The role and clinical signifcance of DNA damage response and repair pathways in primary brain tumors

Cell and Bioscience (Impact Factor: 3.63). 02/2013; 3(1):10. DOI: 10.1186/2045-3701-3-10
Source: PubMed


Primary brain tumors, in particular, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), continue to have dismal survivability despite advances in treating other neoplasms. The goal of new anti-glioma therapy development is to increase their therapeutic ratios by enhancing tumor control and/or decreasing the severity and incidence of side effects. Because radiotherapy and most chemotherapy agents rely on DNA damage, the cell's DNA damage repair and response (DRR) pathways may hold the key to new therapeutic strategies. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents are the most lethal form of damage, and are repaired via either homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. Understanding and exploitation of the differences in the use of these repair pathways between tumor and normal brain cells will allow for an increase in tumor cell killing and decreased normal tissue damage. A literature review and discussion on new strategies which can improve the anti-glioma therapeutic ratio by differentially targeting HR and NHEJ function in tumor and normal neuronal tissues is the focus of this article.

Download full-text


Available from: · License: CC BY
  • Source
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Cell and Bioscience
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) is a well-tolerated drug that is used to treat seizure disorders and that has recently been shown to inhibit histone deacetylase. The present study investigated the effects of VPA on the radiosensitization of the rat C6 glioma cell line in vitro. To select an appropriate treatment concentration and time, MTT and flow cytometry assays were performed to measure the inhibitory effects of VPA at various concentrations and incubation time-points. The radiosensitizing effect of VPA was determined using clonogenic experiments. VPA- and radiation-induced C6 apoptosis was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by VPA in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). VPA enhanced radiation-induced C6 cell death and there was clear inhibition of clonogenic formation [sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER), 1.30]. This effect was closely associated with the concentration of VPA. VPA treatment decreased the mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2, whereas increased changes were detected with Bax. At a concentration of 0.5 mmol/l, VPA had a low toxicity and enhanced the radiosensitization of the C6 cells. VPA may radiosensitize glioma cells by inhibiting cellular proliferation and inducing apoptosis by regulating apoptosis-related molecular changes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Oncology letters
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In genetic toxicology, risk assessment has traditionally adopted linear dose-responses for any compound that causes genotoxic effects. Increasing evidence of non-linear dose-responses, however, suggests potential cellular tolerance to low levels of many genotoxicants with diverse modes of action. Such putative non-linear dose-responses need to be substantiated by strong mechanistic data that identifies the mechanisms responsible for the tolerance to low doses. This can be achieved by experimental demonstration of cytoprotective mechanisms and by providing experimental support for the existence of tolerance mechanisms against low dose effects. By highlighting key experiments into low dose mechanisms, this review aims to clarify which mechanistic data are required to support the use of non-linear dose-response models in risk assessment. Such key experiments are presented and discussed for alkylating agents, oxidants, particulate matter, nucleoside analogues, topoisomerase inhibitors and aneugens and exemplify the use of gene knockout models or transgenic models as well as chemical modulators of key effectors of relevant pathways and their impact on dose-response relationships. In vitro studies are particularly valuable to elucidate mechanisms of low-dose protection or lack thereof, while in vivo experiments are most appropriate for deriving a safe dose. In order to evaluate the existence of non-linear dose-response relationships for genotoxicants, we suggest that careful attention should be given to the mode of genotoxic action, relevant biomarkers of exposure, as well as to the existence and impact of potential cytoprotective mechanisms like detoxifying metabolism and DNA repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research
Show more