Article

Bioprinting Toward Organ Fabrication: Challenges and Future Trends

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering (Impact Factor: 2.35). 01/2013; DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2013.2243912
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope for bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. Organ printing, which is defined as computer-aided additive biofabrication of 3D cellular tissue constructs, has shed light on advancing this field into a new era. Organ printing takes advantage of rapid prototyping (RP) technology to print cells, biomaterials, and cell-laden biomaterials individually or in tandem, layer by layer, directly creating 3D tissue-like structures. Here, we overview RP-based bioprinting approaches and discuss the current challenges and trends towards fabricating living organs for transplant in the near future.

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    • "A steady increase in the number of publications and citations in the area of bioprinting indicate its huge potential in biomedical applications including tissue engineering, drug development, and organ-on-chip platforms. While challenges exist to maintain the intended shape and cell distribution of the construct over time, researchers have employed a variety of novel methods and technologies to improve upon the bioprinting process [5] [6] [7] [8]. A vital aspect and bottleneck to the design and implementation of a bioprinting system is the consideration of a bioink. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bioprinting is a process of precisely designed scaffolds using three-dimensional printing technologies for functional tissue engineering utilizing cell-laden biomaterials as bioink. A range of polymers can be used as bioink to stimulate favorable cellular interactions, leading to enhanced cell motility, proliferation, and subsequent differentiation. Both natural and synthetic polymers have been considered for various bioprinting applications, each with a corresponding set of advantages and limitations. Natural polymers more aptly mimic the native extracellular matrix, leading to more favorable cellular responses, while synthetic polymers can be more easily tailored for more efficient printing. Because many of these bioink materials are rooted in traditional tissue engineering scaffold design, bioprinting optimization remains a challenge; however, emerging trends in bioink development have begun to circumvent these issues, providing bioprinting research with a very promising future in regenerative medicine. Further investigation into the interplay of polymer type and fabrication technique will help to formulate new polymer bioinks that can expedite the process from printing to implantation.
    Full-text · Chapter · Dec 2015
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    • "Mini-tissue fabrication has shown great promise in creating complex tissues and organs for medical use [1]. The precise assembly and spatial deposition of cell aggregates leads to the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) anatomical structures like organs [2]. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    • "Mini-tissue fabrication has shown great promise in creating complex tissues and organs for medical use [1]. The precise assembly and spatial deposition of cell aggregates leads to the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) anatomical structures like organs [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this note, we report a practical and efficient method based on a coaxial extrusion and microinjection technique for biofabrication of scaffold-free tissue strands. Tissue strands were obtained using tubular alginate conduits as mini-capsules with well-defined permeability and mechanical properties, where their removal by ionic decrosslinking allowed the formation of scaffold-free cell aggregates in the form of cylindrical strands with well-defined morphology and geometry. Rat dermal fibroblasts and mouse insulinoma beta TC3 cells were used to fabricate both single-cellular and heterocellular tissue strands with high cell viability, self-assembling capability and the ability to express cell-specific functional markers. By taking advantage of tissue self-assembly, we succeeded in guiding the fusion of tissue strands to fabricate larger tissue patches. The presented approach enables fabrication of cell aggregates with controlled dimensions allowing highly long strands, which can be used for various applications, including fabrication of scale-up complex tissues and of tissue models for drug screening and cancer studies.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Biofabrication
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