirect and induced expendi-
ture. The aggregated production multiplier is
obtained by dividing the total impact by the direct
impact.
Using the same SAM for the Northern Cape
province (Conningarth Consultants 2006a), it is
possible to estimate the impact of hunting at the
level of families’ income.In order to do so, specific
household income multipliers for each activity
sector were calculated and these were then
multiplied by the values of the total sectors’ im-
pacts (see Table 6).
The aggregated income multiplier, valued at
0.55, can be interpreted as the increment of the
Northern Cape family’s income for each rand of
expenditure incurred by hunters in the region.The
authors estimate that currently a total of R381.5
million of remunerations in the Northern Cape
would not have taken place annually if hunting did
not take place in the region.
Finally, and based on the values presented pre-
viously, it is also possible to estimate the impact of
hunters at the level of jobs in the Northern Cape
region. Based on figures contained in the Northern
Cape SAM, and using data on the labour force per
province relative to the business volume and jobs
per activity sector in South Africa for 2006, it was
possible to obtain an estimate of the impact of
hunting regarding the regional job level, as indi-
cated in Table 7.
With regard to the number of jobs generated in
the regional economy because of the hunting
activities, Table 7 indicates that 9 072 jobs may
depend upon hunting, in addition to the number of
employees directly involved in the activity itself.
Consequently, the absence of hunting would have
implied a reduction of 9072 jobs in the region, and
the reduction of the number of positions/employ-
Saayman
et al.
: Economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape 129
Tab le 5. Total impact of the hunters in the regional production. Unit is R millions except for the variable ‘Production
multipliers’.
Sectors Spending by Spending by Direct impact Production Total impact
trophy hunters biltong hunters of hunters multipliers
Agriculture 20 925 847.0 367 574 100.0 388 499 947.0 0.463 335 275 454.3
Mining – – – 1.881
Manufacturing 4 982 175.2 108 835 921.4 113 818 096.7 2.039 232 075 099.2
Electricity and water 0.782
Construction – – – 0.439
Trade and accommodation 3 303 409.6 59 013 000.0 62 316 409.6 0.800 49 853 127.7
Transport and communication 1 745 011.1 52 065 178.6 53 810 189.7 0.735 39 550 489.4
Financial and business services 1 203 671.5 16 707 000.0 17 910 671.5 1.495 26 776 453.9
Community services 2 139 860.5 57 548 400.0 59 688 260.5 1.521 90 785 844.2
Total 34 299 975.0 661 743 600.0 696 043 575.0 774 316 468.7
Source of data: authors’ own calculations based on multiplier analysis.
ees directly involved. The most affected sectors
would have been manufacturing, community/
general services, and trade and accommoda-
tion. Jobs in Table 7 include direct, indirect, and
induced effects in a manner similar to total indus-
trial output. Jobs include both full-time and part-
time jobs, with a job defined as one person working
for at least part of the calendar year.
CONCLUSION
This study represents an effort to evaluate the
short-run economic impact of hunting on the econ-
omy of the Northern Cape province. This is the
first time that hunting (both trophy and biltong) is
analysed in a regional context in South Africa.
From the above analyses and results, it can be
seen that hunting has a very important role in the
economic development of the Northern Cape
province. Results from this study contradicts
findings by Barnes
et al.
(2009) who conducted a
similar study in Namibia. The latter found that
trophy hunting generates more than biltong hunt-
ing. One explanation for this is the shear size of the
hunting industry in South Africa compared to
Namibia. Hunting also has an enormous capacity
to affect the economic activities of a region as well
as to improve the social, economic and cultural
lives of the local community. Owing to the difficulty
in quantifying the non-economic impacts, most of
the studies/reports in this area were aimed at
quantifying the economic impacts. In this respect,
the present study is not an exception.
The results obtained show a type III income
multiplier of 1.11 and a 2.83 employment multiplier.
This is equivalent to affirming that for each income
unit generated due to hunting’s existence, another
0.11 income units are generated throughout the
provincial economy. A 2.83 employment multiplier
130 South African Journal of Wildlife Research Vol. 41, No. 1, April 2011
Table 7.Impact of the hunters at the level of employment.
Sectors Total impact Labour Equivalent jobs
(rand) multipliers (number)
Agriculture 335 275 454.3 15.807 5 299.7
Mining – 2.826
Manufacturing 232 075 099.2 5.186 1 203.5
Electricity and water 6.500
Construction – 19.680
Trade and accommodation 49 853 127.7 14.165 706.2
Transport and communication 39 550 489.4 6.010 237.7
Financial and business services 26 776 453.9 12.148 325.3
Community services 90 785 844.2 14.313 1 299.4
Total 774 316 468.7 9 072
Source of data: authors’ own calculations based on multiplier analysis.
Table 6.Hunters’ impact on family income.
