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Abstract

The present study examines whether self-criticism and depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between recollections of parental rejection and suicidality. A community sample of 200 Portuguese adults completed, in counterbalanced order, a socio-demographic questionnaire, the short form of the Inventory for Assessing Memories of Parental Rearing Behaviour (EMBU), the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and reports of any suicide intention and/or ideation and suicide attempts. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that recollections of parental rejection are significantly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality. Recollections of parental rejection are indirectly associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality through self-criticism. The association between self-criticism and suicidality is mediated by depressive symptoms. In addition to a significant direct association between recollections of parental rejection and suicidality, the final model indicated that recollections of parental rejection are significantly associated with self-criticism. That same self-criticism is significantly associated with depressive symptoms which, in turn, are significantly associated with suicidality. Individuals with recollections of parental rejection are at greater risk for suicide ideation and behavior, possibly because such experiences predispose them to intense self-criticism which is a risk factor for depression associated with suicidal ideation and behavior.

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... Self-criticism has been linked to self-harm, depression and psychopathology in a number of studies (Gilbert et al., 2004(Gilbert et al., , 2010Irons et al., 2006;O'Connor, 2007;Richter et al., 2009). It has been associated with a range of issues, including recollections of parental rejection, bullying in adolescence and child maltreatment and has a mediating role between negative early experiences, depressive symptoms and suicidal cognition (Castilho, Pinto-Gouveia, & Duarte, 2017;Campos et al., 2013;Glassman et al., 2007). Self-criticism has also been directly linked to suicide (Campos et al., 2013;Falgares et al., 2017;O'Connor & Noyce, 2008). ...
... It has been associated with a range of issues, including recollections of parental rejection, bullying in adolescence and child maltreatment and has a mediating role between negative early experiences, depressive symptoms and suicidal cognition (Castilho, Pinto-Gouveia, & Duarte, 2017;Campos et al., 2013;Glassman et al., 2007). Self-criticism has also been directly linked to suicide (Campos et al., 2013;Falgares et al., 2017;O'Connor & Noyce, 2008). Fazaa and Page (2003) found that self-critical individuals demonstrated increased levels of suicidal intent and completed suicide, and were more likely to attempt suicide due to 'intra-psychic stressors', such as failure to achieve a goal or career concerns, with the explicit motivation to escape. ...
... One of the potential routes to increased suicide probability via self-attacking comes from research into childhood adversity and its resulting impact on self-criticism and shame. Research suggests that for highly self-critical individuals, adverse childhood experiences such as emotional and sexual abuse, physical neglect and perceived overprotectiveness of the early primary caregiver, increase levels of internalized self-criticism and shame (Castilho, Carvalho, et al., 2017;Campos et al., 2013;Glassman et al., 2007). This in turn exposes individuals to internal bullying, humiliation and social defeat (Gilbert et al., 2004(Gilbert et al., , 2007 and increased sensitivity to threat signals. ...
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The relationship of self‐to‐self relating and suicide has received attention in explanatory models of suicide. However, exploration of specific types of self‐relationships, namely feelings of inadequacy (associated with perfectionism), self‐attacking and the ability to be kind and nurturing towards the self has not been examined in a suicidal population. The present study assessed the relative contribution of self‐criticism to suicide probability, alongside established predictors of suicidal ideation; hopelessness, depression, defeat and entrapment. Participants completed measures of inadequacy, self‐attacking, self‐reassurance, defeat, entrapment, depression and hopelessness (N= 101). A correlation, regression and mediation analysis was undertaken. Results demonstrated that self‐attacking has a direct relationship with suicide probability, alongside established predictors; entrapment and hopelessness. Depressive symptomology was not found to be a significant predictor of suicide probability in this population. Addressing particularly hostile forms of self‐criticism may be a promising area in terms of future research and clinical practice. Entrapment continues to be a significant predictor of suicide risk and interventions that target this experience should be explored.
... Moreover, theory and research both suggest that two important personality vulnerability factors, namely dependency and self-criticism [e.g., Ref. (21)(22)(23)] and early developmental vulnerabilities, in particular, insecure attachment [e.g., Ref. (10,23,24)] confer vulnerability for suicidality in adolescents. However, to our knowledge, the literature to date pertaining to dependency and self-criticism has not evaluated them as clinical factors linking the potential association between attachment and suicidality in adolescents. ...
... According to Blatt's two-configurations model (26,27), personality proceeds through a dialectical and continuing interaction between the issues of identity, autonomy, and achievement on the one hand, and interpersonal issues of relatedness, attachment, and intimacy, on the other (28). It has been proposed that this model may contribute to our understanding of vulnerability to suicide in adolescents and adults as it may elucidate specific patterns of risk (22,29,30), further, our knowledge of the etiology of suicidal behaviors, and improve our treatments for suicidal patients (31). ...
... Research has systematically demonstrated that the pathological personality traits of dependency and self-criticism are related to depression, which is in turn linked with suicidality (22). It has also been proposed that dependent and self-critical individuals may display different types of suicidal behaviors, similar to the differences shown by these two personality types with regard to depression (36). ...
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Insecure attachment and the personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency have been proposed as risk factors for suicide in adolescents. The present study examines whether self-criticism and dependency mediate the relationship between insecure attachment styles and suicidality. A sample of 340 high-school students (73.2% females), ranging in age from 13 to 20 years (M = 16.47, SD = 1.52), completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. The results partially support the expected mediation effects. Self-criticism, but not dependency, mediates the link between insecure attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and suicide-related behaviors. Implications for suicide risk assessment and management are discussed.
... Particularly, several studies have demonstrated that the pathological personality dimensions of self-criticism (Fazaa and Page, 2003;O'Connor, 2007;Campos and Mesquita, 2014;Falgares et al., 2017a) and dependency (Bornstein and O'Neill, 2000) are significant risk factors for suicide risk and are influenced by dysfunctional early relationships, such as those with parents (Blatt, 2004;Campos et al., 2013;Falgares et al., 2017a). However, to our knowledge, no study has specifically examined the links between childhood maltreatment, self-criticism and dependency, and risk for suicidality in adulthood. ...
... Baetens et al. (2015) highlighted that perceived parental expressed emotions have an important effect on adolescents' well-being and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), with self-criticism mediating this relationship. An overview of the literature about this topic indicates that self-criticism is an important predictor of suicidality (Campos et al., 2013). ...
... Klomek et al. (2008), in a cross-sectional study, examined the relationship between suicidality and dependent and self-critical vulnerabilities among adolescents and found that suicidal participants have significantly higher levels of both self-criticism and dependency than non-suicidal inpatients and healthy controls. In a sample of adults, Campos et al. (2013) found that depressive symptoms mediated the association between self-critical perfectionism and suicidality. Highly self-critically perfectionistic individuals are vulnerable to intense depression, often accompanied by suicidal impulses, when confronted with stressful life events and, in particular, events that disrupt self-definition or a sense of personal achievement. ...
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Several studies have demonstrated that child maltreatment (psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and neglect) may be a significant factor in the development of pathological personality traits that increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior from adolescence to adulthood. Currently, the challenge is to understand how different forms of early negative experiences render an individual prone to develop specific personality traits and, in turn, be more vulnerable to suicide risk. To understand the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality dimensions in suicide risk, our study aims to explore the role of self-criticism and dependency, two different pathological personality traits, as potential mediators of the link between different types of childhood maltreatment and suicide risk in young adults. For this purpose, 306 students from three Italian public universities were recruited. We used the Italian version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) to assess experiences of lack of care by parents (i.e., antipathy and neglect) as well as psychological and physical abuse before the age of 17 years. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire was used to assess the personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency, and the Suicide History Self-Rating Screening Scale was administered to assess suicide risk. Results revealed that lack of care and psychological abuse were significantly associated with suicide risk and this association was partially mediated by the maladaptive personality dimension of self-criticism. These findings suggest that the combined effect of specific forms of dysfunctional parental behavior during childhood and the development of rigid and dysfunctional negative personality traits may increase the risk for suicidal ideation and behavior during adulthood.
... Duarte et al., 2014;Ferreira et al., 2014;Kelly and Carter, 2013), social anxiety disorder (Iancu et al., 2015), pathological narcissism (Kealy et al., 2012), mania (Muradlidharan et al., 2015), psychotic symptoms like voice hearing (Noordenbos et al., 2014), or paranoid beliefs (Pinto-Gouveia et al., 2013). Also transdiagnostic symptoms like suicidality (Campos et al., 2013;Sobrinho et al., 2016;Stange et al., 2015), negative affect (Kobala-Sibley et al., 2012), or problems in interpersonal behavior (Dinger et al., 2015;Martins et al., 2015) were considered. See Table 1 for an overview of all the studies included regarding self-criticism and psychopathology. ...
... In another study, self-criticism was identified as mediating the link between the effect of ruminative brooding, respectively the effect of concern over mistakes and depressive symptoms (Manfredi et al., 2016). Further mediating effects of selfcriticism were reported, (1) between the perception of external shame and depression (Castilho et al., 2017;Costa et al., 2016;Pinto-Gouveia et al., 2013), (2) between memories of parental rejection with depressive symptoms as well as with suicidality (Campos et al., 2013), and (3) between attachment-avoidance (attachment-anxiety, respectively) and depressive symptoms (Dagnino et al., 2017). When looking in the specific groups of patients with a diagnosis of the bipolar spectrum, there was a moderate significant relation of self-criticism and depressive symptoms but not between self-criticism and manic symptoms (Muralidharan et al., 2015;O'Garro-Moore et al., 2015;Stange et al., 2015). ...
... Four studies investigated how self-criticism and suicidality are related. On a correlational level, moderate associations were reported (Campos et al., 2012(Campos et al., , 2013Campos and Holden, 2014;Sobrinho et al., 2016). Beyond that, self-criticism was a predictor for suicidality and showed relations to distress. ...
Article
Background: Self-criticism represents a central phenomenon in a variety of mental disorders. The review looks at the recent body of literature (2012–2018) to summarize the relation of self-criticism and psychopathology beyond depression and aims at detecting how different conceptualizations of self-criticism with psychoanalytical, psychodynamic, or cognitive-evolutionary background are related to psychopathology. Furthermore, latest treatment approaches for dysfunctional forms of self-criticism are reviewed. Methods: The literature research of five databases (PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Library) took place in August 2018. Inclusion criteria for studies to enter the review narrative were an adult sample, non-clinical samples as well as clinical samples, and an empirical approach, which resulted in quantitative data. Results: 48 studies entered the review. Besides depressive symptoms, self-criticism showed positive relations to symptoms of eating disorders, social anxiety disorder, and personality disorders as well as to psychotic symptoms or interpersonal problems through different conceptualizations of self-criticism. Regarding the treatment of self-criticism, compassion- or emotion-focused therapy interventions were investigated in most of the reviewed studies and both reduced self-criticism in clinical and non-clinical samples. However, harsh forms of self-criticism were more persistent and difficult to change. Limitations: The review focused only on the latest empirical findings regarding self-criticism and psychopathology. Conclusion: Potentially functional forms and functions of self-criticism need further consideration, as they represent a possible goal of psychotherapeutic treatment. Future research should address specific questions regarding antecedents and consequences of self-criticism.
... The Escape Theory of suicide (Baumeister, 1990;Chatard & Selimbegovic, 2011), in contrast, asserts that suicidal impulses arise when an individual experiences failure in regard to a personally meaningful goal and consequently interprets this failure as evidence that he or she is in some way a defective person, leading to a desire to escape this painful self-awareness through suicide. Research is suggestive of subgroups of suicidal individuals who arrive at the decision to end their own life based on differing sources of motivation: first, an interpersonally oriented group, sensitive to concerns such as abandonment or alienation from others, and second, a group that is more reactive to internal concerns and prone to self-criticism or self-hatred in the face of perceived failure (Blatt, 1995;Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Campos & Holden, 2014;Campos, Holden, Baleizão, Caçador, & Fragata, 2018;Fazaa & Page, 2003;Sobrinho, Campos, & Holden, 2016). ...
