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Ricinus communis linn: A phytopharmacological review

Authors:
  • Pharmacy College Azamgarh

Abstract

Medicinal plants have a vital role to preserve the human healthy life. The large family Euphorbiaceae contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Generally they are the flowering plants. Amongst all, the Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and medicinal value for maintain the disease free healthy life. Traditionally the plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicide etc. whereas the plant possess beneficial effects such as anti-oxidant, antihistamic, Antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, immunemodulatory, Antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, Antifertility, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, central nervous system stimulant, lipolytic, wound healing, insecticidal and Larvicidal and many other medicinal properties. This activity of the plant possess due to the important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids etc. The aim of this paper is to explain the details of phyto-pharmacological properties of Ricinus communis for the future research work.
Review Article
RICINUS COMMUNIS LINN: A PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW
JITENDRA JENA*, ASHISH KUMAR GUPTA
Pharmacy College, Itaura, Chandeshwar, Azamgarh-276128, Uttar Pradesh. Email: jenampharm@gmail.com
Received: 10 Jun 2012, Revised and Accepted: 16 July 2012
ABSTRACTS
Medicinal plants have a vital role to preserve the human healthy life. The large family Euphorbiaceae contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500
species. Generally they are the flowering plants. Amongst all, the Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and medicinal value for
maintain the disease free healthy life. Traditionally the plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicide etc. whereas the plant possess
beneficial effects such as anti-oxidant, antihistamic, Antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, immunemodulatory, Antidiabetic, hepatoprotective,
Antifertility, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, central nervous system stimulant, lipolytic, wound healing, insecticidal and Larvicidal and many other
medicinal properties. This activity of the plant possess due to the important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, saponins, glycosides,
alkaloids and steroids etc. The aim of this paper is to explain the details of phyto-pharmacological properties of Ricinus communis for the future
research work.
Keywords: Ricinus communis, Phytochemical constituent and pharmacology.
INTRODUCTION
It is truth that without nature human being life is not possible. The
food, clothes and shelter are three basic necessity of human beings
and an important one necessity is good health, which provided by
plant kingdom. Plant kingdoms are the rich source of organic
compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes.
In traditional medicine, there are many natural crude drugs that
have the potential to treat many disease and disorders one of them
is Ricinus communis; Family: Euphorbiaceae popularly known as
'castor plant' and commonly known as ‘palm of Christ’, Jada (Oriya),
Verenda (Bengali), Endi (Hindi), Errandi (Marathi), Diveli
(Guajarati)
1
. The plant is widespread throughout tropical regions as
ornamental plants.
MORPHOLOGY
The castor oil plant is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub or
occasionally a soft wooded small tree up to 6 meter or more, but it is
not hardy in nature. This plants was cultivated for leaf and flower
colors and for oil production. Leaves are green or reddish in colour
and about 30-60 cm in diameter. The leaves contain 5-12 deep lobes
with coarsely toothed segments which are alternate and palmate. The
stems are varying in pigmentation. The flowers are monoecious and
about 30-60 cm. long
2
.The fruit is a three-celled thorny capsule. The
capsule of fruit covered with soft spins like processes and dehiscing in
to three 2-valved cocci. The seeds are considerable differences in size
and colour. They are oval, somewhat compressed, 8-18 mm long and
4-12 mm broad. The testa is very smooth, thin and brittle. Castor seeds
have a warty appendage called the caruncle, which present usually at
one end from which runs the raphe to terminate in a slightly raised
chalaza at the opposite end of the seed
3
.
HABITAT
This plant is common and quite wild in the jungles in India and it is
cultivated throughout India, chiefly in the Madras, Bengal and
Bombay presidencies.
Two varieties of this plant are known
A perennial bushy plant with large fruits and large red seeds
which yields about 40 P.C of oil;
A much smaller annual shrub with small grey (white) seeds
having brown spots and yielding 37% of oil
1
.
