Maternal Depression and Early Positive Parenting Predict Future Conduct Problems in Young Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Approximately 20% to 50% of children and 44% to 50% of adolescents with ADHD

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 01/2007; 43(1):70-83. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.70


Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for adverse outcomes such as
substance abuse and criminality, particularly if they develop conduct problems. Little is known about
early predictors of the developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD, however.
Parental psychopathology and parenting were assessed in 108 children who first met Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for ADHD at 4–7 years old. When demographic
variables and baseline ADHD and conduct problems were controlled, maternal depression predicted
conduct problems 2–8 years following the initial assessment, whereas positive parenting during the
structured parent– child interaction task predicted fewer future conduct problems. These findings suggest
that maternal depression is a risk factor, whereas early positive parenting is a protective factor, for the
developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD.

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Available from: Andrea M Chronis-Tuscano
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    • "In support of our hypotheses regarding PP, cross-sectional research has found negative associations between maternal ADHD symptoms and parental warmth and responsiveness (e.g., Chronis- Tuscano et al., 2008), and some studies have found associations between lower levels of maternal PP and the presence of child CP (Johnston, Murray, Hinshaw, Pelham, & Hoza, 2002; Kashdan et al., 2004). Moreover, longitudinal findings have identified early maternal PP as a robust protective factor against child CP among families of children with ADHD (Chronis et al., 2007). Thus, perhaps child CP are associated with PP only in mothers, but with NP among both parents. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Parental psychopathology and parenting quality robustly predict negative outcomes among children with ADHD. Little research has investigated associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and parenting, though there is clear evidence linking maternal ADHD symptoms with both suboptimal parenting and child conduct problems, and considerable research supporting fathers' significant contributions to their children's development. Method: This cross-sectional study examined psychopathology and parenting in a sample of fathers (N = 102) and their 5- to 12-year-old children with previously diagnosed ADHD. Results: Results suggested that paternal antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms (rather than ADHD symptoms) were robustly associated with child conduct problems, with an indirect effect through paternal negative parenting. Conclusion: This study suggests that negative parenting may be a potential mechanism by which paternal ASPD is associated with child conduct problems, and demonstrates the importance of considering co-occurring psychopathology in research examining adult ADHD, parenting, and child outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Attention Disorders
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    • "This reduces the likelihood that a parent will complete an intervention . Caregiver depression consistently predicts less intervention attendance and poorer outcomes (Chronis et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Behavioral parent training is an effective intervention for many child behavior problems; however, low parent attendance and premature termination of intervention have been chronic barriers to successful implementation. Socioeconomic factors, demographic characteristics, social support, stressful life events, and parental depression have all been identified in prior research as risk factors for premature termination. The present study tested whether these risk factors were valid predictors in a targeted prevention sample using a novel methodology, a binary segmentation procedure (SEARCH), to identify meaningful subgroups within the sample. The SEARCH procedure, a person-centered approach to analysis, resulted in five mutually exclusive groups. These groups were classified based on social support and stressful life events, and group membership significantly predicted attendance at parent training. Other frequently studied predictors, such as income, were not significant predictors within this sample. The groups which were characterized by higher social support and fewer life events typically attended more sessions; however, the relationship between these risk factors was not linear and would not have been detected by many other methods of analysis. These findings both contribute to the overall literature on parent training preventions, and suggest that binary segmentation procedures, such as SEARCH, may have widespread utility in prevention research because such procedures allow for the detection of non-linear interactions between risk factors.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Prevention Science
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    • "Positive parenting is associated with a decrease in adolescent problem behaviors as well as increases in psychosocial maturity and academic orientation (Barber, Stolz, Olsen, Collins, & Burchinal, 2005; Smetana, Campinone-Barr, & Metzger, 2006; Williams & Steinberg, 2011). More specifically, warmth, support , and expression of positive emotions in the parent–child relationship are related to lower levels of externalizing behaviors (Caspi et al., 2004; Chronis et al., 2007; Eisenberg et al., 2005) and abstinence from alcohol and other drugs (Coombs & Landsverk , 1988; Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller, 1992). Some have argued that positive parenting creates an environment where social skills can be practiced, increasing student's academic achievement and competence with peers (Davidson & Cardemil, 2009; Leidy, Guerra, & Toro, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article reports the effects of a culturally grounded parenting intervention to strengthen positive parenting practices. The intervention was designed and tested with primarily Mexican origin parents in a large urban setting of the southwestern United States using an ecodevelopmental approach. Parents (N = 393) were randomly assigned three treatment conditions: (1) a parenting and youth intervention, (2) a youth only intervention, or (3) a control group. A measurement model for positive parenting was first evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis, followed by structural equation modeling to estimate the effects of the intervention on positive parenting (i.e., baseline to follow-up). As hypothesized, parents in the intervention group reported higher rates of positive parenting compared to parents in youth-only condition. The results are promising and add to growing evidence that interventions tailored to the cultural characteristics and environments of parents and their children can strengthen positive parenting.
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