... In general, more evidence has been found to support a connection between high introjective/self-critical traits and increased risk for suicide (Blatt, 1995;Campos & Holden, 2014;Campos et al., 2013Campos et al., , 2018Sobrinho et al., 2016), although findings remain equivocal. In several studies, self-criticism was related to suicidality mainly through indirect associations with depression (Sobrinho et al., 2016), perceived parental criticism (Baetens et al., 2015;Campos et al., 2013), and distress (Campos et al., 2018), or in some cases actually related to lower rates of suicidality (Rost, Luyten, & Fonagy, 2018). ...
... In general, more evidence has been found to support a connection between high introjective/self-critical traits and increased risk for suicide (Blatt, 1995;Campos & Holden, 2014;Campos et al., 2013Campos et al., , 2018Sobrinho et al., 2016), although findings remain equivocal. In several studies, self-criticism was related to suicidality mainly through indirect associations with depression (Sobrinho et al., 2016), perceived parental criticism (Baetens et al., 2015;Campos et al., 2013), and distress (Campos et al., 2018), or in some cases actually related to lower rates of suicidality (Rost, Luyten, & Fonagy, 2018). In contrast, anaclitic personality traits (also often referred to as high dependency) have been found to relate to suicide through an association with attachment anxiety (Falgares et al., 2017), or when combined with high self-criticism and distress (Campos et al., 2018;Sobrinho et al., 2016). ...
Article
Research has shown differences in the characteristics of suicidal behavior in individuals with dependent (anaclitic) versus self-critical (introjective) personality styles. Questions remain, however, as to what factors distinguish suicidal from nonsuicidal individuals within each personality style. The current study examined clinical and interpersonal correlates of suicidality in 124 patients attending residential treatment for complex psychiatric disorders, with the aim of clarifying how social cognition and quality of internalized object representations relate to suicidality in individuals with anaclitic versus introjective personality organizations. Higher anaclitic and lower introjective traits each predicted higher frequency of prior attempts. Furthermore, higher anaclitic and lower introjective traits interacted with the affective-interpersonal quality of object representations to predict prior attempts, such that each trait was associated with more frequent past attempts in the context of poorer quality of object relations. The treatment implications of these findings are discussed, and areas for future research are considered.
... Suicidal ideation in adolescents is a risk factor for suicidal death (Andrews and Lewinsohn, 1992;Van Orden et al., 2010) and for a variety of self-destructive behaviors (Han et al., 2015), and thus a serious social and clinical problem (Joffe et al., 2014;Shaffer and Pfeffer, 2001). Studies have demonstrated that childhood maltreatment, defined as any act of commission or omission by a caregiver resulting in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012), in particular when it is caused by close relatives, is related to increased levels of suicidal ideation and/or suicidal behavior (Campos et al., 2013;Hadland et al., 2015;Kealy et al., 2017;Pompili et al., 2013;You et al., 2012). However, mechanisms underlying this relationship are still not well understood. ...
... We hypothesized that when using measures of generalized shame and guilt, different types of maltreatment, including non-sexual maltreatment, would be positively associated with shame and guilt (hypothesis 1), at least among adolescents, who tend to experience selfconscious emotions to a greater degree than people in other periods of life (Rankin et al., 2004;Somerville et al., 2013). Considering that in emotional abuse, the victim receives negative messages and criticisms that potentially undermine self-esteem (Campos et al., 2013;Frankel, 2004;Hoglund and Nicholas, 1995), we predicted that this form of maltreatment would be more strongly associated with the self-referencing emotion of shame, relative to guilt. On the other hand, since physically neglected youth may feel increased responsibility for the family in the face of difficult home situations (Ferenczi, 1955a;Jurkovic, 1997;Wilson et al., 2006), we anticipated that this form of maltreatment would be more strongly associated with guilt than shame. ...
... Perpetrators of emotional abuse focus most often on a child's alleged negative characteristics (e.g. being stupid or ugly) as a cause of various negative outcomes, not on his/her actions that could be modified and repaired (Campos et al., 2013;Frankel, 2004). In effect, youth who experienced emotional abuse may experience mostly shame as an emotion that concerns one's entire being, not guilt that motivates a repair of the perceived failure. ...
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Background Previous studies demonstrated positive relations between various forms of maltreatment and suicidal ideation; however, mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. We propose that the experience of maltreatment in childhood may lead to high levels of generalized guilt and shame, resulting in an increase of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts in adolescents. The aim of our study was to test our model of relations between these constructs using path analysis. Methods 112 inpatient adolescents aged 12-17 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to measure various types of maltreatment, the Personal Feelings Questionnaire to evaluate generalized guilt and shame, the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess depressive symptoms, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale to assess suicidal ideation. Results Findings partly confirmed the theoretical model. Indirect positive effects of sexual and emotional abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect on suicidal ideation via generalized self-conscious emotion and/or depression were demonstrated. In contrast to our predictions, indirect negative effects of physical abuse on suicidal thoughts via generalized guilt and shame and depression were found. Limitations Sample characterized by predominately Caucasian inpatient adolescents from financially stable and well-educated environments, over-reliance on self-report measures and the lack of a longitudinal design were main limitations of the study. Conclusions The study provides novel information on the potential mechanisms underlying the association between childhood maltreatment and suicidal ideation in adolescents. Generalized guilt and/or shame could be possible targets for interventions for victims of some forms of maltreatment to reduce depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation.
... Examples are: "My father/ mother usually judges me only by my academic record regardless of my great effort," and "When considering the household property-dividing, my father/mother usually ignores my share." The third domain was parental rejection, as suggested previously (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Khasakhala, Ndetei, Mutiso, Mbwayo, & Mathai, 2012); an example item was, "My father/ mother begrudged me" (from the EMBU). ...
... Factor 2, Parental Abuse, covered perceived physical and spiritual maltreatment and criticism from parents, which is called Rejection in the EMBU (Perris et al., 1980), and also as described by other scholars (Backer-Fulghum et al., 2012;Campos et al., 2013;Elliott et al., 2005;Schofield & Beek, 2005). Men scored higher on this scale than women did, which demonstrated a discriminant trait for it, and was in accordance with other studies as well (Lin & Billingham, 2014;Rikhye et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Consistent results have shown a relationship between the psychological world of children and their perceived parental bonding or family attachment style, but to date there is no single measure covering both styles. The authors designed a statement matrix with 116 items for this purpose and compared it with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in a study with 718 university students. After exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, five factors (scales)-namely, Paternal/Maternal Encouragement (5 items each), Paternal/Maternal Abuse (5 items each), Paternal/ Maternal Freedom Release (5 items each), General Attachment (5 items), and Paternal/Maternal Dominance (4 items each)-were defined to form a Family Relationship Questionnaire (FRQ). The internal alphas of the factors ranged from .64 to .83, and their congruency coefficients were .93 to .98 in samples regarding father and mother. Women scored significantly higher on FRQ General Attachment and Maternal Encouragement and lower on Paternal Abuse than men did; only children scored significantly
... Similarly, rates rose from 0.12 to 1.09 per 100,000 in females. Amongst females, suicide rates were highest in [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] year olds, whilst in males rates were similar in all age groups throughout the study period. The study also took note of the patterns of suicide methods utilized by the victims. ...
... Various theories on suicide, from Durkheim's classical theory on suicide to the more contemporary ones such as Hirschi's Social Bonds theory [18], particularly his element of Attachment to Others, have proposed the importance of these family ties as protective factors. According to the study of Campos et al. [19] which utilized a community sample of 200 Portuguese adults, parental rejection contributes to a greater suicidality amongst people, mainly because parental rejection could lead to intense self-criticism and eventually lead to the decision to commit suicide. In Pina-Watson et al.'s study [20], they attempted to see the relationship between perception of mother connectedness, father connectedness, parental caring, autonomy granting from parents, and parental interest in their child's school life and suicide ideation using a subset of Latina youth from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. ...
Article
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The increasing threat of suicide amongst the youth serves as the motivation of this study. This study was done to add to the understanding of suicide in terms of ideation and actual attempts among the youth in the Philippines. In particular, this study attempted to accomplish the following objectives: (1) determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempt among the Filipino youth, (2) determine the prevalent methods of suicide among the Filipino youth, (3) determine the prevalent reasons for suicide among the Filipino youth, and (4) determine if there is a significant correlation between the family and suicide ideation and suicide attempts among the Filipino youth. Results showed that roughly one in every ten Filipino youth aged 15 to 27 have thought of ending their life through suicide before, though only around one in every twenty pushes through with an actual attempt. When they do attempt to commit suicide, this is most frequently because of problems in the family and they utilize a violent method of suicide in the form of slashing of wrist(s) or the non-violent method of ingesting poisonous substances. However, overall, the use of violent methods is more prevalent. When it comes to the factors correlated with suicide ideation and suicide attempts, this study found significant relationships between integration in the family and suicide. The study emphasizes the importance of a strong relationship between the youth and the other members of the family to curb the probability of suicide.
... Similar to attachment anxiety, but dislike to attachment avoidance, self-critical individuals are ambivalent in their interpersonal relationships as they highly desire to belong to and to be approved by others, but strongly fear disapproval or rejection (Blatt & Shichman, 1983). A growing body of empirical evidence supported that perfectionism was a risk and maintaining factor for various psychological problems, including depression, anxiety disorders, and suicidal behaviours REJECTION SENSITIVITY AND BORDERLINE 9 (Campos, Besser, & Blatt 2013;Flett & Hewitt, 2002). There are different theoretical frameworks for the aetiology of self-critical perfectionism. ...
... A recent study found that the association between perceived maternal care and depressive symptoms was mediated by self-critical perfectionism (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2010). They also found among those with experience of parental rejection were at higher risk of suicide ideation which was mediated by self-critical perfectionism (Campos et al., 2013). Self-criticism was also found to mediate the REJECTION SENSITIVITY AND BORDERLINE 10 link between child maltreatment and non-suicidal self-injury behaviours (Glassman, Weierich, Hooley, Deliberto, & Nock, 2007). ...
Article
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Rejection hypersensitivity has been considered to be the core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients. However, little is known about the possible developmental mechanisms that might explain the association between rejection sensitivity and BPD features. The current study investigated the mediating roles of adult attachment, need to belong, and self-criticism in the association between rejection sensitivity and BPD features in 256 healthy adults. Results indicated attachment anxiety, need to belong, and self-criticism mediated the association between rejection sensitivity and BPD features. However, attachment anxiety and self-criticism did not moderate the mediated association between rejection sensitivity and BPD features. The findings suggested that individuals with high rejection sensitivity were more likely to be anxiously attached to significant others, which might increase the desire to be accepted by others. To satisfy this elevated need to affiliate with others, they might become more self-critical which may contribute to high BPD features.
... In jedem Fall schädlich wirkte sich gewaltvolles, unvorhersehbares und zurückweisendes Elternverhalten aus, da Kinder aus diesen Erfahrungen lernen, sich selbst als wertlos zu betrachten (Campos, Besser & Blatt, 2013;Corby, 2006). Vor allem entstehen auch negative innere Arbeitsmodelle anderer Personen, welche tendenziell als kalt und unberechenbar eingeordnet und damit eher als Bedrohungen denn als mögliche Quelle von Unterstützung angesehen werden (Mark W. Baldwin, 2006;Shields, Ryan & Cicchetti, 2001). ...
... Die vier multiplen logistischen Regressionsmodelle lieferten alle eine hochsignifikante Aufklärung der Varianz der jeweiligen abhängigen Variablen. Repräsentationen elterlicher Strafe und Zurückweisung waren hingegen mit maladaptiven Entwicklungen und Schwierigkeiten in allen Lebensbereichen in Zusammenhang gebracht worden (Campos et al., 2013;Corby, 2006). Bezogen auf schulischen Erfolg hatten frühere Studien diskutiert, dass autoritäre und einschüchternde Elternfiguren die kindliche Neugierde, selbstgesteuerte Exploration und Lernmotivation hemmen. ...