Fig. 1: Fruit Fig. 2: Whole Plant
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
ISSN- 0975-1491 Vol 4, Issue 4, 2012
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TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Sub Family: Acalyphoideae
Tribe: Acalypheae
Sub Tribe: Ricininae
Genus: Ricinus
Species: R.Communis
BENEFITS OF THE PLANT
The castor oil obtained from the seed of the plant is still widely used
traditionally and herbally as a medicine. The seed of the plant is
used as fertilizer after the oil was extracted
cooked to destroy the toxin and incorporated into animal feeds. The
principal use of castor oil is as a purgative and laxative. It is also
used as a lubricant, lamp fuel, a component of cosmetics, and in the
manufacture of soaps, printer’
s ink, plastics, fibers, hydraulic fluid,
brake fluid, varnishes, paints, embalming fluid, textile dyes, leather
finishes, adhesives, waxes, and fungicides. In India, the leaves are
used as food for eri silk worms and the stalks are used for fuel
purpose.
This species has been planted for its dune stabilization
properties
4, 5, 6
.
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
The Preliminary Phytochemical study of
R. communis
presence of steroids, saponins
, alkaloids, flavonoids, and glycosides.
The dried leaves of R. communis
showed the presence of
alkaloids, ricinine(0.55%) and N-
demethylricinine
flavones glycosides kaempferol-3-
O
kaempferol-3-O-β-D-
glucopyranoside, quercetin
xylopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-
glucopyranoside, kaempferol
O-β-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-β-
monoterpenoids (1, 8-
cineole, camphor and α
sesquiterpenoid (β-caryophyllene),
gallic acid, quercetin, gentisic
acid, rutin, epicatechin and
ellagic acid are the major phenolic
compounds isolated from leaves. Indole-3-
acetic acid has been
extracted from the roots
8, 9
.
The seeds contain 45% of f
which consist glycosides
of ricinoleic, isoricinoleic, stearic and
dihydroxystearic acids an
d also lipases and a
ricinine
10
.
The GLC study of castor oil showed the presence
form of palmitic (1.2%), stearic (0.7%
), arachidic (0.3
hexadecenoic (0.2%), oleic (3.2%
), linoleic (3.4
ricinoleic (89.
4%) and dihydroxy stearic acids
Jena et al.
Int J Ph
Leaf
Fig. 4:
Seed
The castor oil obtained from the seed of the plant is still widely used
traditionally and herbally as a medicine. The seed of the plant is
used as fertilizer after the oil was extracted
from the seed and
cooked to destroy the toxin and incorporated into animal feeds. The
principal use of castor oil is as a purgative and laxative. It is also
used as a lubricant, lamp fuel, a component of cosmetics, and in the
s ink, plastics, fibers, hydraulic fluid,
brake fluid, varnishes, paints, embalming fluid, textile dyes, leather
finishes, adhesives, waxes, and fungicides. In India, the leaves are
used as food for eri silk worms and the stalks are used for fuel
This species has been planted for its dune stabilization
R. communis
revealed the
, alkaloids, flavonoids, and glycosides.
showed the presence of
two
demethylricinine
(0.016%), and six
O
-β-D-xylopyranoside,
glucopyranoside, quercetin
-3-O-β-D-
glucopyranoside, kaempferol
-3-
rutinoside
7
. The
cineole, camphor and α
-pinene) and a
gallic acid, quercetin, gentisic
ellagic acid are the major phenolic
acetic acid has been
The seeds contain 45% of f
ixed oil,
of ricinoleic, isoricinoleic, stearic and
d also lipases and a
crystalline alkaloid,
The GLC study of castor oil showed the presence
of ester
), arachidic (0.3
%),
), linoleic (3.4
%), linolenic (0.2%),
4%) and dihydroxy stearic acids
11
. The stem also
contains ricinine. The ergost
-
fucosterol; and one probucol isolated from ether extract of seeds.
The GC-MS analyses of
R. communis
columns are identified
compounds
cineole (30.98%), α-
pinene (16.88%), camphor
camphene (7.48%)
12
.
Lupeol and 30
obtained from coat of castor bean
α- thujone
PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGY
Antioxidant activity
It is concluded that
R. communis
antioxidant activity by
using lipid
method and free radical scavenging effect on 2,2
picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl
hydrogen peroxide. The high antioxidant activity of the seed of
communis
at low concentration shows that it could be very useful
for the treatment of disease resulting from oxidative stress. The
responsible chemical constituent of
antioxidant activity are Methyl ricinoleate, Ricinoleic acid, 12
octadecadienoic acid and methyl ester
stem and leave
extracts also produce antioxidant activity due to the
presence of flavonoids in their
extracts
Antinociceptive activity
The methanolic leaves
extract of
antinociceptive activity
against
formalin induced paw licking and
The
antinociceptive activity showed due to the presence preliminary
Phytoconstituents like saponins, steroids and alkaloids
Int J Ph
arm Pharm Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 25-29
26
Seed
-
5-en-3-ol, stigmasterol, Y-sitosterol,
fucosterol; and one probucol isolated from ether extract of seeds.
