among women with a cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells
of undetermined signiﬁcance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial
lesion. J Infect Dis 2007;195:1582–9.
10. Rodriguez AC, Schiffman M, Herrero R, Wacholder S, Hildesheim A,
Castle PE, et al. Rapid clearance of human papillomavirus and impli-
cations for clinical focus on persistent infections. J Natl Cancer Inst
11. Schiffman M, Wentzensen N, Wacholder S, Kinney W, Gage JC, Castle
PE. Human papillomavirus testing in the prevention of cervical cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst 2011;103:368– 83.
12. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999 - 2009 Incidence, WONDER
Online Database. United States Department of Health and Human
Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National
Cancer Institute 2011 [accessed January 7, 2013]. Available from:
13. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to Clinical Preventive
Services 2nd Edition; 9. Screening for Cervical Cancer. U S Depart-
ment of Health and Human Services 1995 [accessed January 7, 2013].
Available from: http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/guidecps/.
14. ACOG committee opinion. Recommendations on frequency of Pap
test screening. Number 152–March 1995. Committee on Gynecologic
Practice. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Int
J Gynaecol Obstet 1995;49:210–1.
15. Smith RA, Mettlin CJ, Davis KJ, Eyre H. American Cancer Society
guidelines for the early detection of canc er. CA Cancer J Clin 2000;50:
16. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for cervical cancer.
Recommendation and rationale. AHRQ Publication No. 03-515A.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2003.
17. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 131. Screening for cervical cancer. Obstet
18. Moyer VA. Screening for cervical cancer: U.S. Preventive Services
Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2012;156:
19. Saslow D, Solomon D, Lawson HW, Killackey M, Kulasingam SL, Cain
J, et al. American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy
and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology
screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical
cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2012;62:147–72.
20. Sawaya GF. Cervical-cancer screening–new guidelines and the bal-
ance between beneﬁts and harms. N Engl J Med 2009;361:2503–5.
21. Kulasingam SL, Havrilesky L, Ghebre R, Myers ER. Screening for
cervical cancer: a decision analysis for the U.S. preventive services
task force. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality;
22. Arbyn M, Kyrgiou M, Simoens C, Raifu AO, Koliopoulos G, Martin-
Hirsch P, et al. Perinatal mortality and other severe adverse pregnancy
outcomes associated with treatment of cervical intraepithelial neopla-
sia: meta-analysis. BMJ 2008;337:a1284.
23. Idestrom M, Milsom I, Andersson-Ellstrom A. Women's experience of
coping with a positive Pap smear: a register-based study of women
with two consecutive Pap smears reported as CIN 1. Acta Obstet
Gynecol Scand 2003;82:756–61.
24. Monsonego J, Cortes J, da Silva DP, Jorge AF, Klein P. Psychological
impact, support and information needs for women with an abnormal
Pap smear: comparative results of a questionnaire in three European
countries. BMC Womens Health 2011;11:18.
25. The "Top 5" lists in primary care: meeting the responsibility of profes-
sionalism. Arch Intern Med 2011;171:1385–90.
26. Bentley TG, Effros RM, Palar K, Keeler EB. Waste in the U.S. Health
care system: a conceptual framework. Milbank Q 2008;86:629–59.
27. Habbema D, De Kok IM, Brown ML. Cervical cancer screening in the
United States and the Netherlands: a tale of two countries. Milbank Q
28. Sirovich BE, Woloshin S, Schwartz LM. Screening for cervical cancer:
will women accept less? Am J Med 2005;118:151
29. Solomon D, Breen N, McNeel T. Cervical cancer screening rates in the
United States and the potential impact of implementation of screening
guidelines. CA Cancer J Clin 2007;57:105–11.
30. Vesco KK, Whitlock EP, Eder M, Burda BU, Senger CA, Lutz K. Risk
factors and other epidemiologic considerations for cervical cancer
screening: a narrative review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task
Force. Ann Intern Med 2011;155:698–705, W216.
31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cervical cancer screen-
ing among women aged 18–30 years - United States, 2000–2010.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2013;61:1038–42.
32. Hewitt M, Devesa S, Breen N. Papanicolaou test use among repro-
ductive-age women at high risk for cervical cancer: analyses of the
1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Am J Public Health
33. Ashok M, Berkowitz Z, Hawkins NA, Tangka F, Saraiya M. Recency of
pap testing and future testing plans among women aged 18–64:
analysis of the 2007 health information national trends survey.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2012;21:705–12.
34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cancer screening - United
States, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012;61:41– 5.
35. Coughlin SS, Leadbetter S, Richards T, Sabatino SA. Contextual
analysis of breast and cervical cancer screening and factors associ-
ated with health care access among United States women, 2002. Soc
Sci Med 2008;66:260–75.
36. Selvin E, Brett KM. Breast and cervical cancer screening: sociodemo-
graphic predictors among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Am
J Public Health 2003;93:618–23.
37. Gavin L, MacKay AP, Brown K, Harrier S, Ventura SJ, Kann L, et al.
Sexual and reproductive health of persons aged 10–24 years - United
States, 2002–2007. MMWR Surveill Summ 2009;58:1–58.
38. Henderson JT, Saraiya M, Martinez G, Harper CC, Sawaya GF.
Changes to cervical cancer prevention guidelines: effects on screening
among U.S. women ages 15–29. Prev Med 2013;56:25–9.
39. Saraiya M, Martinez G, Glaser K, Kulasingam S. Pap testing and sexual
activity among young women in the United States. Obstet Gynecol
40. Sirovich BE, Welch HG. The frequency of Pap smear screening in the
United States. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19:243–50.
41. Roland KB, Soman A, Benard VB, Saraiya M. Human papillomavirus
and Papanicolaou tests screening interval recommendations in the
United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;205:447–8.
42. Saraiya M, Berkowitz Z, Yabroff KR, Wideroff L, Kobrin S, Benard V.
Cervical cancer screening with both human papillomavirus and Papa-
nicolaou testing vs Papanicolaou testing alone: what screening inter-
vals are physicians recommending? Arch Intern Med 2010;170:
43. Hewitt M, Devesa SS, Breen N. Cervical cancer screening among U.S.
women: analyses of the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Prev
Worthington C, McLeish K, Fuller-Thomson E. Adherence over time to
cervical cancer screening guidelines: insights from the Canadian
National Population Health Survey. J Womens Health (Larchmt)
45. Henderson JT, Sawaya GF, Blum M, Stratton L, Harper CC. Pelvic
examinations and access to oral hormonal contraception. Obstet
46. Stewart FH, Harper CC, Ellertson CE, Grimes D A, Sawaya GF, Trussell
J. Clinical breast and pelvic examination requirements for hormonal
contraception: Current practice vs evidence. JAMA 2001;285:
47. Howard M, Agarwal G, Lytwyn A. Accuracy of self-reports of Pap and
mammography screening compared to medical record: a meta-anal-
ysis. Cancer Causes Control 2009;20:1–13.
48. Klungsoyr O, Nygard M, Skare G, Eriksen T, Nygard JF. Validity of self-
reported Pap smear history in Norwegian women. J Med Screen
49. Newell S, Girgis A, Sanson-Fisher R, Ireland M. Accuracy of patients'
recall of Pap and cholesterol screening. Am J Public Health
50. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National and state vac-
cination coverage among adolescents aged 13–17 years - United
States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012;61:671 – 7.
Roland et al.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(4) April 2013 Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention