4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation

Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 01/2013; 21(2):1599-605. DOI: 10.1364/OE.21.001599
Source: PubMed


We report a passively mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) producing 400 fs pulses with 4.35 kW peak power. The average output power was 3.3 W and the VECSEL had a repetition rate of 1.67 GHz at a center wavelength of 1013 nm. A near-antiresonant, substrate-removed, 10 quantum well (QW) gain structure designed to enable femtosecond pulse operation is used. A SESAM which uses fast carrier recombination at the semiconductor surface and the optical Stark effect enables passive mode-locking. When 1 W of the VECSEL output is launched into a 2 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a 2.2 µm core, a supercontinuum spanning 175 nm, with average power 0.5 W is produced.

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    • "I N recent years, vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) have revealed their potential to serve as a versatile platform for the realization of various laser emission schemes [1]–[6]. These lasers combine the advantages of both traditional diode lasers and vertical-emitting lasers, ensuring both high power operation and an excellent beam quality [7]–[9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We present extensive measurements of the pump-dependent dynamics of antiphase noise in a dual-wavelength multimode vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL). We show that antiphase noise at frequencies below 10 kHz dominates the relative-intensity noise spectrum in the emission of a dual-wavelength VECSEL due to gain competition between the two-lasing wavelengths. We observe that with increasing pump power the antiphase noise decreases in amplitude but increases in bandwidth. Surprisingly, at even higher pump powers the spectral extent of the antiphase noise narrows significantly. The results provide information critical to potential applications of dual-wavelength VECSELs, such as intracavity parametric frequency conversion.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
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    • "Up-to-date, mode-locking of VECSELs required using resonator-integrated [9] [15] or chip-integrated [16] semiconductor saturable-absorber mirrors (SESAMs). Indeed, besides semiconductor materials, saturable absorbers as graphene [17] [18] and carbon nanotubes [19] have also been employed for ML operation of VECSELs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) have proved to be versatile lasers which allow for various emission schemes which on the one hand include remarkably high-power multi-mode or single-frequency continuous-wave operation, and on the other hand two-color as well as mode-locked emission. Particularly, the combination of semiconductor gain medium and external cavity provides a unique access to high-brightness output, a high beam quality and wavelength flexibility. Moreover, the exploitation of intra-cavity frequency conversion further extends the achievable radiation wavelength, spanning a spectral range from the UV to the THz. In this work, recent advances in the field of VECSELs are summarized and the demonstration of self-mode-locking (SML) VECSELs with sub-ps pulses is highlighted. Thereby, we present studies which were not only performed for a quantum-well-based VECSEL, but also for a quantum-dot VECSEL.
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    • "VECSELs combine the advantages of semiconductor laser technology, such as compact footprint (down to∼3mm cavity length[8]), with the benefits of diode pumped solidstate lasers, such as low timing jitter[9], excellent beam quality[10], high average[10] [11] and peak power[6] [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report a versatile way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between a single layer graphene (SLG) and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to ∼0. We use this to mode-lock a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) from 935 to 981 nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors or dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase the absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors.
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