ArticleLiterature Review

Meat Consumption, Diabetes, and Its Complications

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Abstract

Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding meat consumption and the risk of diabetes, both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and T2DM and their macro- and microvascular complications, is reviewed. For T2DM, we performed a new meta-analysis including publications up to October 2012. For T1DM, only a few studies have reported increased risks for meat consumers or for high intake of saturated fatty acids and nitrates and nitrites. For T2DM, CHD, and stroke, the evidence is strongest. Per 100 g of total meat, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2DM is 1.15 (95 % CI 1.07-1.24), for (unprocessed) red meat 1.13 (95 % CI 1.03-1.23), and for poultry 1.04 (95 % CI 0.99-1.33); per 50 g of processed meat, the pooled RR is 1.32 (95 % CI 1.19-1.48). Hence, the strongest association regarding T2DM is observed for processed (red) meat. A similar observation has been made for CHD. For stroke, however, a recent meta-analysis shows moderately elevated risks for meat consumers, for processed as well as for fresh meats. For the microvascular complications of diabetes, few prospective data were available, but suggestions for elevated risks can be derived from findings on hyperglycemia and hypertension. The results are discussed in the light of the typical nutrients and other compounds present in meat-that is, saturated and trans fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, protein and amino acids, heme-iron, sodium, nitrites and nitrosamines, and advanced glycation end products. In light of these findings, a diet moderate to low in red meat, unprocessed and lean, and prepared at moderate temperatures is probably the best choice from the public health point of view.

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... High sodium intake leads to rising blood pressure and the risk of hypertension [36]. Compared to unprocessed meats, processed meats contain more sodium [39]. Limiting sodium intake and increasing the consumption of fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products can reduce the risk of hypertension. ...
... Meat is a source of saturated fat and saturated fatty acids [39]. Epidemiological studies have found that a high consumption of saturated fat and saturated fatty acid foods, such as processed meats, decrease glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and increase fasting glucose [36], but the consumption of unprocessed meat is not associated with the risk of diabetes [39]. ...
... Meat is a source of saturated fat and saturated fatty acids [39]. Epidemiological studies have found that a high consumption of saturated fat and saturated fatty acid foods, such as processed meats, decrease glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and increase fasting glucose [36], but the consumption of unprocessed meat is not associated with the risk of diabetes [39]. In addition, some controlled experimental studies have also found that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, such as vegetables, can improve glucose tolerance and increase insulin sensitivity. ...
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Nowadays people are living longer, and there has been a substantial growth in the global elderly population in the past decades. While life expectancy is increasing, there are growing concerns towards the heavy financial and social burdens related to chronic diseases among the elderly. These have been critical health care issues, and healthy ageing is considered a top priority in public health. Diet and eating habits are crucial factors contributing to healthy ageing. These important aspects have attracted much attention in health research, particularly in consideration of the causes and management of chronic conditions which affect most elder adults in the world. Recently, a growing number of investigations have reported significant findings on the association of reduction in the risks of chronic non-communicable diseases with plant-based diets. Meanwhile, there have been worldwide initiatives and programmes implemented for reduction of salt intake. A green diet, which emphasises the consumption of a diet rich in plant foods with minimal portions of red or processed meat and reduced salt intake, is advocated with due consideration to the importance of sustainable environment and healthy ageing. This paper highlights a brief review of the recent advance of knowledge in diet and health, its effects on the elderly and the significance of a green diet on healthy ageing. Implications for a green diet and recommendations for future research are also discussed.
... We determined the effect size for estimating sample size based on previous literature on the relationship between red and processed meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and legumes with diabetes, which was in the range of 1.0-1.51, so the effect size of 1.25 was estimated as a middle of this range (7,8,(17)(18)(19)(20). ...
... Based on our results, poultry could increase T2D incidence; previous studies do not support a clear overall association of poultry intake with diabetes risk (18,19). In Iran, highheat cooking methods such as broiling, barbecuing/grilling, and roasting grilling are mostly used to prepare chicken and fish. ...