R. communis
essential oil using capillary
compounds
like α-thujone (31.71%) and 1,8-
pinene (16.88%), camphor
(12.92%) and
Lupeol and 30
-Norlupan-3β-ol-20-one are
obtained from coat of castor bean
13
.
R. communis
seed extracts produced the
using lipid
per oxidation by ferric thiocyanate
method and free radical scavenging effect on 2,2
-diphenyl-1-
picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl
radical generated from
hydrogen peroxide. The high antioxidant activity of the seed of
R.
at low concentration shows that it could be very useful
for the treatment of disease resulting from oxidative stress. The
responsible chemical constituent of
R. communis which produce
antioxidant activity are Methyl ricinoleate, Ricinoleic acid, 12
-
octadecadienoic acid and methyl ester
14
. The Ricinus communis
extracts also produce antioxidant activity due to the
extracts
15, 16
.
extract of
R. communis possesses significant
against
acetic acid induced writhing test,
formalin induced paw licking and
tail immersion methods in mice.
antinociceptive activity showed due to the presence preliminary
Phytoconstituents like saponins, steroids and alkaloids
17
.
Jena et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 25-29
27
Antiasthmatic activity
The ethanolic root extract of R. communis is effective in treatment of
asthma because of its antiallergic and mast cell stabilizing potential
effect. Saponins has mast cell stabilizing effect and the flavonoids
possess smooth muscle relaxant and bronchodilator activity; the
apigenin and luteolin like flavonoids were generally inhibit basophil
histamine release and neutrophils beta glucuronidase release, and
finally shows in-vivo antiallergic activity. The R. communis ethanolic
extract decreases milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia and
possess antiasthmatic activity due to presence of flavonoids or
saponins
18
.
Anti-fertility activity
The methanol extracts of R. communis seed possess positive
preliminarily Phytochemical tests for both steroids and alkaloids.
The pituitary gland releases gonadotrophins due to Sex hormones
by both positive and negative feedback mechanism and also the
pituitary gland block the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and the
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) because of the effect of combined
oestrogen and progesterone in the luteal phase of the menstrual
cycle. Finally it helps the inhibition of maturation of the follicle in the
ovary and prevents ovulation. The sex hormone being steroidal
compound’s (phytosterols) and the presence of steroids in methanol
extract of Ricinus communis seed produces anti-fertility effects
19, 20
.
Antihistaminic Activity
The ethanol extract of R. communis root resulted anti histaminic
activity at the dose 100, 125, and 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally by
using clonidine induced catalepsy in mice
21
.
In vitro immunemodulatory activity
The plant and animal origin immunemodulatory agents generally
increase the immune responsiveness of the human body against
pathogens by activating the non-specific immune system. The
phagocytosis is the engulfment of microorganism by leucocytes. In
last the phagocytosis is the intracellular killing of microorganisms by
the neutrophils. The presence of tannins in the leaves of R.
communis significantly increased the phagocytic function of human
neutrophils and resulted produces a possible immunemodulatory
effect
22
.
Hepatoprotective activity:
Ricinus communis leaves ethanolic extract 250/500mg/kg body
weight possesses hepatoprotective activity due to their inhibitory
activities of an increase in the activities of serum transaminases and
the level of liver lipid per oxidation, protein, glycogen and the
activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in liver induced by carbon
tetrachloride (CCL
4
). The R. communis ethanolic extract
250/500mg/kg body weight also treated the depletion of
glutathione level and adenosine triphosphatase activity which was
observed in the CCl4-induced rat liver. The presence of flavonoids in
ethanol extract of R. communis produces beneficial effect the
flavonoids have the membrane stabilizing and antiperoxidative
effects. Hence the R. communis increase the regenerative and
reparative capacity of the liver due to the presence of flavonoids and
tannins. The anticholestatic and hepatoprotective activity was seen
against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage due to the presence of
N-demethyl ricinine isolated from the leaves of Ricinus
communis Linn. The whole leaves of Ricinus communis showed the
protective effect against liver necrosis as well as fatty changes
induced by CCL
4
while the glycoside and cold aqueous extract
provide protection only against liver necrosis and fatty changes
respectively
23, 24, 25, 26
.
