HIV Status Determination Among Tuberculosis Patients From California During 2008
: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection complicates care and contributes to poor outcomes among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that providers test all TB patients for HIV. : We assessed completeness of HIV status determination among TB patients and identified key gaps in adherence. : We conducted a retrospective review of public health charts to determine the HIV status for all TB patients reported in California during 2008. We then used logistic regression to determine the factors associated with a known (positive or negative) HIV status. A random sample of TB patients was selected for secondary review to characterize the timing of HIV status determination and the providers who had opportunity to test for HIV. : California TB programs. : All TB patients reported from California in 2008. : Proportion of patients with a known HIV status, adjusted odds ratios for having a known HIV status, proportion of patients with a known HIV status before TB diagnosis, and proportion of patients diagnosed with TB by different provider types. : Only 1752 (66%) of 2667 TB patients had a known HIV status. Having a known HIV status was strongly associated with those aged between 15 and 44 years and being managed with any public provider involvement. Of 292 patients in the random sample, 12 patients (4%) had a known HIV status before TB diagnosis. Among the remaining 280 patients, 187 patients (67%) were diagnosed with TB by a private provider. : The HIV status determination of TB patients was selective and not routine as recommended. Private providers can play a key role in testing for HIV at TB diagnosis. California TB programs should ensure that all TB patients have an HIV status by promulgating national recommendations, educating private providers on the benefits of testing TB patients for HIV, and monitoring completeness of HIV status determination.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) requires at least six months of multidrug treatment and necessitates monitoring for response to treatment. Historically, public health departments (HDs) have cared for most TB patients in the United States. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) provides coverage for uninsured persons and may increase the proportion of TB patients cared for by private medical providers and other providers outside HDs (PMPs). We sought to determine whether there were differences in care provided by HDs and PMPs to inform public health planning under the ACA. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of California TB registry data. We included adult TB patients with culture-positive, pulmonary TB reported in California during 2007-2011. We examined trends, described case characteristics, and created multivariate models measuring two standards of TB care in PMP- and HD-managed patients: documented culture conversion within 60 days, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT). Results: The proportion of PMP-managed TB patients increased during 2007-2011 (p = 0.002). On univariable analysis (N = 4,606), older age, white, black or Asian/Pacific Islander race, and birth in the United States were significantly associated with PMP care (p<0.05). Younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, homelessness, drug or alcohol use, and cavitary and/or smear-positive TB disease, were associated with HD care. Multivariable analysis showed PMP care was associated with lack of documented culture conversion (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.51) and lack of DOT (aRR = 8.56, CI 6.59-11.1). Conclusion: While HDs cared for TB cases with more social and clinical complexities, patients under PMP care were less likely to receive DOT and have documented culture conversion. This indicates a need for close collaboration between PMPs and HDs to ensure that optimal care is provided to all TB patients and TB transmission is halted. Strategies to enhance collaboration between HDs and PMPs should be included in ACA implementation.0Comments 2Citations
- "If PMP patients are less likely to receive optimal management, then shifting toward PMP care without a concomitant increase in HD partnership with PMPs could be a threat to TB control. Our findings are consistent with evidence showing that patients in public health TB clinics are more likely to receive care recommended in TB control guidelines.25262728293031 Similar findings have been published in which clinicians and clinics with the most experience and volume provide care resulting in better outcomes to patients for other diagnoses such as HIV  and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.333435 "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collaborative TB/HIV management is essential to ensure that HIV positive TB patients are identified and treated appropriately, and to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in HIV positive patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV case finding among TB patients and Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) for HIV/TB patients in Addis Ababa. A descriptive cross-sectional, facility-based survey was conducted between June and July 2011. Data was collected by interviewing 834 TB patients from ten health facilities in Addis Ababa. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and analyze findings. The proportion of TB patients who (self reported) were offered for HIV test, tested for HIV and tested HIV positive during their anti-TB treatment follow-up were; 87.4%, 69.4% and 20.2%; respectively. Eighty seven HIV positive patients were identified, who knew their status before diagnosed for the current TB disease, bringing the cumulative prevalence of HIV among TB patients to 24.5%. Hence, the proportion of TB patients who knew their HIV status becomes 79.9%. The study revealed that 43.6% of those newly identified HIV positives during anti-TB treatment follow-up were actually treated with CPT. However, the commutative proportion of HIV positive TB patients who were ever treated with CPT was 54.4%; both those treated before the current TB disease and during anti-TB treatment follow-up. HIV case finding among TB patients and provision of CPT for TB/HIV co-infected patients needs boosting. Hence, routine offering of HIV test and provision of CPT for PLHIV should be strengthened in-line with the national guidelines.0Comments 4Citations
- "However, 87 TB patients self reported that they had already tested HIV positive before diagnosed for TB disease; hence, the total number of TB patients who knew their HIV status until the interview day becomes 666 (79.9%). This finding is slightly higher than two recent reports from USA, (California and New York City) which shows 66% and 70% of TB patients knew their HV status; respectively , . "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV co-infection in California, we cross-matched incident TB cases reported to state surveillance systems during 1993–2008 with cases in the state HIV/AIDS registry. Of 57,527 TB case-patients, 3,904 (7%) had known HIV infection. TB rates for persons with HIV declined from 437 to 126 cases/100,000 persons during 1993–2008; rates were highest for Hispanics (225/100,000) and Blacks (148/100,000). Patients co-infected with TB–HIV during 2001–2008 were significantly more likely than those infected before highly active antiretroviral therapy became available to be foreign born, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander and to have pyrazinamide-monoresistant TB. Death rates decreased after highly active antiretroviral therapy became available but remained twice that for TB patients without HIV infection and higher for women. In California, HIV-associated TB has concentrated among persons from low- and middle-income countries who often acquire HIV infection in the peri-immigration period.0Comments 11Citations