... In the western population, red and processed meat consumption has been related to higher risks of several chronic diseases, including diabetes. In contrast, each 100 g/day increase in red meat consumption was associated with a 13 and 19% higher risk of diabetes in two large meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies (7,19). In the Asian population, the meat consumption pattern is different (18). ...
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Aim This study aimed to evaluate the association of meats and their substitute food group intakes, including nuts, eggs, and legumes, with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods For this secondary analysis, we selected eligible adults ( n = 6,112) from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study participants with a median follow-up of 6.63 years. Expert nutritionists assessed dietary intakes using a valid and reliable semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were assessed at baseline and follow-up examinations. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the new onset of T2D concerning meats and their substitute food groups. Results We performed this study on 2,749 men and 3,363 women, aged 41.4 ± 14.2 and 39.1 ± 13.1 years, respectively. The number of participants with incident T2D was 549. After adjusting for confounders, legume [HR: 1, 0.74 (0.58–0.94), 0.69 (0.54–0.90), 0.65 (0.50–0.84), P -trend = 0.01)] was inversely associated with incident T2D. Fish intake [HR: 1, 1.0 (0.79–1.27), 1.17 (0.91–1.50), 1.14 (0.89–1.45), P -trend = 0.01)] was positively associated with incident T2D. In subjects who reported poultry consumption of 36.4–72.8 g/day, a positive association [HR: 1.33 (1.03–1.71)] between poultry intake and T2D risk was observed. Conclusion Our findings revealed that a diet rich in legumes significantly reduced the risk of T2D incidence, while a diet high in poultry increased the risk of T2D incidence, probably due to high-temperature cooking methods and environmental contaminants.
... A very large observational study conducted in the United States on females reported an inverse relationship between poultry and fish intakes and the risk of coronary artery disease, as well as no clear relationship between red meat consumption and the same risk [29]. Analysis of data collected 26 years after the start of the study also reveals a positive relationship between levels of consumption of different protein sources (poultry, fish, nuts), health status and survival [30]. In particular, replacing one daily serving of red meat with a daily serving of poultry reduced the risk of fluid infection by 13-19% if red meat was replaced with low-fat dairy products and by 24% if it was replaced with fish. ...
... Diabetes Type 2 There is extensive evidence showing how lifestyle interventions can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by modifying several risk factors, including excessive fat intake, especially saturated fat [31] Studies dating back to the first half of the twentieth century have highlighted that diabetes-related deaths are increasing in Western society, which is also characterized by high meat consumption [32]. Recent studies have confirmed a link between hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance and the intake of saturated fats of animal origin [30,33]. ...
... Body mass (BMI) over 30 [38]. Despite this result, specific data related to poultry consumption confirmed the absence of a statistically significant relationship between the increased weekly intake (100 g rations) of chicken and turkey and the development of the disease [30]. ...
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Abstract. The relationship between meat consumption and health is complex and should be analyzed in detail, paying particular attention to the relevant differences that characterize the effects of different types of meat, and in several studies on poultry meat, including turkey, which is characterized by its highly digestible proteins (with low levels of collagen), and of good nutritional quality as well as unsaturated fats (found mainly in the skin and easily removed) and vitamins of group B (mainly thiamine, vitamin B6, and pantothenic acid), Minerals (such as iron, zinc, and copper) make its meat a valuable food. Through this study, it was found that there is a relationship between the consumption of turkey meat within a balanced diet and good health. Consuming it as part of a diet rich in vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of weight gain, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. White meat (and poultry in particular) is considered moderately protective or neutral against cancer risk. The importance of poultry meat to humans has also been recognized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which considers this widely available and relatively inexpensive food to be particularly beneficial in developing countries, as it can help fill in the deficiency of essential nutrients. Consumption of Turkey also contributes to the overall quality of the diet at specific ages and conditions (before conception, during pregnancy until the end of breastfeeding, during growth, and into old age) and is suitable for those with an increased need for calories and protein compared to the general population. And it was found that turkey meat contains some vital amines, which are an indicator of quality, as well as having antioxidant and antibacterial activity, and it has been proven that eating this type of meat reduces the incidence of COVID-19 disease.
