Comparison of concomitant and subsequent cholangiocarcinomas associated with hepatolithiasis: clinical implications. World J Gastroenterol

Chia-Cheng Lin, Yao-Li Chen, Department of Surgery, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 50006, Taiwan.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 01/2013; 19(3):375-380. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i3.375
Source: PubMed


To compare the outcomes of concomitant cholangiocarcinoma (C-CCA) and subsequent cholangiocarcinoma (S-CCA) associated with hepatolithiasis.

From December 1987 to December 2007, 276 patients underwent hepatic resection for hepatolithiasis in Changhua Christian Hospital. Sixty-five patients were excluded due to incomplete medical records and the remaining 211 patients constituted our study population base. Ten patients were diagnosed with C-CCA based on the preoperative biopsy or postoperative pathology. During the follow-up period, 12 patients developed S-CCA. The diagnosis of S-CCA was made by image-guided biopsy or by pathology if surgical intervention was carried out. Patient charts were reviewed to collect clinical information. Parameters such as CCA incidence, interval from operation to CCA diagnosis, interval from CCA diagnosis to disease-related death, follow-up time, and mortality rate were calculated for both the C-CCA and S-CCA groups. The outcomes of the C-CCA and S-CCA groups were mathematically compared and analysed.

Our study demonstrates the clinical implications and the survival outcomes of C-CCA and S-CCA. Among the patients with unilateral hepatolithiasis, the incidence rates of C-CCA and S-CCA were fairly similar (4.8% vs 4.5%, respectively, P = 0.906). However, for the patients with bilateral hepatolithiasis, the incidence rate of S-CCA (12.2%) was higher than that of C-CCA (4.7%), although the sample size was limited and the difference between two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.211). The average follow-up time was 56 mo for the C-CCA group and 71 mo for the S-CCA group. Regard to the average time intervals from operation to CCA diagnosis, S-CCA was diagnosed after 67 mo from the initial hepatectomy. The average time intervals from the diagnoses of CCA to disease-related death was 41 mo for the C-CCA group and 4 mo for the S-CCA group, this difference approached statistical significance (P = 0.075). Regarding the rates of overall and disease-related mortality, the C-CCA group had significantly lower overall mortality (70% vs 100%, P = 0.041) and disease-related mortality (60% vs 100%, P = 0.015) than the S-CCA group. For the survival outcomes of two groups, the Kaplan-Meier curves corresponding to each group also demonstrated better survival outcomes for the C-CCA group (log rank P = 0.005). In the C-CCA group, three patients were still alive at the time of data analysis, all of them had free surgical margins and did not have pathologically proven lymph node metastasis at the time of the initial hepatectomy. In the S-CCA group, only one patient had chance to undergo a second hepatectomy, and all 12 S-CCA patients had died at the time of data analysis.

C-CCA has better outcomes than S-CCA. The first hepatectomy is crucial because most patients with recurrent CCA or S-CCA are not eligible for repeated surgical intervention.

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    ABSTRACT: Aims Few papers focused on association between hepatolithiasis (HL) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) in Western countries. The aims of this paper are to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and postoperative outcomes of CCC with HL in a cohort of Western patients and to compare the surgical outcomes of these patients with patients with CCC without HL. Materials and methods Among 161 patients with HL from five Italian tertiary hepato-biliary centers, 23 (14.3%) patients with concomitant CCC were analyzed. The results of surgery in these patients were compared with patients with CCC without HL. Results The 60.9% of patients with HL received the diagnosis of CCC intra- or postoperatively, with a resectability rate of 91.3%. The postoperative morbidity was 61.6%. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 78.6% and 21.0%, respectively. The recurrence rate was 44.4% and the 3-year disease-free survival rates were 18.8%. The comparison with patients with CCC without HL showed a higher resectability rate (p = 0.02) and a higher frequency of earlier stage (p = 0.04) in CCC with HL. Biliary leakage was more frequent in CCC with HL group (p = 0.01) compared to CCC without HL group. We found no differences in overall and disease-free survival between the two groups. Conclusions Patients with HL and CCC showed a high resectability rate but a higher morbidity. Nevertheless, overall and disease-free survival of patients with CCC and HL showed no differences compared to those of patients with CCC without HL. Also in Western countries, HL needs a careful management for the possible presence of CCC.
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