Anti-inflammatory activity
Anti-inflammatory activities of the leaves and root extract were
studied in Wistar albino rats in acute and chronic inflammatory
models. The study indicated that the paw edema formation due to
sub plantar administration of carragennan, characterizing the
cellular events of acute inflammation. The 250 and 500 mg/kg dose
of R. communis methanolic leaves extract possess protective effect
in prevention of cellular events during edema formation and in all
the stages of acute inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity of
R. communis methanolic extract was due to the presence of
flavonoids because the flavonoids have the protective effect against
carragennan-induced paw edema in rats
27, 28, 29
.
Antimicrobial activity
The antimicrobial activities of Ricinus communis were good against
dermatophytic and pathogenic bacterial strains Streptococcus
progenies, Staphylococcus aureus as well as Klebsiella pneumonia,
Escherichia coli. The result showed that the petroleum ether and
acetone extracts possess good zone of inhibition where as ethanolic
extract having anti bacterial activity only on higher concentration
30
.
The different solvent extracts of roots of Ricinus communis
(200mg/ml) possess antimicrobial activity by using well diffusion
method against pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli,
Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella
typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and
Aspergillus niger. The hexane and methanol extracts showed
maximum antimicrobial activity where the aqueous extracts has no
significant antimicrobial properties
31
.
Antidiabetic activity
The ethanolic extract of roots of Ricinus communis (RCRE) was
investigated along with its bioassay-guided purification. By
Administration of the effective dose (500mg/kg b. w) of RCRE to the
diabetic rats for 20 days possess favorable effects not only on fasting
blood glucose, but also on total lipid profile and liver and kidney
functions. Amongst all fractions the R-18 fraction suggests the
significant antihyperglycemic activity. RCRE showed no significant
difference in alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin, creatinine,
serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, serum glutamate
pyruvate transaminases and total protein which was observed even
after the administration of the extract at a dose of 10 g/kg b.wt.
Thus R. communis is a potent phytomedicine for diabetes
32
.
Wound healing activity
The Ricinus communis possess wound healing activity due to the
active constituent of castor oil which produce antioxidant activity
and inhibit lipid per oxidation. Those agents whose inhibits lipid per
oxidation is believed to increase the viability of collagen fibrils by
increasing the strength of collagen fibres, increasing the circulation,
preventing the cell damage and by promoting the DNA synthesis.
The study of wound healing activity of castor oil was in terms of scar
area, % closure of scar area and epithelization in excision wound
model. Due to the astringent and antimicrobial property the tannins,
flavonoids, triterpenoids and sesquiterpenes promotes the wound-
healing process, which are responsible for wound contraction and
increased rate of epithelialisation. The study resulted that the Castor
oil showed wound healing activity by reducing the scar area and also
the epithelization time in excision wound model. The comparison
study of two different concentrations (5%w/w and 10%w/w) of
castor oil was resulted that the 10 % w/w Castor oil ointment
possesses better wound-healing property
33
.
Lipolytic activity
The ricin produces the lipolytic activity by using the various
substrates: (i) one analogue of triacylglycerol, BAL-TC
4
; (ii) various
chromogenic substrates such as p-NP esters of aliphatic short to
medium chain acids, and (iii) monomolecular films of a pure natural
diacylglycerol, DC
10 in
emulsion and in a Membrane-like model. The
study concluded that ricin from R. communis act as a lipase and has
the capability of hydrolyzing different lipid classes. Ricin also
hydrolyses phospholipids which are the major components of
cellular membranes. The lipolytic activities are maximal at pH 7.0 in
the presence of 0.2 M galactose. The action of ricin on membrane
phospholipids could occur through a phospholipase A
1
activity
which is very often a minor activity of lipases
34
.
Molluscicidal, Insecticidal and Larvicidal activity
The leaf extract of R. communis possess molluscicidal activity
against Lymnaea acuminata and the seed extracts showed better
insecticidal and insectistatic activity than the leaf extracts against S.