Article
Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt die Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung über den Zusammenhang mentaler Repräsentationen des elterlichen Erziehungsverhaltens und die psychosoziale Entwicklung von Erwachsenen in einer großen, registerbasierten Stichprobe Langzeitüberlebender von Krebserkrankungen im Kindes- / Jugendalter (N = 951) vor. Diese waren im Kontext der Studien CVSS und PSYNA umfassend medizinisch und psychologisch charakterisiert worden. Der »Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten« (FEE) umfasst die Dimensionen emotionale Wärme, Kontrolle / Überbehütung und Strafe / Zurückweisung. Bei statistischer Kontrolle der Diagnosegruppe und aktueller psychischer Belastung standen diese in logistischen Regressionsmodellen mit praktisch relevanten Outcomes in Zusammenhang. So war ein größeres Ausmaß erinnerter emotionaler Wärme mit einer Partnerschaft sowie Elternschaft assoziiert, Repräsentationen strafenden / zurückweisenden Elternverhaltens standen in Zusammenhang mit einem niedrigeren Schulabschluss und aktueller Erwerbslosigkeit. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass Eltern eine wichtige Rolle bei der Verarbeitung einer Krebserkrankung im Kindesalter und für positive Langzeit-Outcomes wie soziale Integration, Bildungserfolg und Berufstätigkeit haben.
... Os CAL podem resultar de estratégias de coping mal adaptativo face a cognições e situações contextuais às quais o indivíduo, devido à sua vulnerabilidade, não consegue responder adequadamente (Saraiva, 2006). Geralmente, as práticas de CAL têm origem em experiências traumatizantes vivenciadas durante a infância (rejeição, negligência parental, abuso físico/psicológico/sexual) que são causadoras de sofrimento extremo, depressão, desesperança e elevados níveis de ansiedade e impulsividade (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Moreira & Gonçalves, 2010). ...
... A relação moderada detetada entre a toxicodependência e a prática de CAL reforça a ideia de que o consumo de substâncias (estupefacientes e álcool) está relacionado com a prática de CAL (Aniceto, 2012;Direção-Geral de Saúde, 2013;Hayes, 2001). Também a prática anterior de CAL é um fator de risco para os reclusos, principalmente aquando da entrada na prisão (Campos et al. 2013;Pinheiro & Cardoso, 2011), sendo comprovada pela relação forte entre o resultado total da ECAL e um passado de CAL. Na comparação entre grupos, verificou-se que reclusos que, anteriormente, adotaram CAL obtiveram valores estatisticamente mais significativos na ECAL. ...
... This is not without importance, as high self-criticism is a major risk factor for several psychiatric disorders, including depression (6)(7)(8). Adults who recall their parents as critical, rejecting or overprotecting tend to be more self-critical than those who recall their parents as warm (6,(9)(10)(11)(12). ...
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Background: Frequent exposure to criticism is a known risk factor for various adult psychiatric disorders. Adolescents may be even more vulnerable to (parental) criticism, as their imbalanced brain maturation makes them prone to stronger mood changes and less effective emotional regulation. Identifying which adolescent subgroups are more vulnerable than others could be of great clinical relevance. Perceived criticism (PC) and self-criticism (SC), two related but distinct traits, could well be crucial vulnerability factors. Hypotheses: After exposure to criticism during fMRI scanning, rapid changes in amygdalar functional connectivity (FC) with other brain areas involved in emotion regulation and social cognitive processing will occur. These changes will depend on trait moderators, such as the adolescents' proneness to (a) perceive others as critical of them (PC) or (b) perceive themselves positively or negatively (SC). Methods: Sixty-four healthy 14–17-year-olds were exposed to a series of auditory comments. Changes in mood states were assessed based on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) prior to and after exposure to these segments. Pre- and post-experiment FC of the left and right amygdalae with other brain areas were also measured. Correlates between FC changes and psychometric measures—including the perceived criticism measure (PCM) and self-perception profile for adolescents (SPPA)—were assessed. Results: First, after being criticized, FC increases of the left amygdala seed region with brain areas related to sustained emotional processing were found, but no right amygdalar FC changes. Second, there was a significant positive partial correlation between individual PCM scores and FC changes between the left amygdala seed region and the left precuneus and left superior parietal cortex, both part of the default mode network. Conclusion: Exposure to criticism resulted in a rapid negative mood change accompanied by an increase in FC between the left amygdala and regions known to be involved in sustained emotional processing, but no right amygdalar FC changes. Furthermore, higher PC but not SC was correlated with stronger left amygdalar FC increases with these regions, suggesting an elevated vulnerability for disturbed emotional processing, as observed in mood disorders, in healthy adolescents with higher PCM scores.
... The findings of the present study pertaining to the effects of relational ACEs on the likelihood of future suicide suggest that such a possibility should be considered in future studies. Congruent with previous studies that underlined the effects of ACEs on future suicide (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Castellvi et al., 2017;Enns et al., 2006;Mortier et al., 2017), our results show that ACEs do not necessarily predict a suicide-related behavior; rather, they can significantly increase the tendency of students to give a higher score while evaluating the possibility of committing suicide in the future. ...
Article
This study aimed at investigating the degree to which relational adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) would affect suicide outcomes during early and young adulthood of Iranian female and male students. In all, 487 undergraduate students (59.2% females) with a mean age of 20.66 ± 1.42 were recruited using a multistage clustering sampling method from eight schools from the fields of humanities, engineering, and basic sciences. Suicide Behavior Questionnaire–Revised form (SBQ-R) was employed for assessing past year suicidal ideation (PYSI, once or more), the meaningful likelihood of future suicide (mLoFS, a score of 2 or more), and suicide risk (SR ≥7). Relational ACEs were assessed in the form of a yes/no question, including caregivers’ maltreatment, household relational dysfunction, family loss events, school events, and sexual abuse. Analyses were conducted using Fisher’s exact test, chi-square test, and univariate binary logistic regression. The rates of PYSI, LoFS, and SR were, respectively, 37.2%, 44.6%, and 30.8%. The most experienced event was witnessing verbal violence (68.8%) and the least was divorce/separation (6.2%). All the events and domains (except family loss events), the interaction of domains, and cumulative events significantly increased the odds of suicide outcomes, in which females were more affected by all types of relational ACEs. Students whose ethnicity was Azari & Turk and who were studying in humanities or basic sciences showed a higher suicide risk than their counterparts. The study showed that the rates of relational ACEs and suicide outcomes were remarkable, in Iran. Because of the detrimental effects of relational ACEs on suicidality, mostly for females, it is necessary to improve the initiatives promoting child protection and legal support for health professionals to address child abuse. There is also an urgent need for providing young students with supports and effective interventions.
... Khaleque and Rohner [50] reported that 21% of adults' psychological adjustment can be accounted for by recollections of parental acceptance or rejection in childhood. He and many researchers have also noted that --in comparison with adults who were accepted in childhood--adults who were rejected in childhood are more likely to develop depression [51][52][53][54], alcohol/substance abuse [55,56] or other psychiatric disorders [57][58][59][60][61]. ...
Poster
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Previous research has revealed an important relationship between negative parent-child interactions in childhood and social anxiety symptoms in adulthood. This study tested a mediation model to investigate the combined and separate effects of psychological adjustment and concurrent psychological symptoms in the relationship between adults’ remembrances of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood and current social anxiety symptoms. The sample consisted of 303 participants (194 female and 109 male), between the ages of 18-65 from a community sample of adults in Turkey. Participants respond to Demographic Information Form, Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and Brief Symptom Inventory. Results revealed that only remembered maternal acceptance-rejection, but not paternal acceptance-rejection, was directly related to social anxiety symptoms in adults. Additionally, among psychological adjustment subscales, negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional unresponsiveness, and emotional instability were correlated to social anxiety symptoms. Indirect effects (mediation) were assessed by bootstrapping procedure (n = 5000 bootstrap samples) using the PROCESS program in SPSS. The mediation analysis findings showed that negative self-esteem and concurrent psychological symptoms exerted individual and combined effects on the relationship between remembered maternal hostility/aggression and social anxiety symptoms. The implications of findings for the treatment of social anxiety symptoms will be discussed.
... Journal of Youth and Adolescence leading them to have suicidal ideation. This result is roughly in line with the previous research, which indicates that parental rejection has direct and indirect effects on individuals' suicidality (Campos et al., 2013;Sobrinho et al., 2016). This new finding indicates that parental phubbing is a new risk factor for adolescents' suicidal ideation, and the consequences of parental phubbing might be more severe than people think. ...
Article
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Parental phubbing refers to a phenomenon in which parents are distracted by their smartphones when they interact with their children. It has become a common concern and linked to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, much remains unclear about reciprocal associations among parental phubbing, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation and the potential mechanisms underlying these associations. To address these gaps, the current study tested bidirectional relationships among parental phubbing, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation, as well as the mediating role of self-esteem. In addition, the present study examined whether these relationships varied by extraversion, gender, and perceived economic stress across three time points using a cross-lagged design. A total of 2407 Chinese adolescents (50.23% girls, Mage = 12.75, SD = 0.58 at baseline) participated in the study. The results showed that parental phubbing was associated with self-esteem as well as with suicidal ideation, and there were bidirectional relationships between self-esteem and suicidal ideation. Self-esteem significantly mediated the association between parental phubbing and suicidal ideation. Extraversion moderated the link between parental phubbing and suicidal ideation as well as self-esteem and suicidal ideation during the first year. Gender and perceived economic stress did not play a moderating role. The results indicate that parental phubbing is a new risk factor for adolescents' suicidal ideation. Parents concerned about adolescents' self-esteem and suicidal ideation should focus on minimizing the frequency of smartphone use and teach adolescents some social skills to seek more sources of social support.
... Khaleque and Rohner [50] reported that 21% of adults' psychological adjustment can be accounted for by recollections of parental acceptance or rejection in childhood. He and many researchers have also noted that-in comparison with adults who were accepted in childhood-adults who were rejected in childhood are more likely to develop depression [51][52][53][54], alcohol/substance abuse [55,56] or other psychiatric disorders [57][58][59][60][61]. ...
Article
Aims: The aim of the study was to examine relationships among recollections of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the level of psychological adjustment among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, social anxiety, and nonclinical control. The study focused primarily on adults with schizophrenia and social anxiety in comparison to nonclinical adults. Methods: Fifty-three adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, 51 adults with self-reported social anxiety, and 147 nonclinical controls between the ages of 18 and 62 participated in the study. Data were collected using adult versions of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire for mothers and for fathers, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and the Demographic Information Form. Results: Findings of analyses showed that participants in the schizophrenia and social anxiety groups remembered having experienced significantly more maternal rejection in childhood than did the nonclinical group. Patient with schizophrenia also reported more recollections of paternal rejection than the nonclinical group. Both clinical groups self-reported more psychological maladjustment than did the nonclinical group. Regression analysis indicated that even though the overall psychological adjustment of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia was predicted by both maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection, psychological adjustment of adults in the social anxiety group was predicted only by maternal (but not paternal) acceptance-rejection. Conclusion: This study provides evidence about the long-lasting associations between adults' recollections of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood and their psychological adjustment in two mental disorders, in which genetic and environmental factors have a different weight.
... The idea of perception is significant here, as even just the perception of rejection can create issues (Kim-Gervey, 2008). Depression (Liu, 2014), anxiety (Rudolph, 2014), self-harm (McMahon, Reulbach, Keeley, Perry, & Arensman, 2010), and suicide (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013) are all risk factors when an adolescent is rejected. The reason these risk factors are significant is that the adolescent receives information about themselves through feedback from their peers and parents. ...
Chapter
This research studies the construction of juvenile restorative justice in Italy and Chile, how these policies are implemented in practice, and how families participate in these processes. In-depth interviews were conducted with professionals about restorative justice in both countries regarding their experiences working both with policy and practice. The results show how Italians handled the main barriers to implement juvenile restorative justice programs, with suggestions for their implementation in Chile.