Indirect and induced impacts (rand)
Sectors Total impact Rest of the Low-income Total Percentage
(rand) households households households (total)
Agriculture 335 275 454.3 20 116 527.3 135 451 283.5 155 232 535.3 40.7
Mining ––––0.0
Manufacturing 232 075 099.2 7 890 553.4 59 643 300.5 67 533 853.9 17.7
Electricity and water ––––0.0
Construction ––––0.0
Trade and accommodation 49 853 127.7 5 832 815.9 42 325 305.4 48 158 121.4 12.6
Transport and communication 39 550 489.4 4 390 104.3 32 550 052.8 36 979 707.6 9.7
Financial and business services 26 776 453.9 4 337 785.5 23 509 726.5 19 841 352.3 5.2
Community services 90 785 844.2 22 424 103.5 67 635 453.9 53 745 219.8 14.1
Total 774 316 468.7 64 991 889.9 361 115 122.7 381 490 790.3 100.0
Source: authors’ own calculations based on multiplier analysis.
Saayman
et al.
: Economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape 131
means that for each job that springs from hunting
expenditures, another 1.83 jobs are generated
in the provincial economy as a whole.
The values obtained, and with particular
salience the employment multiplier, are quite close
to the values found in similar economic impact
studies in other parts of South Africa (Van der
Merwe & Saayman 2008). Although the values
found for the Northern Cape province were greater
than those of other studies/provinces, it should be
taken into account that, in addition to methodologi-
cal differences and structural differences in the
economies studied, the multipliers calculated for
the Northern Cape province are type III. This
implies that they include both indirect and induced
expenditures, and therefore tend to be larger
values.
This study used the input-output and multiplier
analyses to evaluate the economic impact of hunt-
ing in the regional economy of the Northern Cape.
Based on this methodology, it was considered that
for 2007 the direct economic impact of hunting in
the regional economy of the Northern Cape
province, resulting from the increased expendi-
ture, exceeded R696.1 million. This direct impact
resulted in a total economic impact in the order of
the R774.3 million, and consequently, in a multi-
plier effect of 1.11. With regard to employment, it
was estimated that some 9072 jobs plus those of
the employees directly involved might be depend-
ent on hunting.
Based on the findings, this research has the
following implications.Firstly, hunting has a signifi-
cant impact on the regional economy in terms of
income generated and employment creation. The
results show the different linkages, and how other
sectors of the economy benefit, especially the
agricultural, manufacturing, and trade and accom-
modation. Therefore, this is an area that the
Northern Cape Government should invest more
resources in and make it easier (in terms of acces-
sibility) for hunters to hunt in this province. This
includes the issuing of permits and travelling in the
province. Secondly, the province should do more
in terms of marketing and positioning of the
province as a leading hunting destination in South
Africa. This could include aspects such as hosting
of hunting events, shows or conferences as well as
the publication of a hunter’s database with all rele-
vant and required information, which should also
be available in the form of a website. Not only can
this contribute to the generation of more income
and more job opportunities, but it could also lead to
improved land-use, since many cattle farmers are
also introducing game as an additional source of
income. Thirdly, that growth of the hunting industry
could contribute to sustaining the price of game,
which is important for the future of game farms.
Finally, all the role players should work together in
order to limit leakages from the provincial econ-
omy. This includes more local products and ser-
vices such as taxidermy, production of souvenirs,
clothes and tour/hunting operators, to name but a
few.
Although the input-output analysis offers one of
the most robust and appropriate methodologies in
the undertaking of studies on regional economic
impact, the input-output models have some limita-
tions. The results of reports/studies of this sort
have to be seen in relation to the hypotheses that
are under consideration and the methodological
and data limitations that are a part of the elabora-
tion process. Regardless of the limitations that do
exist, the research does demonstrate that hunting
in the Northern Cape province has a considerable
short-run impact on the provincial economy.To go
into greater depth with regard to these calculations
and to extend analyses to the dimension of
long-term impact (which would include supplying
side elements), remain a challenge. For a more
detailed discussion on these limitations in a
more general context, the reader is referred to
Richardson (1972).
In spite of the obvious limitations, the input-
output analysis is one of the most used techniques
for the evaluation of economic impact in this con-
text, because it is a technique that is easy to under-
stand and implement and it allows the estimation
of various types of impacts (direct, indirect and
induced) at a sectoral and regional level.
Finally, employment impacts, specifically in the
case of hunting, should rather be measured in
terms of person-years of employment and labour
income. The number of employees should be
standardized to person-years of employment to
account for the variability between industries in
the number of full-time, part-time and seasonal
employees.This, however, might be considered as
a possibility in future studies.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank the Northern
Cape Department of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism for financial support as well as the South
African Game Farmers Association.
132 South African Journal of Wildlife Research Vol. 41, No. 1, April 2011
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Saayman
et al.