... Previous studies have reported that the higher the consumption of meat, the higher the risk of DM [42][43][44]. Findings from the current study concur with these reports, with low meat consumption associated with a lower reporting rate of IGT or DM diagnosis, but women identified as consuming meat daily or multiple times per day demonstrated a trend towards higher rates of IGT and DM. Epidemiological studies carried out in diverse populations indicate that the consumption of meat including red meat is related to an increased risk of developing T2D [42][43][44][45][46]. Conversely, pooled results from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 RCTs reported no significant impact of red meat intake on various glycaemic indices (i.e., insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, glycated haemoglobin, pancreatic beta-cell function or glucagon-like peptide-1) [47]. ...
... Findings from the current study concur with these reports, with low meat consumption associated with a lower reporting rate of IGT or DM diagnosis, but women identified as consuming meat daily or multiple times per day demonstrated a trend towards higher rates of IGT and DM. Epidemiological studies carried out in diverse populations indicate that the consumption of meat including red meat is related to an increased risk of developing T2D [42][43][44][45][46]. Conversely, pooled results from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 RCTs reported no significant impact of red meat intake on various glycaemic indices (i.e., insulin sensitivity, insulin resistance, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, glycated haemoglobin, pancreatic beta-cell function or glucagon-like peptide-1) [47]. ...
... The exact mechanistic pathways for the relationship between meat consumption and DM are still unknown but several components of red meat have been proposed. Findings from cross-sectional studies indicate an association between high saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and decreased insulin sensitivity [44][45][46]. Decreased insulin sensitivity can be directly linked to IGT which the World Health Organization (WHO) identifies as a major risk factor for developing T2D [48]. It has also been argued that increased consumption of SFA may contribute to higher body weight and increased BMI, also significant risk factors for DM [31,44,47,48]. ...
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This study aimed to compare the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) among Australian women following plant-based diets (PBD) compared to regular meat eaters. A cross sectional analysis of the mid-aged cohort (1946–1951) of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted on completers of Survey 7 in 2013 with complete FFQ data available (n = 9102). Dietary patterns were categorized as PBD (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian) and regular meat eaters. Meat eaters were further categorized into high and low consumption and outcomes included self-reported prevalence of IGT and DM. Participants were identified as regular meat eaters (n = 8937) and PBD (n = 175). Prevalence of IGT was lower in PBD (0–1.2%) compared to regular meat eaters (9.1%). Consolidation of PBD to a single group (vegetarians) indicated a lower prevalence of DM in vegetarians compared to regular meat eaters (3.9% vs. 9.1%). Women consuming meat daily/multiple times per day had significantly higher odds of IGT (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.1 to 2.1, p = 0.02). Individuals consuming processed meat daily/multiple times per day had significantly higher odds of DM compared to those consuming less than daily (Odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 2.3, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for covariates, statistical significance was lost largely due to the addition of BMI to the model. Prevalence of IGT and DM were lower in women following PBD and higher in high consumers of meat and processed meat. The relationship between meat consumption and IGT/diabetes status appears to be mediated, at least in part, by an increase in body mass index (BMI). Future studies are warranted to investigate the mechanisms and other lifestyle factors underpinning the association between high meat consumption and increased risk of IGT and DM.
... Table 1 describes the characteristics of the meta-analyses included in the study. All together 34 meta-analyses met the criteria for inclusion in the review: 3 for total meat [20][21][22], 6 for processed meat [20][21][22][23][24][25], 4 for red meat [20][21][22]24], 2 for white meat [22,25], 5 for total fish [22,[24][25][26][27], 3 for total dairy [24,28,29], 3 for full-fat dairy [28,30,31], 3 for low-fat dairy [29][30][31], 2 for milk [30,31], 1 for cheese [25], 1 for yogurt [29], and 1 for eggs [32]. The included meta-analyses comprised a number of incident diabetes cases equal to 24,465 for total meat, Table 1 Summary of the results of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on the relationship between the consumption of food groups of animal origin and diabetes incidence. ...