... (26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35).Ebeveyn Kabul-Red Ölçeği (EKRÖ), bireylerin ebeveyn kabul-reddine ilişkin algılarını, yukarıda belirtilen dört yapı çerçevesinde değerlendirmek amacıyla Rohner (36) tarafından geliştirilmiştir. EKRÖ'nün yetişkin, çocuk ve ebeveyn olmak üzere üç versiyonu bulunmaktadır. ...
Article
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Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, yetişkinlerin çocukluklarında anne ve babalarından algıladıkları kabul-redde dair algılarını değerlendirmede kullanılabilecek Yetişkin Kabul - Red Ölçeği – Kısa Form’un (Yetişkin EKRÖ/K) Türkiye’de normal örneklem için güvenirlik ve geçerliğini belirlemektir. Yöntem: Çalışma, iki ayrı örneklem grubuyla iki aşamada yürütülmüştür. Ölçeğin faktör yapısının belirlendiği ilk aşamada, yaşları 18-63 arasında değişen 424 kadın (%62) 261 erkek (%31) olmak üzere toplam 685 katılımcı yer almıştır. Ölçeğin ölçüt bağıntılı geçerliği, ayırt edici geçerliği ve güvenirliğinin değerlendirildiği ikinci aşamaya ise 18-25 yaş arasında 163’ü kadın (%81) 38’i erkek (%19) olmak üzere toplam 201 üniversite öğrencisi katılmıştır. Çalışmada Yetişkin EKRÖ/K’nin yanı sıra, daha önce geçerlik ve güvenirliği saptanmış olan Ana Babaya Bağlanma Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Açımlayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda, ölçeğin Anne formu için 2’li (kabul ve red), Baba formu için ise 3’lü (kabul, red ve ihmal) faktör yapısı elde edilmiştir. Ancak doğrulayıcı faktör analizi bulguları, kuramsal olarak ileri sürülen 4-faktörlü yapıda bir maddenin yer değiştirmesi (13. maddenin kayıtsızlık/ihmal yerine sıcaklık/şefkat boyutuna dâhil edilmesi) ile yapılan düzeltilmiş versiyonun, daha iyi uyum indeksi değerlerine sahip olduğunu göstermiştir. Ölçeğin iyi düzeyde iç tutarlılık, test-tekrar test ve iki yarım test güvenirlik katsayılarına sahip olduğu bulunmuştur. Benzer şekilde, ölçeğin ölçüt bağıntılı ve ayırt edici geçerlik özellikleri de desteklenmiştir. Sonuç: Yetişkin EKRÖ/K, Türkiye’de yürütülen klinik uygulamalarda ve bilimsel araştırmalarda, yetişkinlerin çocukluklarında anne ve babalarından algıladıkları kabul-redde dair anılarını değerlendirmede kullanılabilecek geçerli ve güvenilir nitelikte bir ölçektir. Anahtar kelimeler: Ebeveyn kabul-reddi, geçerlik, güvenirlik. ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine the reliability and validity of Adult Parental Acceptance – Rejection Questionnaire (Adult PARQ) – Short Form, which can be used to assess adults’ remembrance of parental acceptance- rejection in their childhood, in a normal population in Turkey. Method: The study was conducted with two samples and two stages. The first study, investigated the factor structure, composed of 424 women (%62) and 261 men (%31), in total 685 people between the ages of 18 and 63. The second study, evaluated the criterion related validity, discriminant validity and reliability, included 163 women (%81) and 38 men (%19), in total 201 university students between the ages of 18 and 25. In this stage, in addition to Adult PARQ- Short Form, the Parental Bonding Instrument was used. Results: According to exploratory factor analysis, Mother Form was composed of two subscales (acceptance and rejection) and Father Form was composed of three subscales (acceptance, rejection and neglect). However confirmatory factor analysis showed that 4- factor structure, proposed theoretically, represented better goodness of fit values after an item changed location (item 13 was included in Warmth/ Affection instead of Indifference/ Neglect). The scale represented good internal consistency, test- retest and split half reliabilities. Similarly, the criterion related and discriminant validity features of the scale were supported. Conclusion: Adult PARQ- Short Form is a reliable and valid instrument in order to evaluate adults’ remembrance of parental acceptance and rejection in their childhood, in both clinical applications and scientific researches in Turkey. Keywords: Parental acceptance- rejection, validity, reliability
... Since these standards are very high, it is impossible to fulfill them, however, this nonfulfillment is considered a weakness and defect by the self-criticizer. Different researches have shown that self-criticism has a positive relationship with depression and can be one of the depression symptoms (10). Researches have also showed that self-criticism, after 4 years, could have a significant effect on depression symptoms and increase the symptoms of depression (11). ...
Article
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Background Self-criticism is one of the personal characteristics that led to the inability to communicate properly with others, and as a result of this feeling, people blame themselves constantly. Objectives This study was aimed to comprise the self-criticism in patients with obsessive-compulsive as well as major depression disorders and normal individuals. Methods Study methodology was a casual-comparative of post ex facto type. The study population included all patients with major depression and obsessive-compulsive referred to psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric clinics, private and public centers of counseling, psychological services, and normal people. The present study consisted of 20 people with major depression, 20 people with obsessive-compulsive, and 40 normal people who were selected by purposive sampling method. To analyze the data, ANOVA was used. Results Its results showed that the difference between the study groups in self-criticism was statistically significant. Scheffe post hoc test results showed that there is a significant difference between depressed and healthy groups, obsessive-compulsive and healthy groups, as well as depressed and obsessive-compulsive groups. Furthermore, the average self-compulsive in the depressed group is higher compared to other groups. Conclusions Self-criticism is one of the traits vulnerable to depression; this trait not only causes depression, but is also affected by the symptoms of depression.
... Previous research has shown that distress (e.g., Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2012) and depression (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Sobrinho et al., 2016) were mediating variables in the association of introjective personality traits with suicide risk. The effect of neediness on suicide risk was either only indirect (Campos et al., 2012) or just marginal (Sobrinho et al., 2016). ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to test whether the maladaptive personality traits of self-criticism and neediness predict suicide ideation when controlling for general distress. Further, potential interactive effects on suicide ideation of the two traits and distress were also evaluated. Two studies with nonclinical samples were conducted. The first investigation was cross-sectional and involved a final sample of 202 community adults while the second study was longitudinal with a final sample of 207 college students. Results of Study 1 demonstrated that self-criticism, but not neediness, associated with suicide ideation and, in doing so, also interacted with distress. Neediness also tended to interact with self-criticism in the prediction of suicide ideation. Results from Study 2 were similar and confirmed the Study 1 results. Changes in self-criticism, but not changes in neediness, predicted changes in suicide ideation after statistically controlling for changes in distress. Changes in the interaction between self-criticism and distress predicted changes in suicide ideation and changes in the interaction between self-criticism and neediness tended to predict changes in suicide ideation. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for psychological intervention.
... Self-criticism refers to the tendency to set oneself unrealistically high standards and to adopt a punitive stance towards oneself once these standards are not met (Shahar, 2015). Empirical evidence supports the conceptualization of self-criticism as an important vulnerability factor for psychopathological development (Werner et al., 2019) and the role of parental criticism (Muralidharan et al., 2015) and rejection (Campos et al., 2013;Sobrinho et al., 2016), attachment avoidance and anxiety (Dagnino et al., 2017;Martins et al., 2015), and childhood maltreatment (Falgares et al., 2018;Glassman et al., 2007;Sachs-Ericsson et al., 2006) in the development of self-criticism. In addition, psychotherapy research indicates that compared to their less self-critical counterparts, patients with high levels of self-criticism show a less favorable response to psychotherapy (e.g., Marshall et al., 2008). ...
Article
Objective The ability to trust one’s own perceptions is crucial for psychological well-being and growth. The relevance of its opposite, self-invalidation (SI), to the psychopathology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is emphasized in many contemporary theories of evidence-based treatments for BPD. Empirical research on this topic remains scarce, however. This study aimed to describe manifestations of SI in individuals with BPD during a 40-session psychoeducational intervention based mainly on schema therapy. Method Transcripts of videotaped group sessions were analyzed inductively using qualitative content analysis. Results SI emerged as a recurrent, ubiquitous phenomenon. The content analysis yielded three core categories of SI: (1) a self-critical and harsh attitude towards the self (subcategories reflected punitive internalizations that could engender fear-based inertia, self-erasing, submissive coping behavior, and temporal fluctuation in SI), (2) a deficient sense of normalcy, and self-doubt, and (3) self-stigma. We also found an association of SI with various dimensions of BPD, including difficulty in the identification of emotions, secondary emotional reactions such as guilt, shame, anger, and resentment, self-related and interpersonal problems, and suicidal urges. Conclusions SI is a detrimental cognitive-emotional process relevant to BPD that merits treatment. Efforts to reduce self-stigma, a pernicious aspect of SI, are imperative.
... Previous research has shown that distress (e.g., Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2012) and depression (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Sobrinho et al., 2016) were mediating variables in the association of introjective personality traits with suicide risk. The effect of neediness on suicide risk was either only indirect (Campos et al., 2012) or just marginal (Sobrinho et al., 2016). ...
... Based on decades of research on parenting styles and its relationship to psychological well-being and the mental health of children, an authoritarian parenting style has been reported to be associated with low psychosocial behaviors, specifically internalizing and externalizing problems (Caron, Weiss, Harris, & Catron, 2006;Garcia, Lila, & Musitu, 2005;Lohaus, Vierhaus, & Ball, 2009). Poor psychological and social functioning such as anxiety (Lee, Daniels & Kissinger, 2006), low self-confidence (Baumrind, 1991), depression and social anxiety (Rudolph & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2014), problem solving incapability and dependent behaviors (Rudolph & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2014), passive behaviors (Rudolph & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2014;Weiss & Schwarz, 1996), lack of social skills and self-criticism (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Weiss & Schwarz, 1996), low academic achievement (Wang, Slaney, & Rice, 2007), less interest in school (Pulkkinen, 1982), behavioral problems (Pereira, Canavarro, Cardoso, & Mendonça, 2009), low self-esteem, and finally, hopelessness in adolescent girls (Shahimi, Heaven, & Ciarrochi, 2013) were repeatedly reported of the children from authoritarian families. ...
Article
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Maternal depression, its effects on mothers’ interactions with their children, and the different mechanisms of emotional and psychological disorders’ transaction to children have been surveyed for the last few decades of research. The aim of this research was to find the mediating role of the perception of parental styles between the maternal depression symptoms and the mental health of their daughters. The participants included 284 mothers and their daughters from 8 different schools chosen randomly. Mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and examined using differential diagnosis interview based on DSM-V while adolescents completed the Parenting Style Questionnaire and Symptom Check List 90-R. The results showed the mediating role of the perception of authoritative and authoritarian styles of parenting (p ≥ 0.0001). Also, depression symptoms in mothers could predict the perception of parental styles. Additionally, the perception of authoritative and authoritarian parenting could predict the mental health of adolescents.
... Social rejection is a direct threat to an individual's need to belong and selfesteem (e.g., Baumeister and Leary, 1995;Eisenberger et al., 2003;Gerber and Wheeler, 2009;Smith and Williams, 2004;Williams, 1997) and is detrimental to mental health (e.g., Leary, 1990), including suicide risk. In fact, various forms of social rejection have been associated with increased suicide risk (see Van Orden et al., 2010 and World Health Organization [WHO], 2014 for review), including bullying (e.g., Klomek et al., 2010;Mitchell et al., 2016), parental rejection (Campos et al., 2013), and divorce (e.g., Kposowa, 2003). Therefore, improving our understanding of the role of social rejection in the development of suicide risk through thwarted interpersonal needs (e.g., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) may be important, particularly among psychiatric inpatients given their elevated risk for suicide (e.g., Busch et al., 2003;Combs and Romm, 2007;Neuner et al., 2008). ...