: Economic impact of hunting in the Northern Cape 133
... As of late illegal wildlife hunting and trading have increased and in turn attracted both local and international attention (Duffy et al. 2015). Hunting is a large part of the South African tourism industry and this sector brings a substantial amount of money into the country (Saayman et al. 2011a;2011b). The review of the laws and policies that govern it can determine the current status of the enforcement and the success of these policies can be determined. ...
... These surveys will be sent to the two farms located in the Northern Cape and Limpopo provinces. These two provinces were selected as they fall in the top three of preferred hunting provinces in South Africa by international hunters, alongside the Eastern Cape (Saayman et al. 2011a). The questionnaires will be asked to be completed by as many hunters that visit the farm during the few months allocated as "hunting season" which takes place from May to August of every year i.e. ...
... The conceptual framework for determining the economic 23 value of hunting in South Africa(Saayman et al. 2011a). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The hunting industry brings in billions of Rands into South Africa’s tourism industry. Like most systems, the hunting systems orbits around the laws that govern it. Wildlife on the planet today does not occur there by accident but through management. The process of wildlife management includes the management of people because in the long-term people determine the survival of species. The laws that manage South Africa’s hunting industry are in place for the safety of the hunters and animals alike, while decreasing the possibility of any accidents that may occur. Through the obedience of these laws, the hunting system becomes a safe and sustainable one. Alternatively, if the laws are not enforced more accidents may occur, overhunting and poaching will become more prevalent and the whole system may fall. This study aims to determine if the policies, laws and ethics in the South African hunting industry create a sustainable system where they assist in attracting international hunters to South Africa as a preferred hunting destination. Through the use of questionnaires/surveys local and international hunters were tested on their knowledge of the laws and policies in place and were asked about their personal hunting preferences. Additionally game farm owners were interviewed to get their opinion on the hunting industry and the difference between local and international hunters. This data was collected at two farms in the Savana biome; Vaalpan Safaris and Geland Boerdery. The study has shown that most international hunters are trophy hunters while local hunters are meat/biltong hunters. The enforcement of laws was found to be more highly regarded by international than local hunters. Hunting farm owners have observed that local hunters have a tendency to be more thoughtless about the shots they fire, whereas international hunters are more cautious and particular when shooting. Many hunting farms are switching to solely allowing international hunters on their farms, while those that have been longstanding within the hunting industry are switching to game breeding. Many South African hunters find that the cost of hunting is becoming extremely costly and almost unaffordable. Is South Africa’s hunting industry going to become more internationally based? More studies across privately owned farms will need to be conducted to determine in which direction the industry is going. If our hunting industry becomes more internationally based, South Africans will be losing an integral part of their culture and history.
... A study conducted in Namibia by Barnes et al. (2009) on income generated by hunting, both trophy and biltong, found that trophy hunting generates more income than biltong hunting. The only data we could find about the spending or economic impact of trophy hunters in South Africa was that of the Professional Hunters Association of South Africa (PHASA, 2009), and the only study of the economic impact of both trophy and biltong hunting in South Africa was research conducted by Saayman et al. (2011) in the Northern Cape province. To date no studies have been done of the economic impact of hunting in Limpopo, South Africa's most important province for both trophy and biltong hunting. ...
... Section A collected demographic details (marital status, age, and province of origin), Section B investigated spending behaviour (number of persons paid for, number of times the park has been visited, length of stay, and amount spent), and Section C asked for more detailed information about the consumers' general behaviour (asking which magazines and newspapers and hunting techniques they preferred). This paper refers only to the data from Sections A and B. The questionnaire, which had been used in previous similar research, was designed by Saayman et al. (2011). ...
... The second data set came from interviews with game farm owners in Limpopo in May and June 2010 (primary data). This questionnaire was also Saayman et al. (2011). The Wildlife Ranching South Africa (WRSA) database, which has a member basis of 797 (N=797) product owners, was used for the Limpopo Province. ...
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This study evaluated the economic impact of hunting on the regional economy of South Africa’s Limpopo Province. Data on biltong hunting was derived from a national survey conducted in 2009 and data on trophy hunting from the Professional Hunting Association of South Africa (PHASA). Using the input-output (social accounting matrix) and multiplier analyses, we found that the direct economic impact of hunting in the regional economy of the Limpopo Province, as a result of increased expenditure, exceeded R669 million (US$83.6 million). This direct impact resulted in a total economic impact in the order of R1.2 billion (US$150 million) and consequently in a multiplier effect of 1.76. With regard to employment, we estimated that some 8 382 jobs, in addition to those of the employees directly involved, may be dependent upon hunting in the province, which supports the notion that this is a viable and important sector of the tourism industry.
