Effects of a combined intervention for treating severely obese prepubertal children

Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM (Impact Factor: 1). 02/2013; 26(1-2):91-6. DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2012-0225
Source: PubMed


Obesity has become the most common modern pediatric chronic disease. Early prevention and treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity is mandated. Severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) percentile >98%] reduces the likelihood of the multidisciplinary childhood obesity program to succeed, suggesting, most probably, that a more intense program is needed to treat severely obese children.

Objective and methods:
To prospectively examine the effects of an intense, 3-month, combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention on anthropometric measures, leisure time activity patterns, and fitness in prepubertal severely obese (BMI percentile >98%) children (n=22) compared to age, gender, and obesity matched controls (n=18).

At 3 months, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in changes in body weight (-0.5±2.4 vs. 1.7±1.9 kg), BMI (-0.9±1.2 vs. 0.4±1.0 kg/m2), BMI percentile (0.39±0.39% vs. -0.04±0.32%), sum skinfolds (-3.1±8.1 vs. 1.1±4.7 mm), total habitual physical activity (25.4±10.8 vs. 0.3±10.1 Mets), and fitness (142±72 vs. -8±88 s) in the intervention vs. control participants.

Our data demonstrate the beneficial, short-term effects of an intense combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention on anthropometric measures, activity patterns, and fitness in severely obese children. However, despite the encouraging results, the modest effect on BMI percentiles emphasizes the difficulty of treating severely obese children using the conventional nutritional-behavioral-physical activity approach.

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    • "obese with currently available interventions is difficult (Nemet et al., 2013). A separate study of childhood obesity treatment found that 58% of the children ages 6 to 9 with severe obesity showed a clinically significant reduction in BMI z-score, whereas only 22% of children ages 10 to 13 with severe obesity did, and none of the adolescents ages 14 to 16 with severe obesity did, again reinforcing the need for early intervention (Danielsson et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is associated with increased medical and psychosocial consequences and mortality and effective interventions are urgently needed. Effective interventions are urgently needed. This article reviews the evidence for psychological treatments of overweight and obesity in child and adolescent populations. Studies were identified through searches of online databases and reference sections of relevant review articles and meta-analyses. Treatment efficacy was assessed using established criteria, and treatments were categorized as well-established, probably efficacious, possibly efficacious, experimental, or of questionable efficacy. Well-established treatments included family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) and Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment for children. Possibly efficacious treatments include Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment for adolescents, FBT-Guided Self-Help for children, and Behavioral Weight Loss treatment with family involvement for toddlers, children, and adolescents. Appetite awareness training and regulation of cues treatments are considered experimental. No treatments are considered probably efficacious, or of questionable efficacy. All treatments considered efficacious are multicomponent interventions that include dietary and physical activity modifications and utilize behavioral strategies. Treatment is optimized if family members are specifically targeted in treatment. Research supports the use of multicomponent lifestyle interventions, with FBT and Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment being the most widely supported treatment types. Additional research is needed to test a stepped care model for treatment and to establish the ideal dosage (i.e., number and length of sessions), duration, and intensity of treatments for long-term sustainability of healthy weight management. To improve access to care, the optimal methods to enhance the scalability and implementability of treatments into community and clinical settings need to be established.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We assessed the effect of a weight management program on body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile, and fitness in obese children and adolescents. The study was designed as a longitudinal, non-randomized, clinical experience of 3, 6, and 12 months combined dietary-behavioral-exercise intervention. Seven hundred and forty-nine obese children (age, 6-16 years) participated in a 3 months program. Three hundred and fifty-nine of them completed a 6 months intervention and 147 completed a 1 year intervention. Sixty-seven age- and maturity-matched obese children who did not participate in the structured program served as controls. Body weight, BMI, and fitness were evaluated at baseline, and after 3, 6, and 12 months intervention. Body weight, BMI, and BMI percentiles were significantly reduced (p<0.05) and endurance time significantly increased (p<0.0005) following the 3 months intervention. Obese children who continued the program for 6 months maintained decreases in BMI percentiles and further improved endurance time. In contrast, obese children in the control group gained weight, increased their BMI, and had a less significant improvement in fitness. Parental obesity (both parents), degree of obesity (BMI >97%), and more than one prior weight loss attempt were associated with lower decreases, whereas sex and pubertal status had no influence, on BMI percentiles changes. Children without parental overweight had significantly greater decreases in BMI compared with children with both parents showing obesity. In summary, a combined, structured multidisciplinary intervention for childhood obesity led to decreased body weight, BMI, and BMI percentiles, and to improved fitness.
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