Acute kidney injury in the paediatric intensive care unit: Identification by modified RIFLE criteria
Department of Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Jordan, Hong Kong.Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.87). 02/2013; 19(1):13-9.
OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute kidney injury in paediatric intensive care units using the modified RIFLE score (pRIFLE). DESIGN. Historical cohort study. SETTING. A paediatric intensive care unit in a regional Hong Kong hospital. PATIENTS. All paediatric patients aged 1 month to 18 years admitted to a local paediatric intensive care unit in the years 2005 to 2007. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. For every paediatric intensive care unit admission, acute kidney injury was classified according to the pRIFLE criteria ("R" for risk, "I" for injury, "F" for failure, "L" for loss, and "E" for end-stage). Prevalence and outcome of acute kidney injury were therefore categorised according to the pRIFLE staging. RESULTS. A total of 140 such patient admissions constituted the study population. The point prevalence of acute kidney injury in these patients on admission was 46% (n=59), whilst 56% (n=78) endured acute kidney injury at some time during their paediatric intensive care unit stay. Worsening of pRIFLE grading during their intensive care unit admission was observed in 20% of the patients who had no acute kidney injury on admission, in 30% of those who had an initial "R" grade, and in 40% of those who had an initial "I" grade of acute kidney injury. Overall mortality in this cohort was 12%, which was significantly higher among patients with acute kidney injury. Having acute kidney injury of grade "F" on admission to the paediatric intensive care unit was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio=5.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-33.36; P=0.043). CONCLUSION. Among critically ill paediatric patients, the pRIFLE score serves as a suitable classification of acute kidney injury when stratified according to clinical severity. It also provides prognostic information on mortality and renal outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Background/aims: The recent improvements of management of patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) are associated with improved outcome. However, this decrease in mortality is associated with an increased number of children with acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in patients with multiorgan failure. Methods: The report presents a retrospective analysis of 25 cases of AKI (assessed based on the pRIFLE criteria) in PICU within 7 years. Results: AKI was diagnosed in 1.24% of all hospitalized children. AKI percentage duration (as compared to the total hospitalization time) in the children who died vs. the survivors was 79.55% vs. 46.19%, respectively (p<0.05). The mortality rate of AKI patients was 40% which was 4.4-times higher as compared to the total mortality rate in PICU. The final cumulative survival ratio (FCSR) of patients meeting the oliguria criterion (which was met in 48% of AKI patients) was 37% vs. 49% in non-oliguric children. Averaged urine output values in the first week of hospitalization in the deceased vs. survivors were 1.49 vs. 2.57 ml/kg/h, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions: Oliguria should not be considered as a sensitive parameter for AKI diagnosing in children below one year of age. A decreased mean urine output in the first week of PICU hospitalization (less than 1.4 ml/kg/h) should be considered as a poor prognostic factor. In many cases AKI was diagnosed too infrequently and too late.
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