Overexpression of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) increases bone loss.

1University of Ulsan.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 3.79). 01/2013; 304(7). DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2012
Source: PubMed


The developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) is a novel subclass of GTP binding proteins. Many functional characteristics of osteoclast (OC) are associated with small GTPases. We hypothesized that DRG2 affects bone mass via modulating OC activity. Using DRG2 transgenic mice, we investigated the role of DRG2 in bone remodeling. DRG2 overexpression caused a decrease in bone mass and an increase in the number and activity of OC in vivo. DRG2 overexpression increased fusion, spreading, survival, and resorption activity of OC in vitro. Down-regulation of DRG2 by siRNA decreased fusion, spreading, and survival of OC, supporting the observations found in DRG2 transgenic OC. Transgenic mature OCs were larger with actin rings and higher ERK, Akt, Rac1 and Rho activities than wild type OCs. Inhibition of these proteins abolished the effects of DRG2 on formation of large OCs with actin rings, implying that DRG2 affects cytoskeleton reorganization in a Rac1/Rho/ERK/Akt-dependent manner. In summary, DRG2 is associated with survival and cytoskeleton organization of OC under influence of M-CSF, and its overexpression leads to elevated bone resorptive activity of OC, resulting in bone loss.

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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that skeletal structure and strength phenotypes vary considerably in heterogeneous stock (HS) rats. These phenotypes were found to be strongly heritable, suggesting that the HS rat model represents a unique genetic resource for dissecting the complex genetic etiology underlying bone fragility. The purpose of this study was to identify and localize genes associated with bone structure and strength phenotypes using 1524 adult male and female HS rats between 17 to 20 weeks of age. Structure measures included femur length, neck width, head width; femur and lumbar spine (L3-5) areas obtained by DXA; and cross-sectional areas (CSA) at the midshaft, distal femur and femoral neck, and the 5th lumbar vertebra measured by CT. In addition, measures of strength of the whole femur and femoral neck were obtained. Approximately 70,000 polymorphic SNPs distributed throughout the rat genome were selected for genotyping, with a mean linkage disequilibrium coefficient between neighboring SNPs of 0.95. Haplotypes were estimated across the entire genome for each rat using a multipoint haplotype reconstruction method, which calculates the probability of descent at each locus from each of the 8 HS founder strains. The haplotypes were then tested for association with each structure and strength phenotype via a mixed model with covariate adjustment. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for structure phenotypes on chromosomes 3, 8, 10, 12, 17 and 20, and QTLs for strength phenotypes on chromosomes 5, 10 and 11 that met a conservative genome-wide empiric significance threshold (FDR=5%; P<3 X 10(-6)). Importantly, most QTLs were localized to very narrow genomic regions (as small as 0.3Mb and up to 3 Mb), each harboring a small set of candidate genes, both novel and previously shown to have roles in skeletal development and homeostasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Bone