Dendritic cells: An important link between antiphospholipid antibodies, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis in autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases
Division of Rheumatology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, F 701N, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address: . Clinical Immunology
(Impact Factor: 3.67).
12/2012; 146(3):197-206. DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2012.12.002
The presence of dendritic cells, antigen-presenting cells that link innate and adaptive immunity, is necessary to generate and maintain the production of antiphospholipid antibodies in response to exposed intracellular phospholipids on the outer surface of apoptotic cells. In turn, antiphospholipid antibodies enhance dendritic cell-induced inflammatory and proatherogenic responses in a number of conditions that are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, including diabetes, chronic kidney disease, periodontal infections, and aging. While altering dendritic cells by modifying the ubiquitin-proteasome system enhances antiphospholipid antibody production and leads to development of accelerated atherosclerosis and autoimmune features, inducing tolerance by dendritic cell manipulation leads to decreased atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Therefore, further translational studies are needed to understand the interplay between dendritic cells and antiphospholipid antibodies, and to develop potential new therapies for antiphospholipid syndrome and atherosclerosis. Here we review current experimental and translational studies that have examined the role of dendritic cells in antiphospholipid antibody formation and in antiphospholipid-associated atherosclerosis and thrombosis.
Available from: César Varela
- "factor kappa B (NF-í µí¼
B) dependent mechanism, leading to the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules and increasing the release of proinflammatory cytokines   . ABGPI also collaborate in the opsonization of apoptotic cells  and could disrupt the physiological angiogenic process . "
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ABSTRACT: Our aim is to investigate a possible association of circulating anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (ABGPI) with the endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide bioactivity dysregulation, and the inflammatory status that surrounds peripheral arterial disease. We carried out an observational translational study, including 50 male patients with intermittent claudication and a healthy control group of 10 male subjects, age and sex matched with the cases. Flow-mediated arterial dilatation (FMAD) was assessed as a surrogate of endothelial dysfunction, and C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was determined as a marker of inflammation. Nitrite plasma levels were measured by colorimetric analysis. Circulating ABGPI titer was detected with indirect immunofluorescence. Titers <1 : 10 represented the reference range and the lower detection limit of the test. Circulating ABGPI titer ≥1 : 10 was detected in 21 (42%) patients and in none of the control subjects (P < 0.01). Patients with ABGPI titer ≥1 : 10 had a lower FMAD (P = 0.01). The CRP levels were higher in patients with ABGPI titer ≥1 : 10 (P = 0.04). The nitrite plasma levels were higher in patients with ABGPI titer ≥1 : 10 (P < 0.01). These data suggest that these circulating ABGPI may collaborate in the development of atherosclerosis; however, further prospective studies are required to establish a causal relationship.
- "Whereas it is generally accepted that DCs in steady state, although loaded with self-antigens from their environment, do not trigger autoimmunity [5, 18, 31], discrepancies in DC number, phenotype, and function are believed to contribute to disease [2, 32–36]. Indeed, in animal models for type I diabetes, arthritis , Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome , and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) , it was shown that increased access of DCs to intracellular autogens—mediated by increased amounts of apoptotic cells or insufficient clearance of these cells—resulted in subsequent autogen presentation and activation of T cells. "
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ABSTRACT: In general, immunological tolerance is acquired upon treatment with non-specific immunosuppressive drugs. This indiscriminate immunosuppression of the patient often causes serious side-effects, such as opportunistic infectious diseases. Therefore, the need for antigen-specific modulation of pathogenic immune responses is of crucial importance in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this perspective, dendritic cells (DCs) can have an important immune-regulatory function, besides their notorious antigen-presenting capacity. DCs appear to be essential for both central and peripheral tolerance. In the thymus, DCs are involved in clonal deletion of autoreactive immature T cells by presenting self-antigens. Additionally, tolerance is achieved by their interactions with T cells in the periphery and subsequent induction of T cell anergy, T cell deletion, and induction of regulatory T cells (Treg). Various studies have described, modulation of DC characteristics with the purpose to induce antigen-specific tolerance in autoimmune diseases, graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), and transplantations. Promising results in animal models have prompted researchers to initiate first-in-men clinical trials. The purpose of current review is to provide an overview of the role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmunity, as well as recent concepts of dendritic cell-based therapeutic opportunities in autoimmune diseases.
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