Ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) that ubiquitinate substrates for proteasomal degradation are often in the position of ubiquitinating themselves due to interactions with a charged ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2). This can mediate the E3's proteasomal degradation. Many E3s have evolved means to avoid autoubiquitination including protection by partner or substrate binding, preventative modifications, and deubiquitinating enzyme reversal of ubiquitination. Here, we describe another adaptation for E3 self-protection discovered while exploring San1, which ubiquitinates misfolded nuclear proteins in yeast for proteasomal degradation. San1 is highly disordered in its substrate-binding regions N- and C-terminal to its RING domain. In cis autoubiquitination could occur if these flexible regions come in proximity to the E2. San1 prevents this by containing no lysines in its disordered regions, thus the canonical residue used for ubiquitin attachment has been selectively eliminated. San1's target substrates have lost their native structures and expose hydrophobicity. To avoid in trans autoubiquitination, San1 possesses little concentrated hydrophobicity in its disordered regions, thus the feature San1 recognizes in misfolded substrates has also been selectively eliminated. Overall, the presence of key residues in San1 have been evolutionarily minimized to avoid self-destruction either in cis or in trans. Our work expands the ways E3s protect themselves from autoubiquitination.
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"In addition, the nucleus appears to be a particularly active organelle in regard to protein quality control (Nielsen et al., 2014; Park et al., 2013). In the case of San1, it has been shown that one reason for its unusually low content of lysine residues is to protect it from auto-ubiquitination and untimely proteasomal degradation (Fredrickson et al., 2013). Many of the disordered San1-like E3s that we identify here also display long stretches devoid of lysine residues. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Since the accumulation of such proteins is potentially harmful for the cell, their prompt removal is important. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases mediate substrate ubiquitination by bringing together the substrate with an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. For misfolded proteins, substrate recognition is generally delegated to molecular chaperones that subsequently interact with specific E3 ligases. An important exception is San1, a yeast E3 ligase. San1 harbors extensive regions of intrinsic disorder, which provide both conformational flexibility and sites for direct recognition of misfolded targets of vastly different conformations. So far, no mammalian ortholog of San1 is known, nor is it clear whether other E3 ligases utilize disordered regions for substrate recognition. Here, we conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology of their ordered regions, and did not capture the unique disorder patterns that encode the functional mechanism of San1. However, by searching specifically for key features of the San1 sequence, such as long regions of intrinsic disorder embedded with short stretches predicted to be suitable for substrate interaction, we identified several E3 ligases with these characteristics. Our initial analysis revealed that another remarkable trait of San1 is shared with several candidate E3 ligases: long stretches of complete lysine suppression, which in San1 limits auto-ubiquitination. We encode these characteristic features into a San1 similarity-score, and present a set of proteins that are plausible candidates as San1 counterparts in humans. In conclusion, our work indicates that San1 is not a unique case, and that several other yeast and human E3 ligases have sequence properties that may allow them to recognize substrates by a similar mechanism as San1.
"It is interesting to note that, due to its innate ability to ubiquitylate a great variety of misfolded and unstructured proteins, San1 has been under selective pressure to not include any lysine residues in its otherwise mostly random N-and C-terminal sequences. The addition of a single lysine residue in these regions leads to cis-autoubiquitylation and rapid degradation . Recent work on San1 mediated protein quality control has found an interesting link to the segregase function of Cdc48 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In their natural environment, cells are regularly exposed to various stress conditions that may lead to protein misfolding, but also in the absence of stress, misfolded proteins occur as the result of mutations or failures during protein synthesis. Since such partially denatured proteins are prone to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The degradation of misfolded proteins is clearly compartmentalized, so unique degradation pathways exist for misfolded proteins depending on whether their subcellular localization is ER/secretory, mitochondrial, cytosolic or nuclear. Recent studies, mainly in yeast, have shown that the nucleus appears to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins is the primary hallmark for more than 45 human degenerative diseases. These devastating disorders include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Over 15 degenerative diseases are associated with the aggregation of misfolded proteins specifically in the nucleus of cells. However, how the cell safeguards the nucleus from misfolded proteins is not entirely clear. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the cellular mechanisms that maintain protein homeostasis in the nucleus and protect the nucleus from misfolded protein accumulation and aggregation. In particular, we focus on the chaperones found to localize to the nucleus during stress, the ubiquitin-proteasome components enriched in the nucleus, the signaling systems that might be present in the nucleus to coordinate folding and degradation, and the sites of misfolded protein deposition associated with the nucleus.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS