In conclusion, this study helped to characterize the dy-
namic relationship between glenohumeral rotation and trans-
lation in healthy individuals during motion in three arm
elevation planes. There were signiﬁcant differences in scapu-
lohumeral rhythm between abduction and forward ﬂexion.
Therefore, when evaluating detailed scapulohumeral rhythm
kinematics during clinical assessment of shoulder disorders, it
is important to take into account and control the plane of arm
elevation. The data suggest that evaluation of forward ﬂexion
may represent a better method for assessing scapular abnor-
malities than scaption or coronal plane abduction.
Tables showing the descriptive statistics for glenohumeral
rotation, anter ior-posterior and superior-inferior gleno-
humeral position, and between-subject variability in superior-
inferior position during scaption are available with the online
version of this article as a data supplement at jbjs.org. n
NOTE: The authors thank Medis Specials for providing the Model-Based RSA analysis software and
Dr. Robert F. LaPrade for his invaluable input on the manuscript. The authors also acknowledge
Christopher Dewing, Florian Elser, Jacob Krong, Dan Peterson, Tyler Anstett, and J.D. Pault for their
contributions to this investigation.
J. Erik Giphart, PhD
John P. Brunkhorst, BA
Nils H. Horn, MD
Department of BioMedical Engineering,
Steadman Philippon Research Institute,
181 West Meadow Drive,
Suite 1000, Vail, CO 81657.
Kevin B. Shelburne, PhD
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering,
the University of Denver, 2390 South York Street,
Denver, CO 80208
Michael R. Tor ry, PhD
College of Applied Science and Technology,
School of Kinesiology and Recreation,
Campus Box 5120, Illinois State University,
Normal, IL 61790
Peter J. Millett, MD, MSc
The Steadman Clinic, 181 West Meadow Drive,
Suite 400, Vail, CO 81657
E-mail address: email@example.com
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THE JOURNAL OF B ONE &JOINT SURGERY
FEBRUARY 6, 2013
EFFECT OF PLANE OF ARM ELEVATION ON