Molecular identification of protozoa causing AIDS-associated cholangiopathy in Buenos Aires, Argentina

Hospital Municipal de Enfermedades Infecciosas Dr Francisco Javier Muñiz, Uspallata 2272 (CP 1282), Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana 12/2012; 42(4):301-8.
Source: PubMed


Several species of microsporidia and coccidia are protozoa parasites responsible for cholan-giopathy disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The goals of this work were to identift opportunistic protozoa by molecular methods and describe the clinical manifestations at the gastrointestinal tract and the biliary system in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy from Buenos Aires, Argentina.
This study included 11 adult HIV-infected individuals with diagnosis ofAIDS- associated cholangiopathy. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy specimen collection and a stool analysis for parasites were performed on each patient. The ultrasound analysis revealed bile ducts compromise. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and a magnetic resonance cholangiography were carried out. The identification to the species level was performed on biopsy specimens by molecular methods.
Microorganisms were identified in 10 cases. The diagnosis in patients with sclerosing cholangitis was cryptosporidiosis in 3 cases, cystoisosporosis in 1 and microsporidiosis in 1. In patients with sclerosing cholangitis and papillary stenosis the diagnosis was microsporidiosis in 2 cases, cryptosporidiosis in 2 and cryptosporidiosis associated with microsporidiosis in 1. In 3 cases with cryptosporidiosis the species was Cryptosporidium hominis, 1 of them was associated with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and the other 2 were coinfected with Cryptosporidium parvum. In the 4 cases with microsporidiosis the species was Enterocytozoon bieneusi.
These results suggest that molecular methods may be useful tools to identify emerging protozoa in patients with AIDS-associated cholangiopathy.

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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic diseases are widely spread in the world, with the highest prevalence in developing countries. Children are mainly affected, showing a decrease in physical and mental development, as well as the expected manifestations of the disease. This situation can be greatly enhanced in children with poor nutritional status. The World Health Organization considers intestinal parasitic diseases a major cause of morbidity, closely linked to poverty and poor personal hygiene, inappropriate handling of raw food, lack of sanitation, lack of potable water supply, and environmental fecal contamination. Some parasitic diseases are cosmopolitan while others have variable geographic distribution, due to different factors such as the presence of exclusive intermediate hosts. In the past few years, globalization allowed the spread of certain parasites from endemic to non-endemic regions. Even though people's customs influence on the frequency of certain parasites, environmental conditions are a determinant factor for parasite survival. In our country, due to the variety of soils and climatic conditions, several causative agents of these parasitoses can be found. The aim of this work was to review the literature on the intestinal parasitic agents found in Argentina in human fecal samples and its environment, as parasitic contamination constitutes a direct indicator of the infection risk by intestinal parasites.
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