Jena et al.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 4, Issue 4, 25-29
28
frugiperda due to the active ingredients like castor oil and ricinine
35,
36, 37
. The aqueous leaves extracts of R. communis possess suitable
Larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis, Callosobruchus
chinensis and Culex Quinquefasciatus mosquitoes
38
.
Antiulcer activity
The castor oil of R. communis seed possess significant antiulcer
properties at a dose of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, but at the dose
1000 mg/kg was more potent against the ulceration caused by
pylorus ligation, aspirin and ethanol in rats. The result showed that
the antiulcer activity of R. communis is due to the cytoprotective
action of the drug or strengthening of gastric mucosa and thus
enhancing the mucosal defence
39
.
CONCLUSION
R. communis or castor plant is a widely traditionally used and
potent medicinal plant amongst all the thousands of medicinal
plants. The pharmacological activities reported in the present
review confirm that the therapeutic value of R. communis is much
more. It is an important source of compounds with theirs chemical
structures as well as pharmacological properties. The presence of
phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities proved
that the plant has a leading capacity for the development of new
good efficacy drugs in future.
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... It is popularly known as the castor oil plant. The extracts have been shown to possess essential and beneficial biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, insecticidal, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and laxative; in treatments of edema, headache, dermatitis, ringworm (Nath et al., 2011;Jena and Gupta, 2012;Cherish and Omodele, 2014;Vetriselvan, 2020). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract of A. vasica revealed the presence of tannins among other chemical constituents (Bhinge et al., 2015). ...
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... Ricinus communis, also known as the castor plant, is widely used in traditional medicine for its potential activity against oxidative stress, allergy, analgesic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects (Jena and Gupta, 2012). ...
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... This species has been planted for its dune stabilization properties. [14] PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS Based on the Preliminary Phytochemical study of R. communis presence of steroids, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and glycosides these chemical constituents are responsible for the various pharmacological actions. [12] The dried leaves of R. communis showed the presence of alkaloids, ricinine (0.55%) and N-demethylricinine flavones glycosides kaempferol-3-O kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin xylopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-Dglucopyranoside, kaempferol O-β-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-β-monoterpenoids (1, 8cineole, camphor and α sesquiterpenoid (βcaryophyllene), [12] gallic acid, quercetin, gentisic acid, rutin, epicatechin and ellagic acid are the major phenolic compounds isolated from leaves. ...
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The Ricinus communis is very valuable plant for the human beings. Ricinus communis also known as castor plant. It has high medicinal value as well as pharmacological value for disease cure activity as well as much more traditional value. In a Castor plant, oil seed with rich oil content shows its high phytochemical compound of monounsaturated fatty acid and bioactive compounds. The predominant triglyceride component in the oil is triricinolein. Minor biological compounds including carotenoid, tocopherol, tocotrienol, phytosterol, phospholipid, phytochemical, and phenolic compounds are present in castor oil. R. communis harbours phytochemicals which have been shown the many receptor activate like peroxisome proliferator activated receptor these are receptor are responsible for the transcription factors regulating the expression of genes., nuclear factor NF-k-B responsible for the a regulator of innate immunity, cytochrome P450 function is hemeprotein that plays a key role in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases kinase (p38 MAPK), tumor protein P53, B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xL) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)These compounds offer oxidation stability, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties to the oil. Traditionally the plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicide etc. whereas the plant possesses beneficial effects such as anti-oxidant, Antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, Antidiabetic, Antifertility etc medicinal properties. This activity show in plant possesses due to the Valuable phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids etc. The motive of this paper is to explain the details of phyto-pharmacological properties of R. communis for the future research work for the upcoming research scholar. Keywords: Ricinus communis, castor plant, antimicrobial and pharmacology.
... Its anti-inflammatory effects are its main incentive for acne. It was discovered in a 2012 study that this plant has wound-healing capabilities because of the active components of castor oil, which has antioxidant activity and strengthen collagen fibers to improve circulation and the vitality of collagen fibrils, which prevents cell damage by boosting DNA synthesis and collagen fiber strength [110]. Ricinoleic acid, along with its derivatives, was determined to be the primary active component in castor oil based on a 2004 study. ...