Article
Rejection is a direct threat to an individual’s need to belong that has serious consequences for mental health. Rejection sensitivity may explain why some individuals are more likely to perceive rejection in social situations and experience subsequent psychological distress. The current study examined suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients (N = 103) through the lenses of the rejection sensitivity model and the interpersonal theory of suicide. We hypothesized that rejection sensitivity would be indirectly associated with suicide ideation (i.e., a cognitive-affective reaction to social rejection) through greater perceptions of rejection (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, constructs from the interpersonal theory of suicide), in parallel. Results from bootstrapped parallel mediation regression procedures indicated that the relation between rejection sensitivity and suicide ideation was significantly indirectly associated through the additive effect of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, such that greater rejection sensitivity was associated with greater thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness and subsequently greater suicide ideation. Further, rejection sensitivity was significantly indirectly associated with suicide ideation independently through thwarted belongingness, but not perceived burdensomeness. These findings provide support for the rejection sensitivity model and the interpersonal theory of suicide in an effort to advance our conceptualization of suicide risk among psychiatric inpatients.
... W tym kontekście, jak wskazują nasze badania walidacyjne, istotnym czynnikiem ryzyka może być też modelowanie zachowań suicydalnych [m.in. 24, 25] oraz pochodzenie z rodziny dotkniętej problemem alkoholowym [26][27][28]. Co ważne jednak, narzędzie okazało się czułe na identyfikowanie takich grup ryzyka. ...
Article
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Objectives: The aim of the study was to develop a Polish adaptation of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) by A. Osman et al. The questionnaire is a self-descriptive measure of suicidal tendencies (suicidal behaviors, including ideation and attempts) composed of four questions. Methods: A total of 926 university and post-graduate students from Lodz (526 women and 400 men) were included in the adaptation study. In addition, the Beck's Depression Inventory, the Psychological Pain Scale by Holden et al. and the Purpose in Life (PIL) test by Crumbaugh and Maholick were used to evaluate the construct validity of the SBQ-R. Results: The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported an assumed onedimensional structure of the questionnaire, with satisfactory internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach's alpha, equal to 0.83. The significant positive correlations were observed between the questionnaire scores and level of depression and psychological pain, while a negative correlation between the questionnaire scores and purpose in life. Participants who had previously demonstrated suicidal behavior, those who reported suicidal thoughts and those from a family with a history of suicide attempts or alcohol addiction obtained a significantly higher score in the SBQ-R. Conclusions: The findings indicate that the Polish adaptation of the SBQ-R by Osman et al. has good psychometric characteristics and can be considered in both research and clinical practice.
... 7. As dimensões de sintomatologia depressão, ansiedade e stresse associam-se de forma positiva às dimensões mais negativas dos estilos educativos parentais (sobreproteção e rejeição; à mãe e ao pai). São resultados em linha com vários estudos que o comprovam nas várias faixas etárias 3 (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998;Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Cole, et al., 2011;Dallaire, et al., 2008;Miles-McLean, Liss, & Erchull, 2014;Petrowski, Brahler, & Zenger, 2014;Rudolph & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2014;Scanlon & Epkins, 2015;Taris & Bok, 1997). Porém, não se associaram à dimensão mais positiva dos estilos educativos parentais (suporte emocional; à mãe e ao pai); 8. ...
... This may be given more credence now, given that the fatheras the oft breadwinner of the familymust be the source of the school allowance. Looking back at the existing related literature would show that this finding is in agreement with Campos et al. [36], Pina-Watson et al. [37], and Baiocco et al. [38]. Furthermore, the salience of the father-child relationship is in support of other findings that stressed the important of a healthy relationship with the father such as Harper [39], Carlson [40], Jensen [41], Ellis et al. [42], Bronte-Tinkew and Moore [43], and Cooksey and Fondell [44]. ...
Article
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The prominence of mental health advocacies in mainstream media and public discourse in recent years brings to fore the social problem of suicide in the Philippines, necessitating an attempt to bring a greater understanding of suicide to the discussion. This study made use of a nationally-representative sample of Filipino youth with ages ranging from 15 to 27 to determine the individual- and community-level factors that predict the risk of engaging in a suicide attempt among Filipino young suicide ideators. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression as the main statistical instrument, and a composite theoretical framework borne from Hirschi’s Social Bonds Theory of Deviance and Agnew’s Social Strain theory of Deviance served as the theoretical framework that guided the study. The study found ten different variables to be significantly predictive of suicide attempt among suicide ideators at 95% level of confidence. Most notable of these ten predictors are (1) relationship with one’s father, (2) exposure to other suicidal individuals, and (3) counselling. The implications of these findings to the current Philippine response to the social problem of suicide are discussed in the study.
... Family factor research has identified several specific and potentially important risk factors that may help prevent or contribute to the development of depressive symptoms and associated suicide risk in adolescents and young adults. First, parental criticism can be a potent risk factor; youth who perceive high levels of parental criticism are at increased risk for depression (Rapp et al., 2021) and suicidal thoughts and behaviors (Campos et al., 2013). Similarly, conflict in the home is robustly associated with depressive symptoms (Rice et al., 2006) and suicide risk (Randell et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Close relationships are consequential for youth depressive symptoms and suicide risk, but nuanced research examining intersecting factors is needed to improve identification and intervention. This study examines a clinical, residential sample of 939 adolescents and young adults ages 10 to 23 years old (M = 15.84, SD = 1.53; 97.7% white, 99.5% non-Hispanic, 55% female). The final model found that family conflict, parental criticism, verbal bullying, and interactions with friends were associated with depressive symptoms in the expected directions, and there were significant interactions with family, peer, and demographic variables. However, most associations with suicide risk were indirect. Associations involving family factors, peer factors, depressive symptoms, and suicide are not always straightforward, and should be understood within a microsystemic context.
... While existing models have extended our understanding about the impact of early disrupted family environments upon STB, they have largely been focussed on quantitative analyses, providing evidence that experiences with disrupted family relationships are associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviours (e.g., Brent et al., 1994;Campos et al., 2013;Cruz et al., 2014;Donath et al., 2014;Fergusson et al., 2000;Gonzalez-Seijo et al., 1996;Hardt et al., 2011;Heider et al., 2007;Wedig and Nock, 2007). Examples of such associations include retrospective accounts of parents' rejection being associated with self-destructive thoughts and behaviours for adolescents (Cruz et al., 2014); lower levels of perceived parental love associated with high levels suicidal ideation among adults (Hardt et al., 2011); and perceptions of rejecting-neglecting parents associated with risk of suicide attempts among adolescents (Donath et al., 2014). ...
Article
Rationale: Suicide is a major public health concern and its aetiology is complex. Evidence suggests that experiences of early disrupted attachment relationships with parents and family members are associated with later experiences of suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB). However, no study has investigated this relationship from an inductive, interpretative and idiographic perspective. Objective: This paper explores the role of interpersonal relationships in STB among nine individuals who have attempted suicide. Method: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Results and conclusion: Two inter-related master themes were identified: 1) 'challenging relationships as catalysts for STB'; and 2) 'positive relationships as buffers against STB'. Findings indicate that experiences of early disrupted parent-child attachments may contribute to vulnerability for STB by shaping participants' perceptions of intimate others and themselves (internal working models). These working models, along with other environmental factors and life events, may increase the risk of STB through perceptions of defeat, entrapment, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Results also suggest that being exposed to respectful, caring, unconditionally accepting, reciprocal, trusting, and non-judgemental intimate adult relationships increase resilience and is associated with recovery from past STB and a reduction of current suicide risk. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
... In addition, people high in self-criticism tend to blame themselves when things do not go according to their expectations. Western evidence supports this view and found that individuals who are excessively self-critical showed elevated levels of depressive symptoms (Abela et al. 2006;Campos et al. 2013;Zhang et al. 2019;Zuroff and Mongrain 1987). Further, Western studies demonstrated that internally self-critical people commonly feel incompetent, inferior, inadequate, and worthless especially when they fail to meet the standards that they have set for themselves or their perceived (or actual) expectations of people (Cantazaro and Wei 2010;Joeng and Turner 2015). ...
Article
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The study examined a research model predicting the moderating effect of interdependent self-construal on the relationship between internal self-criticism and depression. The participants were 319 college students from the Philippines. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire directly administered to the participants. The findings revealed that internal self-criticism, but not interdependent self-construal, predicted depression. Interdependent self-construal moderated the influence of internal self-criticism on depression, and showed that the influence of self-criticism on depression was weaker among individuals with high levels of interdependent self-construal. The findings were discussed in the context of cultural orientation in counseling practice.
... Childhood relationships are the foundation for the development of schemas concerning the self and others (Blatt, 1974(Blatt, , 2004(Blatt, , 2008, and for the development of early secure attachment, which is a critical agent for determining subsequent psychological well-being (Bowlby, 1973). Empirical evidence has demonstrated that when dysfunctional relationships between children and caregivers are present, there is a vulnerability to future stress and psychopathology (Barksdale et al., 2009), particularly depression (e.g., Besser & Priel, 2005;Blatt, 1974;Blatt & Homann, 1992;Campos et al., 2013). As such, the knowledge and measurement of childhood environments can be an important step for understanding later psychological functioning (Sobrinho et al., 2016). ...
Article
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This research evaluates the structure of subscale items on the Invalidating Childhood Environment Scale (ICES), a retrospective, self-report instrument intended to differentiate the invalidation of early childhood emotional experiences into maternal and paternal sources. Three samples (Ns of 2474, 1874, and 404) comprising over 4700 young adults participated. Analyses did not support the hypothesized two-dimensional structure of the 28 ICES items but identified three latent dimensions: mother invalidation, father active invalidation, and father passive invalidation. New subscales based on these dimensions demonstrated replicability in cross-validation, score reliability, and validity through associations with scales of theoretically related measures. Findings extend knowledge of the ICES’s structure of invalidating childhood environments and suggest a scoring scale revision for the ICES.
... Therefore, they tend to exaggerate and overemphasize their sense of helplessness and vulnerability to arouse attention and care. Over time, this strategy may lead parents to reject the attachment need of these adolescents, which may lead to a vulnerability to developing suicidal ideation (34). ...
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Objective: Suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms are often interrelated in clinical settings. Insecure attachment may be a risk factor for suicidal ideation in depressed adolescents. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the association between self-reported insecure attachment styles to both parents and suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of adolescents with depression. Methods: Fifty clinically depressed adolescents (13-17 years, 84% girls) completed self-reported measures of suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and attachment style to parents. Results: There was a statistically significant bivariate association between higher levels of attachment anxiety in relation to mothers and fathers and higher levels of suicidal ideation. When attachments to both parents were included in the same multivariate model, only attachment anxiety to the mother was significantly associated with the level of suicidal ideation. Self-reported depressive symptoms remained significantly associated with the level of suicidal ideation in all analyses. Younger adolescents with attachment anxiety reported higher levels of suicidal ideation than older adolescents. Conclusion: Conclusions about directionality and causality of associations between insecure attachment and suicidal ideation are limited due to the cross-sectional design. Our findings suggest that attachment anxiety in relation to the mother and father is associated with increased levels of suicidal ideation. Implication of these findings for treatment selection is discussed.
... In another study conducted on a large sample of 5,201 adolescents, Antognoli-Toland (2001) found that adolescents who had had less opportunities to be with their parents throughout the day, participated in fewer activities with their parents and felt less support from their parents were more likely to be lonely. A number of other studies have indicated that poor child-parent relationships are correlated with children's loneliness (Kim & Lee, 2010;Maes et al., 2016;Weeks et al., 2009;Yan et al., 2018), and depression (Campos et al., 2013;De Minzi, 2010;Rowe , 2015). If children do not have parents who can meet their emotional needs and social needs in terms of interpersonal relations whereby they feel secure, they experience a lack of trust and loneliness (Bütün Ayhan et al., 2012;Rohner & Rohner, 1980;Ulu-Yalçınkaya & Demir, 2018). ...
