Crabohydrate-Related Inhibitors of Dengue Virus Entry

Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, and Global COE Program for Innovation in Human Health Sciences, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka-shi, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan. .
Viruses (Impact Factor: 3.35). 02/2013; 5(2):605-18. DOI: 10.3390/v5020605
Source: PubMed


Dengue virus (DENV), which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans. The virus entry process mediated through host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue disease. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying virus entry is essential for an understanding of dengue pathology and for the development of effective new anti-dengue agents. DENV binds to its receptor molecules mediated through a viral envelope (E) protein, followed by incorporation of the virus-receptor complex inside cells. The fusion between incorporated virus particles and host endosome membrane under acidic conditions is mediated through the function of DENV E protein. Carbohydrate molecules, such as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and glycosphingolipids, and carbohydrate-recognition proteins, termed lectins, inhibit virus entry. This review focuses on carbohydrate-derived entry inhibitors, and also introduces functionally related compounds with similar inhibitory mechanisms against DENV entry.

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    • "No clinical treatments are available for Dengue infection and there is a clear requirement for novel antiviral agents in this field. Carbohydrate-based materials are under study as inhibitors of viral adsorption [40]. In our studies, the scaffold ligand combination provided by 13.4 is the only one that has proven effective to block DC-SIGN mediated uptake of DV. "
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    ABSTRACT: DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor on antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells) which has an important role in some viral infection, notably by HIV and Dengue virus (DV). Multivalent presentation of carbohydrates on dendrimeric scaffolds has been shown to inhibit DC-SIGN binding to HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120, thus blocking viral entry. This approach has interesting potential applications for infection prophylaxis. In an effort to develop high affinity inhibitors of DC-SIGN mediated viral entry, we have synthesized a group of glycodendrimers of different valency that bear different carbohydrates or glycomimetic DC-SIGN ligands and have studied their DC-SIGN binding activity and antiviral properties both in an HIV and a Dengue infection model. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) competition studies have demonstrated that the materials obtained bind efficiently to DC-SIGN with IC50s in the μm range, which depend on the nature of the ligand and on the valency of the scaffold. In particular, a hexavalent presentation of the DC-SIGN selective antagonist 4 displayed high potency, as well as improved accessibility and chemical stability relative to previously reported dendrimers. At low μm concentration the material was shown to block both DC-SIGN mediated uptake of DV by Raji cells and HIV trans-infection of T cells.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Biomaterials
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    • "In addition to polyphenols, lectins are commonly found in plant extracts and often show antiviral activity by binding to viral proteins or host receptors, preventing their interaction [49-54]. S. nigra berry extracts are known to contain three plant lectins [55-59]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a pathogenic chicken coronavirus. Currently, vaccination against IBV is only partially protective; therefore, better preventions and treatments are needed. Plants produce antimicrobial secondary compounds, which may be a source for novel anti-viral drugs. Non-cytotoxic, crude ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea roots, Nigella sativa seeds, and Sambucus nigra fruit were tested for anti-IBV activity, since these safe, widely used plant tissues contain polyphenol derivatives that inhibit other viruses. Dose-response cytotoxicity curves on Vero cells using trypan blue staining determined the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of each plant extract. To screen for IBV inhibition, cells and virus were pretreated with extracts, followed by infection in the presence of extract. Viral cytopathic effect was assessed visually following an additional 24 h incubation with extract. Cells and supernatants were harvested separately and virus titers were quantified by plaque assay. Variations of this screening protocol determined the effects of a number of shortened S. nigra extract treatments. Finally, S. nigra extract-treated virions were visualized by transmission electron microscopy with negative staining.Virus titers from infected cells treated with R. rosea and N. sativa extracts were not substantially different from infected cells treated with solvent alone. However, treatment with S. nigra extracts reduced virus titers by four orders of magnitude at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 in a dose-responsive manner. Infection at a low MOI reduced viral titers by six orders of magnitude and pretreatment of virus was necessary, but not sufficient, for full virus inhibition. Electron microscopy of virions treated with S. nigra extract showed compromised envelopes and the presence of membrane vesicles, which suggested a mechanism of action. These results demonstrate that S. nigra extract can inhibit IBV at an early point in infection, probably by rendering the virus non-infectious. They also suggest that future studies using S. nigra extract to treat or prevent IBV or other coronaviruses are warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Veterinary Research
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is a rapidly spreading vector-borne disease estimated to infect 400 million people worldwide. To date, there are no licensed treatments or vaccines. The last few years have seen significant developments in dengue control strategies. In this review, we will address four key areas: vaccines, vector control, antivirals and immunotherapeutics. The first generation of dengue vaccines is able to induce good serological responses in test individuals. However, the recent Sanofi-Pasteur trial in Thailand found that a good serological response did not correlate with clinical protection. This trial did not demonstrate an increase in cases of severe disease following immunization, suggesting that concerns over vaccine-related immune enhancement may have been overcome. The bacterium Wolbachia appears to control dengue proliferation in Aedes mosquitoes, and field studies are underway. A large number of antivirals are in early-stage development and may prove useful in epidemics. Monoclonal antibodies have been postulated to have a clinical role. Whether their clinical application is feasible has yet to be seen. Marked improvements in our knowledge of dengue have been made over the recent years. Sadly, clinical application remains some years away.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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