Article

Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Department of Internal Medicine (M.R.), University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 02/2013; 98(3). DOI: 10.1210/jc.2012-3552
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:
Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal diseases (PDs). The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the existence and magnitude of this association.

Materials and methods:
A systematic search of the literature was conducted looking for case-control, cross-sectional, cohort studies and population surveys including patients with measures of MetS and PD. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane library databases were used for the search by 2 independent reviewers. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association for coexistence of MetS and PD.

Results:
A total of 20 studies were included in the review, from an initial search of 3486 titles. Only 1 study reported longitudinal data on the onset of MetS components in association with periodontal measures. However, several studies investigated coexistence. A random effects meta-analysis showed that the presence of MetS is associated with the presence of periodontitis in a total of 36 337 subjects (odds ratio = 1.71; 95% confidence interval = 1.42 to 2.03). When only studies with "secure" diagnoses were included (n = 16 405), the magnitude of association increased (odds ratio = 2.09; 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 3.44). Moderate heterogeneity was detected (I(2) = 53.6%; P = .004).

Conclusions:
This review presents clear evidence for an association between MetS and periodontitis. The direction of the association and factors influencing it should be investigated by longitudinal and treatment studies. Periodontal diagnostic procedures should be routinely carried out in MetS patients.

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    • "It has been well established that diabetes is an independent risk factor for periodontitis (Lalla et al. 2000). In addition, recent clinical studies have provided evidence that MetS is associated with an increased risk of periodontitis (Nibali et al. 2013). Furthermore, studies have linked obesity with periodontitis (Suvan et al. 2011; Krejci and Bissada 2013), suggesting that disorders of lipid metabolism, present in both MetS and obesity, may increase the risk of developing periodontitis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of developing periodontitis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since it is known that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways play a crucial role in periodontitis, we hypothesized that MetS enhances LPS-induced periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss. In this study, we induced MetS in C57BL/6 mice by feeding them high-fat diet (HFD), and we induced periodontitis by periodontal injection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans LPS. We found that mice fed a HFD had significantly increased body weight, plasma lipids, insulin, and insulin resistance when compared with mice fed regular chow, indicating that the mice developed MetS. We also found that a HFD markedly increased LPS-induced alveolar bone loss, osteoclastogenesis, and inflammatory infiltration. Analysis of gene expression in periodontal tissue revealed that HFD and LPS injection cooperatively stimulated expression of cytokines that are known to be involved in periodontal tissue inflammation and osteoclastogenesissuch as interleukin 6, monocyte-chemotactic protein 1, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. To further understand the potential mechanisms involved in MetS-boosted tissue inflammation, our in vitro studies showed that palmitic acidthe most abundant saturated fatty acid (SFA) and the major SFA in the HFD used in our animal studypotently enhanced LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages. In sum, this study demonstrated that MetS was associated with increased periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss in an LPS-induced periodontitis animal model. This study also suggests that SFA palmitic acid may play an important role in MetS-associated periodontitis by enhancing LPS-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Dental Research
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    • "Interestingly, several meta-analyses have revealed that periodontitis is associated with obesity, diabetes type II, and metabolic syndrome [7–10]. Even though the underlying mechanisms for these associations are yet to be determined, it has been speculated that adipokines might represent an important pathomechanistic link between periodontitis and the aforementioned systemic diseases [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adipokines, such as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), are molecules, which are produced in adipose tissue. Recent studies suggest that NAMPT might also be produced in the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium, which also includes the gingiva. The aim of this study was to examine if and under what conditions NAMPT is produced in gingival fibroblasts and biopsies from healthy and inflamed gingiva. Gingival fibroblasts produced constitutively NAMPT, and this synthesis was significantly increased by interleukin-1 β and the oral bacteria P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. Inhibition of the MEK1/2 and NF κ B pathways abrogated the stimulatory effects of F. nucleatum on NAMPT. Furthermore, the expression and protein levels of NAMPT were significantly enhanced in gingival biopsies from patients with periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory infectious disease of the periodontium, as compared to gingiva from periodontally healthy individuals. In summary, the present study provides original evidence that gingival fibroblasts produce NAMPT and that this synthesis is increased under inflammatory and infectious conditions. Local synthesis of NAMPT in the inflamed gingiva may contribute to the enhanced gingival and serum levels of NAMPT, as observed in periodontitis patients. Moreover, local production of NAMPT by gingival fibroblasts may represent a possible mechanism whereby periodontitis may impact on systemic diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    • "Many epidemiological studies have examined the relationship between oral health and different systemic conditions such as metabolic syndrome (21-23). At present, research focuses on the identification of possible mechanisms underlying this association, and on establishing whether the treatment of oral disease leads to improvement in the systemic disease markers (24,25). "
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    ABSTRACT: The components of the human body are closely interdependent; as a result, disease conditions in some organs or components can influence the development of disease in other body locations. The effect of oral health upon health in general has been investigated for decades by many epidemiological studies. In this context, there appears to be a clear relationship between deficient oral hygiene and different systemic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The precise relationship between them is the subject of ongoing research, and a variety of theories have been proposed, though most of them postulate the mediation of an inflammatory response. This association between the oral cavity and disease in general requires further study, and health professionals should be made aware of the importance of adopting measures destined to promote correct oral health. The present study conducts a Medline search with the purpose of offering an update on the relationship between oral diseases and cardiovascular diseases, together with an evaluation of the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease. Most authors effectively describe a moderate association between the oral cavity and cardiovascular diseases, though they also report a lack of scientific evidence that oral alterations constitute an independent cause of cardiovascular diseases, or that their adequate treatment can contribute to prevent such diseases. In the case of metabolic syndrome, obesity and particularly diabetes mellitus may be associated to an increased susceptibility to periodontitis. However, it is not clear whether periodontal treatment is able to improve the systemic conditions of these patients. Key words:Cardiovascular diseases, periodontitis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal
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