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The aim of this study was to examine the associations between loneliness and self-esteem in children and neglectful behaviors of their parents. The study group was comprised of 270 children attending four separate elementary schools in Hatay Turkey, as well as 270 parents. In terms of the data gathering instruments, an Individual Information Form was administered to both the children and parents for the purpose of gathering socio-demographic data. A Loneliness Scale was also administered to the children for the purpose of assessing their loneliness levels along with the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for the purpose of assessing their self-esteem. On the other hand, the Multidimensional Neglectful Behaviors Scale-Parents Form was administered to the parents in order to assess the level of their neglectful behaviors. Prior to conducting statistical analysis, the relevant assumptions of regression were tested. For this purpose, the autocorrelation, linearity and normality of the data were examined. As a result, it was found that parents’ neglect scores were significantly and positively correlated with the scores of the Loneliness Scale for Children (p < .05) and negatively correlated with the scores of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (p < .01). The results of the stepwise regression analysis showed that the parents’ age, education level and neglectful behaviors predicted loneliness in children (p < .01). In terms of self-esteem in children, only neglectful behaviors of the parents was a significant predictor (p < .01). The results are discussed in line with the relevant findings in the literature.
... The SBQ-R has been translated and adapted into numerous languages, including German (Bl€ uml et al., 2013;Glaesmer et al., 2017;Wagner, Klinitzke, Br€ ahler, & Kersting, 2013), French (Moroge et al., 2014), Farsi (Safa, Boroujerdi, Talischi, & Masjedi, 2014), Korean (Jang et al., 2017), Polish (Koweszko et al., 2016), Croatian (Jak si c, Margeti c, & Mar cinko, 2017), Italian (Salerno, Burian, & Pallante, 2017), Portuguese (Campos, Besser, Abreu, Parreira, & Blatt, 2014;Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013) Chinese (Zhao, Xiao, Yang, & Zhang, 2013). Additionally, a Spanishlanguage adaptation of the SBQ-R revised was published in Colombian Spanish (Rueda-Jaimes, et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study consists of a translation, intercultural adaptation and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of Suicide Behavior Questionnaire Revised using a sample of 325 undergraduates. Internal consistency, reliability and temporal stability, calculated through Cronbach’s alpha (α =.81) and test-retest correlations (ICC =. 88), respectively, were excellent. The criterion-related validity of the SBQ-R was established by correlating SBQ-R with other psychological constructs. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate fit of the measurement model. This SBQ-R Spanish adaptation is a reliable and valid tool that might be useful to researchers and clinicians wishing to identify young people at a high risk of suicide. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07481187.2019.1671544
... Khaleque and Rohner [50] reported that 21% of adults' psychological adjustment can be accounted for by recollections of parental acceptance or rejection in childhood. He and many researchers have also noted that-in comparison with adults who were accepted in childhood-adults who were rejected in childhood are more likely to develop depression [51][52][53][54], alcohol/substance abuse [55,56] or other psychiatric disorders [57][58][59][60][61]. ...
Conference Paper
This study compares the effects of parental acceptance-rejection on psychological adjustment in a biologically based psychiatric disorder (schizophrenia), in a psychologically based disorder (social phobia), in people who are dissatisfied with their lives but with no diagnosis of a disorder (dissatisfied/no diagnosis), and in normals. The study especially focuses on the comparison of biologically and psychologically based disorders to demonstrate the role of parental acceptance-rejection in two different etiologies, taking into account a number of variables such as chronicity, severity of symptoms, and so forth. The sample consists of 220 adults (approximately 55 participants in each group), between the ages of 18-65. Schizophrenic patients responded to the Demographic Information Form (DIF), Life Satisfaction Index (LSI), Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (Adult PARQ), Personality Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). The participants in the other three groups responded to the DIF, LSI, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory, Adult PARQ, and PAQ. This study provides data about the relative role of parental acceptance-rejection in biologically and psychologically based disorders, and it contributes to our understanding of the etiology of these two disorders.
... Research indicates that parental warmth, defined as verbal and non-verbal behaviors reflecting acceptance, affection, support, positive affect, and positive involvement (Drake & Ginsburg, 2012;Rohner et al., 2012) has been linked to better mental health in their children (Quach et al., 2015). On the other hand, parental rejection, defined as verbal or physical behaviors reflecting indifference or neglect, and other harsh behaviors indicative of negative feelings toward a child (Rohner et al., 2012) has been linked to depression and anxiety in children (e.g., Campos et al., 2013;Mak et al., 2018). However, research on the moderating effects of these parenting behaviors in relation to peer victimization and mental health difficulties is limited. ...
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While the harmful effects of peer victimization have been well documented, there is limited research on the parental behaviors as potential moderators of victimization and child mental health outcomes. The current study examined the moderating effects of parental warmth, parental rejection, and child gender on the relation between peer victimization and child mental health difficulties, i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties. Participants included 425 Chinese elementary school children in grades 3 to 6 (Mage = 10.59, SDage = 1.11), who self-reported on peer victimization experiences, perceived parental warmth and rejection, and mental health difficulties. Data were collected at two-time points, six months apart. Victimization and parental rejection positively predicted child emotional and behavioral difficulties, while parental warmth negatively predicted child emotional and behavioral difficulties at both time points. Victimization significantly predicted emotional difficulties (at time 1) and behavioral difficulties (at time 2) for girls, but not boys. In addition, gender moderated the interaction of victimization and parental rejection in predicting child behavioral difficulties at time 1, i.e., parental rejection exacerbated the effects of peer victimization on behavioral difficulties for girls only. Findings highlight the need to target bullying prevention efforts, and underscore the importance of evaluating peer and parental factors while working with children with emotional and behavioral issues.
... Findings are consistent with past work highlighting the significant impact of unsupportive partner behaviors on anxiety management, rumination, emotional avoidance, and psychosocial adjustment to stressors (Baker and Berenbaum, 2011;Bardeen, 2015;Betera, 2005;Manne et al., 2014;Soriano et al., 2017). Indeed, in the context of parent-child relationships, unsupportive behaviors have been linked to increased risk for problems associated with acute reactivity to errors, including perfectionism, anxiety, and depression (Budinger et al., 2013;Campos et al., 2013;Damian et al., 2013;Nelemans et al., 2014). For instance, Horwitz et al. (2015) found that parental criticism is a key predictor of adolescent mental health problems, including psychosomatic symptoms, independent of any shared genetic risk between unsupportive behaviors and psychopathology. ...
Article
Romantic relationships involve a range of positive and negative experiences, from supportive and security-enhancing behaviors to unsupportive interactions involving criticism and dismissiveness. The present study aimed to examine the functional impact of these experiences on reactivity to mistakes, as error salience has key implications for adaptive functioning in areas such as goal-striving and appropriate risk-taking. To this end, a study was conducted in which participants completed the Eriksen Flanker Task (EFT) alone and under romantic partner observation while electrophysiological brain activity related to error salience (the error-related negativity (ERN)) was recorded. Findings indicated that unsupportive, but not supportive, partner behaviors were associated with changes in error salience, furthering the notion that negative relationship experiences have a stronger effect on functioning than do positive ones and highlighting the impact of relationship context on reactivity to mistakes.
... Although, as noted above, the use of a measure focused on memory for specific events may have reduced the need for participants to make inferences about parental traits or attitudes, this method may not protect against participants evaluating their memories and deciding not to report prior events accurately. In this context, it is noteworthy that the relations we have reported between rejecting behaviors by parents and indices of psychopathology appear similar to those reported using other measures of parental rejection (e.g., Campos et al., 2013;Quirk et al., 2014). ...
Article
Positive and warm parental attitudes are associated with better social and emotional child functioning, whereas negative or rejecting parental attitudes are associated with poor outcomes, such as aggression, impaired self-esteem, and emotional instability. The current study investigated the reliability and validity of scores on an interview adaptation of a measure of parental rejecting behavior (PRB) in a sample of detained adolescents. Participants ( N = 198) completed a measure assessing their memories of the frequency of specific parental behaviors associated with rejection and self-report measures of exposure to abuse/neglect and community violence, and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. PRB scores were internally consistent and associated with several kinds of child maltreatment. PRB scores correlated uniquely with indices of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, even after controlling for indices of overall child maltreatment or a specific index of emotional abuse. The pattern of correlations suggests that the measure provides a valid index of parental emotional abuse, which may help identify youth at risk for both internalizing and externalizing disorders.
... Several other life factors have been found to increase one's likelihood of successfully committing suicide, including being of male sex and exhibiting comorbid alcohol and substance abuse behaviors-both of which relate to Poe (Hawton, Casañas i Comabella, Haw, & Saunders, 2013). Poe's exposure to recurrent traumatic death placed him even further in jeopardy of taking his own life (Shulman, 1997), as did the tensions between Poe and John Allan and the financial turmoil Poe faced due to Allan's neglect (Campos, Besser, & Blatt, 2013;Kuruvilla & Jacob, 2007). Having a record of nonfatal suicide attempts is considered to be one of the most lethal of risk factors, however, especially if the attempt(s) occurred within the past 3 years (Bostwick, Pabbati, Geske, & McKean, 2016;Hawton & Fagg, 1988;Joiner, 2007). ...
Article
Background: To help shed light on the peculiar circumstances surrounding the death of the famed macabre and mystery writer, poet, editor, and literary critic, we explored the potential role of depression in the life and death of Edgar Allan Poe via his written language. Method: Using computerized language analysis, we analyzed works from Poe’s corpora of personal letters (N = 309), poems (N = 49), and short stories (N = 63), and investigated whether a pattern of linguistic cues consistent with depression and suicidal cognition were discernible throughout the writer’s life, particularly in his final years. Building on past work, language scores were collapsed into a composite depression metric for each text. Data from each work type was subsequently compiled and graphed into a single plot by year, with scores exceeding the 95th percentile (p <.05) considered statistically significant and treated as potential depressive episodes. Results: Significant, consistent patterns of depression were not found and do not support suicide as a cause of death. However, linguistic evidence was found suggesting the presence of several potential depressive episodes over the course of Poe’s life – these episodes were the most pronounced during years of Poe’s greatest success, as well as those following the death of his late wife. Limitations: Given the sampling method, it is not possible to establish direct causality; results should be considered informed but tentative. Conclusion: This investigation demonstrates the utility of language analysis for capturing disruptive/maladaptive emotional responses to life events.
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Attachment styles hold important downstream consequences for mental health through their contribution to the emergence of self-criticism. To date, no work has extended our understanding of the influence of attachment styles on self-criticism at a neurobiological level. Herein we investigate the relationship between self-reported attachment styles and neural markers of self-criticism using fMRI. A correlation network analysis revealed lingual gyrus activation during self-criticism, a marker of visual mental imagery, correlated with amygdala activity (threat response). It also identified that secure attachment positively correlated with lingual gyrus activation, whilst avoidant attachment was negatively correlated with lingual gyrus activation. Further, at greater levels of amygdala response, more securely attached individuals showed greater lingual gyrus activation, and more avoidantly attached individuals showed less lingual gyrus activation. Our data provide the first evidence that attachment mechanisms may modulate threat responses and mental imagery when engaging in self‑ criticism, which have important clinical and broader social implications.
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Despite considerable progress in depression research and treatment, the disorder continues to pose daunting challenges to scientists and practitioners alike. This article presents a novel conceptualization of the psychological dynamics of depression which draws from Melanie Klein's notion of the positions, reformulated using social-cognitive terms. Specifically, Klein's notion of position, consisting of anxieties (persecutory vs. “depressive”), defense mechanisms (“primitive”/split based vs. neurotic/repression based), and object relations (part vs. whole) is reformulated to include (1) affect, broadly defined, (2) affect regulatory strategies (defense mechanisms, coping strategies, and motivation regulation), and (3) mental representations of self-with-others, all pertaining to the past, present, and future. I reformulate the depressive position to include-beyond sadness, anxiety, and anhedonia-also anger/agitation, shame, disgust, and contempt, all of which are down-regulated via diverse mechanisms. In the depressive position, the self is experienced as wronged and others as punitive, albeit seductive. Attempts to appease internal others (objects) are projected into the future, only to be thwarted by awkward and inept interpersonal behavior. This might propel the use of counter-phobic, counter-dependent, and “manic” affect regulatory mechanisms, potentially leading to suicidal depression. © 2018 The American Academy of Psychodynamic Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis.