... Much of the literature on the economic impact of nature-based tourism is devoted to national parks (Saayman & Saayman, 2006;Saayman et al., 2011), water-based activities (Hsu, 2019), and ecotourism sites (Li et al., 2018;Souza et al., 2019) since they encompass several activities within various spatial-scale sites and involve fixed expenditures, such as entrance fees, slip and mooring fees, and equipment rental. ...
... But such assessment has recently been conceptualized as an independent part of tourism and an essential tool for decision-making to enhance rural economies' development (Rinne & Saastamoinen, 2005). The I-O, Keynesian, and Ad hoc models have been frequently used to study the economic impact in wetland ecotourism (Hsu, 2019), national parks (Koontz et al., 2017;Mayer et al., 2010), recreational trails (Bowker et al., 2007;Raya et al., 2018), hunting activities (Saayman et al., 2011), and ecotourism (Li et al., 2018;Souza et al., 2019). ...
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Rising demand for access to trail networks has encouraged local governments to invest in trail development. This study is the first attempt to estimate the local income multiplier effect of recreational trail tourism, applying an Ad hoc model. The most popular recreational trail in the Algarve region of Portugal was used as a study case to verify the relevance of the Ad hoc model application. The result acknowledges a significant trail-related contribution to the local economy and rural community development. This study suggests the use of the Ad hoc model to assess the economic impact of local-scale outdoor-recreation activities in terms of income generation.
... The prices paid for trophy hunts vary enormously, from the equivalent of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of United States dollars; at a global scale, such hunts involve a substantial revenue flow from developed to developing countries (e.g. Booth, 2009;Saayman, van der Merwe and Rossouw, 2011). In developing countries, landowners and land managers often negotiate with hunting operators (or "concessionaires") to decide who will get the hunting right or concession on their land, and on what terms. ...
... The prices paid for trophy hunts vary enormously, from the equivalent of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of United States dollars; at a global scale, such hunts involve a substantial revenue flow from developed to developing countries (e.g. Booth, 2009;Saayman, van der Merwe and Rossouw, 2011). In developing countries, landowners and land managers often negotiate with hunting operators (or "concessionaires") to decide who will get the hunting right or concession on their land, and on what terms. ...
... The prices paid for trophy hunts vary enormously, from the equivalent of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of United States dollars; at a global scale, such hunts involve a substantial revenue flow from developed to developing countries (e.g. Booth, 2009;Saayman, van der Merwe and Rossouw, 2011). In developing countries, landowners and land managers often negotiate with hunting operators (or "concessionaires") to decide who will get the hunting right or concession on their land, and on what terms. ...
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Trophy hunting is the subject of intense debate and polarized positions, with controversy and deep concern over some hunting practices and their ethical basis and impacts. The controversy has sparked moves at various levels to end or restrict trophy hunting, including through bans on the carriage or import of hunting trophies. In March 2016, for example, a group of members of the European Parliament called (unsuccessfully) for the signing of a Written Declaration calling for examination of the possibility of restricting all imports of hunting trophies into the European Union. Although there is a pressing need for the reform of hunting governance and practice in many countries, calls for blanket restrictions on trophy hunting assume that it is uniformly detrimental to conservation; such calls are frequently made based on poor information and inaccurate assumptions. Here we explain how trophy hunting, if well managed, can play a positive role in supporting conservation as well as local community rights and livelihoods, and we provide examples from various parts of the world. We highlight the likely impact of blanket bans on trophy hunting and argue for a more nuanced approach to much needed reform.
... The prices paid for trophy hunts vary enormously, from the equivalent of hundreds to hundreds of thousands of United States dollars; at a global scale, such hunts involve a substantial revenue flow from developed to developing countries (e.g. Booth, 2009;Saayman, van der Merwe and Rossouw, 2011). In developing countries, landowners and land managers often negotiate with hunting operators (or "concessionaires") to decide who will get the hunting right or concession on their land, and on what terms. ...
... Various forms of hunting exist; for example, big game hunting (most antelope species, such as kudu, eland and elephant), small game hunting (for example, ducks and game-bird hunting) and skill hunting (for example, bow hunting, black powder hunting and falconry (Bauer and Herr, 2004). In South Africa, hunting can be classified into the two main categories of trophy and biltong hunting (Saayman, et al., 2011b;Lindsey, 2008; Van der Merwe and *Corresponding author. E-mail: Peet.vandermerwe@nwu.ac.za. ...
... Various forms of hunting exist; for example, big game hunting (most antelope species, such as kudu, eland and elephant), small game hunting (for example, ducks and game-bird hunting) and skill hunting (for example, bow hunting, black powder hunting and falconry (Bauer and Herr, 2004). In South Africa, hunting can be classified into the two main categories of trophy and biltong hunting (Saayman, et al., 2011b;Lindsey, 2008; Van der Merwe and *Corresponding author. E-mail: Peet.vandermerwe@nwu.ac.za. ...
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