Laparoscopic management in stone disease

aDepartment of Urology, Shahid Labbafinejad Hospital, Urology and Nephrology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran bDepartment of Urology, Shahid Faghihi Hospital, Laparoscopy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Current opinion in urology (Impact Factor: 2.33). 03/2013; 23(2):169-74. DOI: 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32835d307f
Source: PubMed


While most renal and ureteral stones can be efficiently managed using endourologic techniques, the use of laparoscopy for the management of urolithiasis is increasing. The application of laparoscopy for stone removal will further reduce the need for open stone surgery.
Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy, pyelolithotomy, and anatrophic nephrolithotomy are highly successful techniques with regard to their one-session, high stone-free rates. These procedures could be considered as the preferred approaches when endourologic procedures are not available or have failed. Laparoscopic stone surgery (LSS) in patients with urinary tract anomalies offers a reliable minimally invasive procedure as an alternative to a complex endourologic technique.
Although laparoscopy still has a limited role in the urologist's armamentarium for the surgical management of urolithiasis, it can further reduce the need for open stone surgery in complex circumstances. LSS duplicates its open counterpart and offers a high one-session, stone-free rate in most patients with a lower morbidity and quicker convalescence. More comparative studies are needed to define the role and indications of LSS in relation to endourologic and open techniques, especially in complex circumstances.

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    ABSTRACT: To compare the transperitoneal approach and the retroperitoneal approach in the laparoscopic management of ureteral stones, at two different urologic centers during the learning curve period. We prospectively evaluated 35 consecutive laparoscopic ureterolithotomies performed by two different urologists during their learning curve period in laparoscopy. Each surgeon used a different approach: Transperitoneal (group A) and retroperitoneal (group B). Timing for patients' positioning, trocar placement, ureter isolation, stone extraction, and suturing were recorded to compare the transperitoneal with the retroperitoneal method. Intraoperative complications and perioperative morbidity were also reported. Eighteen procedures were performed using the transperitoneal method (group A) and 17 using the retroperitoneal method (group B). Significant differences between group A and B were observed in terms of time for access to the operating field (mean times 14 and 24 min, respectively, P = < 0.001); time for suturing the ureter (mean times 16 and 28 min, respectively, P = < 0.001); and total operative time (mean times 75 and 102 min, respectively, P = 0.002). No statistical differences were observed for any other parameters. Blood loss was minimal in all cases (mean losses 50 and 45 mL, respectively, P = 0.852); and hemotransfusion was not needed by either group. At the 12-month follow-up, no cases of ureteral stricture were recorded. We suggest that urologists in training for laparoscopy perform laparoscopic ureterolithotomy using a transperitoneal route. In expert hands, both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches are feasible, and the choice depends on personal preference.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
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    ABSTRACT: Although most ureteral and renal stones are managed using endourologic techniques or shockwave lithotripsy in daily clinical practice, stone surgery has not completely disappeared. The increasing experience with laparoscopy in urology poses the question of whether urolithiasis may be an indication for laparoscopy. A review of the literature was conducted to point out the indications and techniques of laparoscopic stone surgery. Indications for stone surgery are anatomic abnormalities, such as horseshoe kidneys, malrotated kidneys, or ectopic kidneys; symptomatic stones in diverticula of the renal pelvis; and extremely large stones, especially in children; or concomitant open or laparoscopic surgery. After failure of endourologic stone removal or shockwave lithotripsy, stone surgery may be a second option. In experienced hands, most procedures can be performed laparoscopically, either using a retroperitoneal or a transperitoneal approach. Accurate planning and imaging before surgery is mandatory. Intracorporeal ultrasonography or combined laparoscopic and endourologic techniques may be useful in difficult cases. Functional outcomes and complication rates of the laparoscopic approach are comparable to those of open surgery. The benefits of laparoscopy are lower postoperative morbidity, shorter hospitalization, shorter convalescence time, and better cosmetic results. Laparoscopic removal of renal and ureteral calculi plays a role in special cases of urolithiasis. In experienced hands, it can be performed safely and efficiently and may therefore replace open stone surgery in most indications.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
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    ABSTRACT: To summarize our experience and evaluate the learning curve of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy of the upper ureter. Between May 2004 and May 2007, 40 patients underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy of the upper ureter. We divided the first and last 20 patients into group I and group II. There was no statistical difference in stone size between groups. Operative time and complications were measured as a basis for the assessment of the learning curve. In group I, the complication rate was 15% (3/20), including two patients whose procedure was converted to open surgery because of intraoperative bleeding, and one patient who experienced urine leakage because of a displaced Double-J ureteral stent. In group II, no postoperative complications occurred, while the mean operative time was significantly shorter compared with the earlier operations (65 vs 120 min). Retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy is safe and effective for large or impacted stones of the upper ureter. It is associated with a short learning curve in the setting of an active laparoscopic practice for selected patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
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