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Depressogenic traits are personality dispositions that put individuals at a higher risk for developing depression. Measured by the Depressive Experience Questionnaire (DEQ), self-criticism and dependency are two personality traits that are closely related to depression. The current study explored humor styles as potential mediating factors in the relationship between depressogenic traits and depression. Study 1 : Given that the traditional Chinese version of the DEQ had not been validated psychometrically, we first conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the most appropriate DEQ scoring system among the existing ones. The results indicated that the reconstructed DEQ had the best psychometric properties for the traditional Chinese version of the DEQ. Study 2 : The potential mediating effect of humor styles in the relationship between depressogenic traits and depression was examined. Results showed that two benign humor styles, affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles, mediated the relationship between depressogenic traits (both self-criticism and dependency) and depression. The mediational strength was stronger for self-enhancing than for affiliative humor style. Malign humor styles, aggressive and self-defeating humor styles, did not emerge as mediators. Research and clinical implications for the findings were discussed.
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Objective: This research aims to investigate what type of family patterns (specifically attachment, bonding and family functioning) and stressful life events can trigger or protect adolescents from developing suicidal behavior. Methods: For these purposes, a case-control study (adolescents with suicidal behavior vs. paired adolescents with no suicidal behavior) was conducted with one hundred 12 to 17-year-old adolescents (50 controls, 50 cases, 74% females), assessed between 2018 and 2020. Results: Negligent (p < 0.001) or affection-less control bonding (p < 0.001), insecure attachment (p = 0.001) and stressful life events (p < 0.001) revealed to be significant risk factors for suicidal behavior. On the contrary, parents' care (p < 0.001) and security (p < 0.001) were revealed as protective factors for suicidal behavior. Conclusions: Considering these results, family interventions and improving coping skills seem to be two essential targets for any suicide prevention intervention in adolescents.
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Sexual abuse can result in significant negative sequelae for victims. One particularly harmful consequence is suicidal ideation, which can lead to suicide attempts and even death. It is essential to screen children and adolescents for suicidal ideation when providing medical forensic care after disclosure of acute or nonacute sexual abuse/assault. Forensic nurses must feel confident in their abilities to assess suicide risk and provide appropriate intervention and referrals. A thorough understanding of the relationship between sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and behaviors can assist the forensic nurse in the development of practice behaviors to better identify, intervene, and prevent suicidal ideation and behaviors among youth experiencing sexual abuse.
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Bu makale ilk yazarın yüksek lisans tez çalışmasının bir bölümünü içermektedir. Özet Çalışmanın amacı, ebeveyn kabul/reddi ile intihar olasılığı arasında, yaşam amaçlarının aracı rolünün belirlenmesi-dir. Örneklem, yaşları 18-28 (Ort. = 21.44, S. = 1.66) arasında değişen 394 (%51.8 kadın, %48.2 erkek) üniversite öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Veri toplama aracı olarak İntihar Olasılığı Ölçeği, Ebeveyn Kabul/Red Ölçeği Yetişkin Formu ve Yaşam Amaçları Ölçeği Kullanılmıştır. Yapılan istatistiksel analizler sonucunda, değişkenler arasında bek-lenen yönde ve anlamlı ilişkilerin bulunduğu; " ilişki " ve " fiziksel sağlık " amaçlarının ebeveyn kabul/reddi ile intihar olasılığı arasında kısmi aracılık etkisinin bulunduğu görülmektedir. Elde edilen bulguların, intihar davranışlarının anlaşılması ve önlenmesine yönelik olarak yapılan müdahale programlarına katkı sağlayabileceği düşünülmektedir. Anahtar sözcükler: İntihar olasılığı, ebeveyn kabul/reddi, yaşam amaçları Abstract The aim of the present study is to determine the mediating role of the life goals in the relationship between parent acceptance/rejection and suicide probability. The study sample is composed of 394 college students (51.8% female, 48.2% male) whose ages are between 18-28 (M = 21.44, SD = 1.66). Parent Acceptance Rejection Scale, Life Goals Scale and Suicide Probability Scale were used in the data collection phase. The results of the analyses showed expected significant relationships between the variables. In the model test results of the analysis, sub-scales of the Life Goals Scale partially mediate the relationship between parent acceptance/rejection and suicide probability. Research findings can be used in suicide intervention programs which is practiced to understand and prevent suicidal behavior.
Chapter
Self-criticism has been identified as a core dimension of depressive experience. At the same time, the ability to regulate self-esteem and maintain a realistic and positive view of the self is an important aspect of personality functioning. Thus, the functional domain of self-criticism overlaps with both depression and personality dysfunction. The chapter will first provide an overview of commonalities and differences between self-criticism, depression, and personality dysfunction. Empirical studies are reviewed to shed light on the overlap as well as the unique aspects of the three constructs. A particular focus will be placed on the impact of personality dysfunction from a perspective of the Structural Integration Axis of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis System (OPD-2), which highly overlaps with the levels of functioning from the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders. Secondly, we review clinical theory and empirical research on self-criticism as a predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The findings demonstrate that pronounced self-criticism has a meaningful impact on the treatment process and needs to be addressed specifically and adaptively for successful outcomes.
Chapter
Uzależnienie od substancji psychoaktywnych zwiększa nasilenie zachowań samobójczych, stąd potrzeba poszukiwania intrapsychicznych czynników ryzyka samobójczego u osób uzależnionych od alkoholu. Bazując na teorii biegunowości doświadczenia Blatta i doniesieniach z wcześniejszych badań, celem badań uczyniono przetestowanie, czy i jak osobowość depresyjna wiąże się z ryzykiem samobójczym u osób uzależnionych od alkoholu. Postawiono hipotezy, że introjekcyjna i anaklityczna osobowość depresyjna to pozytywne predyktory ryzyka samobójczego w badanej grupie. Przebadano 45 osób leczących się w oddziałach leczenia uzależnień za pomocą Depressive Experiences Questionnaire-Reconstructed i Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale. Depresyjność introjekcyjna okazała się pozytywnym predyktorem ryzyka suicydalnego (średni efekt), także gdy kontrolowano długość uzależnienia i wiek. Depresyjność anaklityczna nie wyjaśniała ryzyka samobójczego w badanej grupie. Uzyskane wyniki sugerują, że szczególną troską terapeutyczną i profilaktyczną w kontekście ryzyka suicydalnego objąć należy osoby uzależnione od alkoholu z nasiloną osobowością depresyjną typu introjekcyjnego. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Alcohol use disorder (AUD) increases the severity of suicidal behavior; there is a need to look for intrapsychic risk factors for suicide in persons with AUD. Based on the theory of polarity of experience by Blatt and results from previous studies, the aim of the current research was to test whether and how depressive personality symptoms is associated with the risk of suicide in persons with AUD. It has been hypothesized that the introjective and anaclitic depressive personality symptoms are positive predictors of suicide risk in the study group. Inpatient persons with AUD (N = 45) were examined using the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire-Reconstructed and Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale. Introjective depressive symptoms were a positive predictor of suicidal risk even when the duration of dependence and age were controlled. Anaclitic depression symptoms were not associated with the suicide risk in the study group. Particular therapeutic and prophylactic attention in the context of suicidal risk should be focused on people with AUD with severe introjective depressive personality.
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The pervasive effects of cumulative harm resulting from adverse childhood experiences influence all aspects of an individual’s life course. Research highlights a relationship between early trauma and career choice; however, there is a dearth of research pertaining specifically to cumulative harm and the influence on career choice in the helping professions. A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the associations of cumulative harm and childhood trauma on career decision making in people in the helping professions. A search was conducted across databases between February 1990 and February 2019 relevant to searches combining three areas of interest: (a) “childhood trauma,” (b) “career choice,” and (c) “helping professionals.” Database searches and further manual searches yielded a total of 208 articles, and 28 studies satisfied all inclusion criteria. Only studies that were peer-reviewed and published between February 1990 and February 2019 were included. The evidence from the review indicated that family of origin dysfunction, parentification, individual characteristics, and traits developed through adversity, and experiential motivations were associated with the career choice in the helping professions. Further research is required to explore different professional cohorts and the utility of life themes as both a source of data for research and reflexive practice in helping professionals.
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the validity of the Family Relationship Questionnaire (FRQ) in Hungary. The FRQ was filled out together with the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) by 1017 healthy Hungarian people. The original factor structure of the FRQ did not fit well in the Hungarian sample, but with some modifications – based on modification indices – adequate fit indices could arise. The FRQ scales showed significant relations (moderate to high) with the PBI which confirmed the convergent validity of the scales. Four of the FRQ scale turned to be cross-culturally valid scales. The reliability and validity of Dominance scale in Western cultures should further be examined.
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Adults diagnosed with autism are at significantly increased risk of suicidal thoughts, suicidal behaviours and dying by suicide. However, it is unclear whether any validated tools are currently available to effectively assess suicidality in autistic adults in research and clinical practice. This is crucial for understanding and preventing premature death by suicide in this vulnerable group. This two stage systematic review therefore aimed to identify tools used to assess suicidality in autistic and general population adults, evaluate these tools for their appropriateness and measurement properties, and make recommendations for appropriate selection of suicidality assessment tools in research and clinical practice. Three databases were searched (PsycInfo, Medline and Web of Knowledge). Four frequently used suicidality assessment tools were identified, and subsequently rated for quality of the evidence in support of their measurement properties using the COSMIN checklist. Despite studies having explored suicidality in autistic adults, none had utilised a validated tool. Overall, there was lack of evidence in support of suicidality risk assessments successfully predicting future suicide attempts. We recommend adaptations to current suicidality assessment tools and priorities for future research, in order to better conceptualise suicidality and its measurement in autism.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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No presente trabalho apresentamos os estudos leva-dos a cabo para adaptar o Questionário de Experiências Depressivas (Q.E.D.) de Sidney Blatt e colegas para a população portuguesa. Iniciamos o artigo com uma breve exposição dos aspectos centrais da conceptualização de Sidney Blatt sobre a depressão. Descrevemos depois a versão original do Q.E.D. e as suas propriedades psicométricas. Posteriormente apresentamos o processo de tradução do instrumento, a sua aplicação experimental, a demonstração da equivalência linguística cruzada entre a versão original e a versão portuguesa e, finalmente, alguns estudos psicométricos com a versão portuguesa do questionário, nomeadamente relativos à análise da estrutura factorial e de consistência interna. Calculámos também os valores das médias, medianas e desvios-padrão nas escalas do Q.E.D. e no Inventário de Depressão de Beck, de duas amostras portuguesas de estudantes universitários: uma de rapazes e outra de raparigas utilizadas neste processo de adaptação e comparámos essas duas amostras entre si, no que respeita aos valores médios nas escalas do Q.E.D. Comparámo-las também com as amostras americanas de rapazes e raparigas do estudo de replicação do estudo original de aferição. Calculámos ainda as correlações entre as escalas do Q.E.D. entre si e entre cada uma delas e o Inventáriode Depressão de Beck. Os resultados obtidos são, de uma forma geral, bastante satisfatórios, apesar de ser necessário levar a cabo mais estudos de validade e também de precisão teste-reteste.
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Dependent, self-critical, mixed and control subjects (N = 152) completed the Personal Striving Assessment Packet (Emmons, Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology, 1989) and self-monitored their moods for one week. Dependency and Self-Criticism were related to higher levels of negative affect. Self-Criticism was related to lower levels of positive affect. Personal strivings were categorized as belonging to one of seven motive categories. Dependency was related to a greater number of interpersonal goals, and to lower levels of achievement and independence goals. Self-Criticism was related to fewer interpersonal goals, and to a greater number of self-presentation goals. Self-critics with low levels of Dependency were also found to have a greater number of achievement strivings. The striving and mood results point to distinct motivational and affective profiles for these personality dimensions. The findings are interpreted within a vulnerability model for depression.