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... On the other hand, the positive bands in PC1 in the region of 780-970 cm −1 were more intense in DL extracts. When evaluating the negative region of the PC1 loading plot, it is possible to observe that the functional groups responsible for the discrimination are probably those present in flavonoids and phenolic acids, corroborating the data in the literature that demonstrate the identification of these compound classes in RC leaves, such as gallic acid, quercetin, gentisic acid, rutin, epicatechin, ellagic acid, etc. [51][52][53] . ...
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... The anticorrosion activity of bitter gourd, onion, and garlic for mild steel in hydrochloric solutions has been reported to show excellent results [116]. Inhibiting mild steel against corrosion using ethanolic extracts of Ricimus communis leaves in acid media has been reported [117]. The aqueous extract of Agaricus and hibiscus flower was examined as corrosion inhibitor for industrial cooling systems by Minhaj et al. [118]. ...
Chapter
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Background Ricinus communis L. is a medicinal plant displays valuable pharmacological properties. Diverse phytochemical constituents display valuable pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, analgesic, antipyretic, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory property. This study targeted to isolate and identify some constituents of R. communis leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS) and different chromatographic techniques, then characterize the potential cytotoxicity, anti-MERS-CoV and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro. Isolated phytoconstituents and remdesivir are assessed for in-silico anti-COVID-19 activity by inhibiting the main protease and spike protein using molecular docking tools. Methods: The CH2Cl2 fraction was subjected to repeated chromatographic separation to isolate the phytochemicals, and their structures were elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. UPLC-Triple TOF-MS/MS was performed to determine the different phytochemicals in the CH2Cl2 fraction. The in vitro anti-MERS and anti-SARS-CoV2 activity for different fractions and for two pure isolated compounds, lupeol (RS) and ricinine (RS1) were evaluated using Plaque reduction assay and IC50 based on their cytotoxic concentration (CC50) from an MTT assay using Vero E6 cell line. Molecular docking studies were carried out for both SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and main protease (Mpro) receptors then examined the possible mechanisms of action. Results: The methylene chloride extract exhibited pronounced virucidal effect with more than a 90% viral inhibitory effect, it showed activity against SARS-CoV- 2 (IC50 = 1.76µg/ml) with high safety index, SI = 291.5. It was also shown that ricinine had superior potential activity against SARS-CoV-2, (IC50 = 2.5 µg/ ml). This constituent was less effective for MERS, IC50 = 87.2 µg/ ml. Lupeol displayed the most potency against MERS, (IC50 = 5.28 µg/ ml), SI = 67.27, but was less effective for SARS, IC50 = 19.5 µg/ ml. Ricinine showed significant binding to (3CLpro) and modest affinity for (S) spike protein, along with a possible interaction with SARS-CoV-2 major protease. Ricinine appeared to be the most biologically active. Conclusion: The study showed that Ricinus communis and its isolated compounds have potential natural virucidal activity against SARS-COV-2, however, additional exploration is necessary for further chemical modification of these structures, guided by the molecular docking tools and study for their in vivo activity.
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Comparative impact of two phyto‐piscicides viz. mahua (Bassia latifolia) oil cake (MOC) and castor (Ricinus communis L.) bean cake (CBC) upon the mineralizing heterotrophs was tested in outdoor experimental tanks. Following a sharp decline, aerobic heterotrophs and cellulose decomposing bacterial population recovered and the population density remained significantly higher than the pre‐treatment level, indicating strong heterotrophic potential of both the phyto‐piscicides in the culture system. Among the nutrient mineralizers, the sustained negative effect of both the piscicides was observed in denitrifying and ammonifying bacteria, whereas population of nitrifying and phosphate solubilizing bacteria was not affected. Because of narrower C: N ratio, CBC underwent faster decomposition thereby expressed it is manurial value quicker than MOC after exerting toxicity at the beginning. However, with distinctly higher N:P ratio CBC treatment might result in P limitation and toxicity when acting as manure in the culture system.
