Intervention effects on physical activity: The HEIA study - A cluster randomized controlled trial

International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (Impact Factor: 4.11). 02/2013; 10(1):17. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-17
Source: PubMed


Although school-based interventions to promote physical activity in adolescents have been suggested in several recent reviews, questions have been raised regarding the effects of the strategies and the methodology applied and for whom the interventions are effective. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of a school-based intervention program: the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study, on change in physical activity, and furthermore, to explore whether potential effects varied by gender, weight status, initial physical activity level and parental education level.

This was a cluster randomized controlled 20 month intervention study which included 700 11-year-olds. Main outcome-variable was mean count per minute (cpm) derived from ActiGraph accelerometers (Model 7164/GT1M). Weight and height were measured objectively. Adolescents reported their pubertal status in a questionnaire and parents reported their education level on the consent form. Linear mixed models were used to test intervention effects and to account for the clustering effect of sampling by school.

The present study showed an intervention effect on overall physical activity at the level of p = 0.05 with a net effect of 50 cpm increase from baseline to post intervention in favour of the intervention group (95% CI −0.4, 100). Subgroup analyses showed that the effect appeared to be more profound among girls (Est 65 cpm, CI 5, 124, p = 0.03) and among participants in the low-activity group (Est 92 cpm, CI 41, 142, p < 0.001), as compared to boys and participants in the high-activity group, respectively. Furthermore, the intervention affected physical activity among the normal weight group more positively than among the overweight, and participants with parents having 13–16 years of education more positively than participants with parents having either a lower or higher number of years of education. The intervention seemed to succeed in reducing time spent sedentary among girls but not among boys.

A comprehensive but feasible, multi-component school-based intervention can affect physical activity patterns in adolescents by increasing overall physical activity. This intervention effect seemed to be more profound in girls than boys, low-active adolescents compared to high-active adolescents, participants with normal weight compared to the overweight, and for participants with parents of middle education level as opposed to those with high and low education levels, respectively. An implementation of the HEIA intervention components in the school system may have a beneficial effect on public health by increasing overall physical activity among adolescents and possibly among girls and low-active adolescents in particular.

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Available from: Knut-Inge Klepp
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    • "Grydeland et al. [18] conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of physical activity intervention lasting 20 months in 700 adolescents and found a trend of improvement for the intervention group, and this effect is more evident in girls and among participants with low physical activity levels compared with boys and with participants with high physical activity levels, respectively. Apparently, the intervention programs of physical activity have proven to be effective for individuals who have low levels of physical activity and among females; however, none of the studies found similarity which is found here with this finding. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    • "Activity monitors that contain an accelerometer provide accurate, reliable and feasible measurements of physical activity [2-4], and have recently been used in several nation-wide monitoring surveys of population levels of physical activity and temporal trends in physical activity [5-8]. Furthermore, recent intervention studies in children and adolescents aiming to increase physical activity have used activity monitors to estimate intervention effects [9-11]. Accurate and reproducible methods of measurements are vital in order for such estimates to be precise and independent of the known challenges related to self-reported physical activity (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A recent review concludes that the agreement of data across ActiGraph accelerometer models for children and youth still is uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of three generations of ActiGraph accelerometers in children in a free-living condition. Methods Sixteen 9-year-olds wore the ActiGraph AM7164, GT1M and GT3X+ simultaneously for three consecutive days. We compared mean counts per minute (mcpm) and time spent at different intensities from the three generations of monitors, and the agreement of outputs were evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. Results The ICC for mcpm was 0.985 (95% CI = 0.898, 0.996). We found a relative difference of 11.6% and 9.8% between the AM7164 and the GT1M and AM7164 and the GT3X+, respectively. The relative difference between mcpm assessed by the GT1M and GT3X+ was 1.7%. The inter-generation differences varied in magnitude and direction across intensity levels, with the largest difference found in the highest intensities. Conclusion We found that the ActiGraph model AM7164 yields higher outputs of mean physical activity intensity (mcpm) than the models GT1M and GT3X+ in children in free-living conditions. The generations GT1M and GT3X+ provided comparable outputs. The differences between the old and the newer monitors were more complex when investigating time spent at different intensities. Comparisons of data assessed by the AM7164 with data assessed by newer generations ActiGraphs should be done with caution.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014
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    • "In terms of interventions that address behaviours associated with over- and under-nutrition, school-based, multi-component interventions with adolescent girls, targeting lifestyle behaviours associated with obesity, have been shown to increase PA [86] and decrease sedentary behaviour [87], as well as improve selected body composition measures and some dietary behaviours [88]. However, systematic reviews on obesity interventions in adolescents have shown that the effectiveness of school-based interventions can be limited (only 41% of studies reviewed showed a positive effect) [89], and that there is a need for more quality trials examining physical activity behaviour change strategies appropriate for adolescents [90]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background South Africa (SA) is undergoing multiple transitions with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and high levels of overweight and obesity in adolescent girls and women. Adolescence is key to addressing trans-generational risk and a window of opportunity to intervene and positively impact on individuals’ health trajectories into adulthood. Using Intervention Mapping (IM), this paper describes the development of the Ntshembo intervention, which is intended to improve the health and well-being of adolescent girls in order to limit the inter-generational transfer of risk of metabolic disease, in particular diabetes risk. Methods This paper describes the application of the first four steps of IM. Evidence is provided to support the selection of four key behavioural objectives: viz. to eat a healthy, balanced diet, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and promote reproductive health. Appropriate behaviour change techniques are suggested and a theoretical framework outlining components of relevant behaviour change theories is presented. It is proposed that the Ntshembo intervention will be community-based, including specialist adolescent community health workers who will deliver a complex intervention comprising of individual, peer, family and community mobilisation components. Conclusions The Ntshembo intervention is novel, both in SA and globally, as it is: (1) based on strong evidence, extensive formative work and best practice from evaluated interventions; (2) combines theory with evidence to inform intervention components; (3) includes multiple domains of influence (community through to the individual); (4) focuses on an at-risk target group; and (5) embeds within existing and planned health service priorities in SA.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Public Health
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