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The present study examined whether distress mediates the relationship between suicidality and the personality predispositions of Self-Criticism, Dependency/Neediness, and Efficacy. A community sample of Portuguese young adults (N = 105) completed, in a counterbalanced order, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and reports of any suicide attempts and/or ideation. Structural equation modeling indicated that Self-Criticism is significantly associated with suicidality, but Dependency and Efficacy are not. High levels of Self-Criticism and of Dependency and low levels of Efficacy are associated with distress. Distress mediates the association between Self-Criticism and suicidality; whereas Dependency and Efficacy are indirectly associated with suicidality through their associations with distress. Self-Critical and Dependent individuals are at greater risk for suicide because of their vulnerability to distressful events; whereas certain levels of Efficacy may decrease vulnerability to distress and suicide risk.
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Individuals who are less invested in their bodies, experiencing symptoms of depression, and consuming alcohol are at increased risk for engaging in suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relationships among three risk factors - body investment, depression, and alcohol use - and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule - Short Form (LAS-SF) in college students (N = 318). Methods: Path analysis was used to construct a causal model of suicide proneness. The Body Investment Scale (BIS) subscales were assumed to be causally prior to depression, which was in turn modeled as occurring prior to alcohol use, which was in turn modeled as prior to suicide proneness. As expected, suicide proneness was positively predicted by alcohol use, alcohol use was positively predicted by depression, and depression was negatively predicted by the body image component of the BIS. Additionally, the body image-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by depression and its direct effect on suicide proneness as well as by the two-mediator path of body image on depression on drinking on suicide proneness. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young adults at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors.
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We tested the hypothesis that self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism are related differentially to unipolar depression. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale was administered along with measures of depression and anxiety to 22 depressed patients, 22 matched normal control subjects, and 13 anxiety patients. It was found that the depressed patients had higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism than did either the psychiatric or normal control subjects. In addition, depressed patients and anxious patients reported higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism than did the normal control subjects. The results suggest that various dimensions of perfectionism may play an important role in clinical depression.
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We tested the hypothesis that self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism are related differentially to unipolar depression. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale was administered along with measures of depression and anxiety to 22 depressed patients, 22 matched normal control subjects, and 13 anxiety patients
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In two consecutive cross-sectional independent samples, we examined the relationship between the personality vulnerability dimensions of the trait Dependency and the trait Self-Criticism and the severity of traumatic stress-related mental health symptoms within a population of Israeli adults who had been directly exposed to ongoing rocket-fire on their homes in Sderot and other Gaza-Bordering Communities (GBC); a sample of individuals who had been indirectly exposed to these attacks served as a comparison group. Study 1 indicates significantly elevated levels of PTSD-Severity and stress in the GBC sample, as well as significant associations between Dependency and PTSD-Severity scores. In the indirectly exposed group, there were significant associations between Self-Criticism and PTSD-Severity scores. Study 2 confirmed these findings and also demonstrated that the associations between Dependency and PTSD-Severity and distress symptoms among individuals directly exposed to prolonged communal life-threatening situations are significantly mediated by low levels of perceived availability of social support and by increased use of maladaptive cognitive emotional regulation (MCER) response styles. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
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This study addresses depression in late adulthood within the context of Blatt's (1974; 1991) theory of development and vulnerabilities to depression. Participants were a sample of 237 Israeli community-dwelling old adults (age 65-75) in good health and functioning well. The authors assumed that in this developmental period, normally beset with questions about self-identity and interpersonal relatedness, the associations among Self-criticism, the Neediness component of dependency, and depressive symptomatology are moderated by participants' perceived social support as well as by their fear of death. As expected, the correlational results confirmed that depression in late adulthood is associated with Self-criticism, Neediness, fear of death, and low perceived social support. Additional results illustrated the protective role of Efficacy and Connectedness, as well as the buffering roles of social support and low fear of death in the relation between vulnerabilities to depression and depressive symptoms in late adulthood. The overall findings highlight the relevance of personality vulnerability factors in depression in late adulthood and the need to consider a range of moderating factors that may serve to protectively buffer or exacerbate the impact of personality vulnerability factors.
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Clinical reports and recent investigations indicate that depressed patients report that when they were children their parents were insensitive, unavailable, or overly intrusive and unable to tolerate the child's autonomy and independence. Using both an open-ended description of parents and a more structured rating procedure (Osgood semantic differential), the present study assessed the relation of descriptions of parents to aspects of depression in 121 undergraduates. Ratings of parents on the semantic differential as negative figures correlated significantly with several measures of depression. Intensity of depression and types of depressive experiences were also significantly related to the qualities attributed to the parents and the conceptual level with which the parents were described in the open-end procedure. The data offer support for the contention that the content and the cognitive level of parental representations may be a central dimension in depression. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two independent types of experiences of depression have been identified among normals—dependency and self-criticism. Using the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, this study investigates their utility in differentiating depression in patients. 197 patients (mean age 34 yrs) and 262 normal controls (mean age 26.7 yrs) also completed the MMPI, Beck Depression Inventory, and Self Rating Depression Scale. There were consistent differences among patients as a function of whether their experiences of depression focused primarily on issues of dependency and/or self-criticism or an absence of these issues. The subjective experiences around which an individual's depression focuses seem to provide a valid basis for differentiating among types of depression. Judges using case records were able to differentiate patients who were high on dependency or self-criticism, on both, or on neither of these dimensions. The distinction between these 2 different foci of depression may provide valuable differentiations for clinical research, and have important implications for the therapeutic process with different types of depressed patients. (55 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is a depression scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The authors developed a Portuguese version of this scale. This article presents the results of the three studies carried out with this version. These results support the reliability and the validity of the scale. The CES-D proved to be sensitive to variations in the intensity of depressive symptomatology and can be used in epidemiological studies or as a screening instrument in a clinical setting. Sex does have some influence on the values of sensitivity and specificity but the educational level has a greater influence on scores: Subjects with a lower education level tend to obtain higher scores with the same level of depressive symptomatology as evaluated by the clinical interview. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the relationships between defenses and depressive experiences. Two questionnaires, in counterbalanced order, were administered to a community sample of 205 adults: the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; S. Blatt, J. D'Afflitti, & D. Quinlan 1976, 1979) and the Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI; D. Ihilevich & G. C. Gleser, 1986). Although turning against self related significantly to both depressive experiences of dependency, especially the less mature neediness in comparison with the more mature connectedness, and self-criticism, other types of defenses, as measured by the DMI, differentiated between interpersonal and self-critical experiences of depression. Results are discussed from psychodynamic and developmental perspectives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In a recent paper, Lawrence Blum (2007; see record 2007-00135-004) identified emotional conflicts in three areas typical in postpartum depression: (1) dependency, (2) aggression, and (3) motherhood. In this commentary, the authors consider agreements and disagreements with Blum's views on the psychodynamics of postpartum depression. In contrast to Blum's assertion, a theoretically derived extensive empirical psychoanalytic database exists which confirms and extends Blum's analysis of the core dynamics involved in this disorder. This recent research derives primarily from the comprehensive theoretical framework proposed by Blatt (1974, 2004, 2006, 2008) on the psychodynamics of depression that are part of a broad theory of normal and pathological personality development which Blum (2007), in his otherwise thorough search of the literature, seems to have overlooked. The authors close with reflections on how psychoanalysis and psychodynamically inspired research might increasingly influence mainstream clinical practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
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Two new scales of parental care and overprotection, and their combination as a Parental Bonding Instrument, are described. On measurements of reliability and validity the scales appear to be acceptable, and are independent of the parent's sex. It would appear that mothers are perceived as significantly more caring and slightly more overprotective than fathers, but that those judgements are not influenced by the sex of the child. Overprotection appears to be associated with lack of care. The scales and scoring method are appended. Norms for a general Sydney population are presented, and the possible influence of age, sex and social class examined.
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The present study examined whether parenting and child characteristics of 2- and 3H-year-old children had common paths of influence on their 4H-year independent cognitive and social functioning. Structural equation modeling was guided by hypotheses that assumed children's later independence is facilitated by specialized parental support in early social interactions. To address the importance of variability in early development for understanding children's later independence, we included 104 term and 185 preterm children, as they are known to differ in early skills. As predicted, mothers' maintaining of children's interests indirectly supported 4H-year cognitive and social independence through a direct, positive influence on 2- and 3H-year skills. Directiveness positively supported children's early cognitive and responsiveness skills but by 3H years, high levels of this behavior had a direct, negative influence on their cognitive and social independence at 4H years. Whereas high levels of maintaining interests across these ages support later independence, directiveness needs to decrease in relation to children's increasing competencies. Results support a theoretical framework that emphasizes the importance of the social context for understanding the origins of children's later independent functioning.
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Using a prospective design, we explored the role of approach and emotional/avoidance-coping strategies in the relations between dependent and self-critical trait vulnerabilities and postpartum depressive symptoms among first-time mothers. It was assumed that dependency and self-criticism associate with approach and emotional/ avoidance strategies respectively, and that approach-coping strategies moderate trait vulnerabilities to depressive symptoms after childbirth. One hundred forty-six first pregnancy participants were assessed during the third trimester of pregnancy and eight weeks postpartum. Dependency was found to associate positively with high approach and low emotional/avoidance-coping strategies, while self-criticism was found to correlate positively with high emotional/avoidance and low approach-coping strategies. In addition, approach-coping scores were found to moderate self-critical trait vulnerability, reducing self-critical participants' depressive symptoms, thus confirming the coping effectiveness hypothesis. Results suggest that personality dispositions may affect the selection of coping processes, but that specific coping strategies are effective beyond personality characteristics, moderating the association between trait vulnerabilities and depressive symptoms. We propose a model in which self-criticism functions as vulnerability to depressive symptoms in the childbearing period. Our results illustrate the need to distinguish dependent and self-critical personality traits, and point to the need to integrate personality and contextual factors in the study of childbirth depressive symptoms.
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While depressive symptomatology is typically discussed in terms of a cognitive-behavioral-affective triad, research and clinical work has tended to focus primarily on thought and behavior. Disengagement from incentives in depression should also be examined explicitly from the affective sphere. In the present study, the semantic differential technique was used to map the reactions of depressed and nondepressed college students to global concepts of a self-referent (self, past, future) versus external (friends, family, school) nature. Findings revealed that depressed subjects rated all concepts significantly less potent, less active, and less evaluatively positive as compared to their nondepressed peers.
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Two studies were conducted to examine the relation between dimensions of perfectionsim and suicide ideation: whether perfectionism is important in suicide ideation when considered in the context of other predictors of suicide (i.e., depression, hopelessness), and whether perfectionism moderates the association between life stress and suicide ideation. Samples of 91 psychiatric patients (Study 1) and 160 college students (Study 2) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Hopelessness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Scale For Suicide Ideation. The subjects in Study 2 also completed a measure of negative life stress. Overall, the results confirmed that self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism are associated with greater suicide ideation. Moreover, these two perfectionism dimensions contributed uniquely to the discrimination of suicide groups and both moderated the link between life stress and suicide ideation. The findings are discussed in terms of their practical and theoretical implications.
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In a recent article, Ross, Clayer and Campbell (1983) argued and showed by means of factor analysis that the number of child-rearing dimensions found previously with the EMBU appears to be dependent on the type of rotation used in factoring. Based on the assumption and empirical evidence that the dimensions found earlier are significantly correlated, Ross et al. (1983) argued that Oblique rotation would appear to give rise to a larger number of distinguishable dimensions than previous analyses (e.g. Arrindell, Emmelkamp, Brilman and Monsma, 1983). We contend that their conclusion was based on an inappropriate analysis of the data with a neglect of relevant psychometric principles. Employing objective techniques of factorial invariance the factors obtained in our previous study were shown here to be congruent across rotational procedures (Oblique vs Varimax). Supporting the stability and factorial and construct validity of the EMBU Rejection, Emotional Warmth, Overprotection and Favouring Subject dimensions, they were shown in further analyses to be: (a) replicable across split samples of phobics (Ns: 421 vs 420); and (b) invariant across distinct populations (phobics, N = 841 vs normals, N = 277).