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Toothache is one of the most common global health problems, and medicinal plants are widely used to relieve the associated pain and inflammation. Several studies have been conducted on the use of plants to treat toothache, but no study has comprehensively assessed the types of plants and the mechanisms of action of the phytochemical compounds involved in their analgesic effect. This review aims to bridge this gap. This is the first review to collect a large volume of data on the global use of medicinal plants used in the treatment of toothache. It presents the relevant information for dentists, researchers, and academics on using medicinal plants to treat toothache. We found that preclinical studies and state-of-the-art technology hold promise for furthering our knowledge of this important topic. In total, 21 species of medicinal plants used to treat toothache were found in America, 29 in Europe, 192 in Africa, 112 in Asia, and 10 in Oceania. The most common species were Allium sativum, Allium cepa, Acmella oleracea, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypiifolia, and Syzygium aromaticum. The most commonly found family of medicinal plants was Asteraceae, followed by Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, and Myrtaceae. The most common phytochemicals found were flavonoids, terpenes, polyphenols, and alkaloids. The reported mechanisms of action involved in toothache analgesia were antioxidant effects, effects mediated by transient receptor potential channels, the γ-aminobutyric acid mechanism, and the cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase anti-inflammatory mechanism.
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One of the most studied plant species with insecticidal properties is the castor bean Ricinus communis. However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, castor oil and ricinine were tested at different concentrations against S. frugiperda. This study demonstrated for the first time, that the castor oil and ricinine are active ingredients of R. communis that acts against S. frugiperda and that each of the seed extracts exhibited better insecticidal and insectistatic activity than the leaf extracts. The half maximum larvae viability concentration (LVC 50) were 0.38 × 10 3 ppm for the ricinine, 0.75 × 10 3 ppm for a methanol extract of seeds, 1.97 × 10 3 ppm for an ethyl acetate seed extract, 2.69×10 3 ppm for the castor oil, 4.83 × 10 3 ppm for a methanol extract of leaves, 5.07 × 10 3 ppm for an ethyl acetate extract of leaves, 9.95 × 10 3 ppm for a hexane extract of seeds and 10.01 × 10 3 ppm for a hexane extract of leaves.
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The antioxidant activity of two methanolic fractions (CI, C2) of R. communis was determined by three methods: Lipid peroxidation by ferric thiocyanate method and free radical scavenging effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical generated from hydrogen peroxide. CI and C2 at various concentration possessed significant antioxidant activity (p<0.05) when compared with antioxidant standards Butylated Hydroxy Anisole (BHA), ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol used in the assay. CI had percentage inhibition of 93.98% while C2 gave 90.10% inhibition at 0.8 mg mL -1 in the lipid per oxidation/ferric thiocyanate test. In the DPPH assay, CI had inhibition of 73.71% while C2 gave 87.92% at 1.0 mg mL -1. While in the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, the inhibition of CI was 85.07% while that of C2 was 94.91% at 0.1 mg mL -1, both extracts therefore, showed comparative antioxidant activities at the concentrations used. CI golden brown coloured oil was analysed using gas chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Four components were obtained, Methyl ricinoleate (46.68%), Ricmoleic acid (34.41%), (Z, Z)-9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.99%) and (Z, Z)-9, 12-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (5.92%). These chemical constituents were assumingly responsible for the observed antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from R. communis seeds.
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In present study, the molluscicidal activity of some medicinal plant i.e. Acalypha indica, Euphorbia hirta and Ricinus communis against Lymnaea acuminata snails was studied. The toxicity of different preparations for mulluscs was time and dose dependent. According to these results it may conclude that, the ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis may be used for the pest management, however, further animal study is needed to confirm its physiological toxicity.
Article
Ricinus communis Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) is a soft wooded tree widely prevalent throughout tropics regions of the world which have a warm temperature. In the Indian system of medicine, the leaves, roots and seed oil of this plant have been used for the treatment of inflammation and liver disorders for a long time. In the present study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of Ricinus communis L. leaves on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage were investigated in rats. Results were compared with those of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective drug. It was found that an increase in the activities of serum transaminases and the level of liver lipid peroxidation, protein, glycogen and the activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase in liver induced by CCl4 were significantly inhibited by treatment with Ricinus communis ethanolic extract (250/500mg/kg b.wt). In addition, the depletion of glutathione level and adenosine triphosphatase activity observed in the CCl4-induced rat liver were effectively prevented by treatment with Ricinus communis ethanolic extract (250/500mg/kg b.wt). Histopathological examination further confirmed the hepato-protective activity of Ricinus communis ethanol extract when compared with the CCl4-induced control rats. In conclusion, these results indicate that the ethanol extract of Ricinus communis ethanolic extract exhibits hepatoprotective action.