... Table 1 describes the characteristics of the meta-analyses included in the study. All together 34 meta-analyses met the criteria for inclusion in the review: 3 for total meat [20][21][22], 6 for processed meat [20][21][22][23][24][25], 4 for red meat [20][21][22]24], 2 for white meat [22,25], 5 for total fish [22,[24][25][26][27], 3 for total dairy [24,28,29], 3 for full-fat dairy [28,30,31], 3 for low-fat dairy [29][30][31], 2 for milk [30,31], 1 for cheese [25], 1 for yogurt [29], and 1 for eggs [32]. The included meta-analyses comprised a number of incident diabetes cases equal to 24,465 for total meat, Table 1 Summary of the results of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on the relationship between the consumption of food groups of animal origin and diabetes incidence. ...
... Table 1 describes the characteristics of the meta-analyses included in the study. All together 34 meta-analyses met the criteria for inclusion in the review: 3 for total meat [20][21][22], 6 for processed meat [20][21][22][23][24][25], 4 for red meat [20][21][22]24], 2 for white meat [22,25], 5 for total fish [22,[24][25][26][27], 3 for total dairy [24,28,29], 3 for full-fat dairy [28,30,31], 3 for low-fat dairy [29][30][31], 2 for milk [30,31], 1 for cheese [25], 1 for yogurt [29], and 1 for eggs [32]. The included meta-analyses comprised a number of incident diabetes cases equal to 24,465 for total meat, Table 1 Summary of the results of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies on the relationship between the consumption of food groups of animal origin and diabetes incidence. ...
Article
We performed an umbrella review of dose-response meta-analyses of prospective studies reporting the incidence of type 2 diabetes associated with the consumption of animal-based foods. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase according to PRISMA. Thirteen meta-analyses are included in the study providing 175 summary risk ratio estimates. The consumption of 100g/day of total or red meat, or 50g/day of processed meat, were associated with an increased risk; RR and 95% CI were respectively 1.20, 1.13-1.27; 1.22, 1.14-1.30 and 1.30, 1.22-1.39. White meat (50g/day) was associated with an increased risk, but of lesser magnitude (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08). A risk reduction was reported for 200g/day of total dairy (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) or low-fat dairy (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-1.00) or milk (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.98), or 100g/day of yogurt (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98). No association with diabetes risk was reported for fish or eggs. In conclusions animal-based foods have a different association with diabetes risk. To reduce diabetes risk the consumption of red and processed meat should be restricted; a moderate consumption of dairy foods, milk and yogurt, can be encouraged; moderate amounts of fish and eggs are allowed.
... [38] Results of the present study observed that the consumption of red meat, chicken, and high fat intake greater than once times/ week was significantly associated with prediabetes. Feskens et al. [39] and Pan et al. [40] reported a correlation between fat intake and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus; these findings were similar to those of the present study. On the contrary, the study done by Villegas et al. [41] showed no association between the consumption of red meat and the risk of diabetes. ...
... Excess fat is released into the bloodstream and sequestered in the liver and skeletal muscles increasing lipotoxicity that accelerates the progression of impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and prediabetes. [39][40] In this study, a significant inverse correlation was found with the consumption of fruit and vegetable and prediabetes, similar to the study done by Carter et al., [42] Cooper et al., [43] Hamer et al., [44] and Kacker et al. [45] Fruits and vegetables are a good source of fibers, flavonoids, antioxidant compounds (vitamins C and E, carotenoid), potassium, and folate, which explained the protective effect on the progression of diabetes. [41][42][43] Results of the present study reported that after dietary modification, a significant decrease in BMI, SBP, and DBP, and metabolic parameters such as blood glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, cholesterol, LF/HF ratio, and CIMT. ...
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Objectives: Dietary factors are important in the prevention and treatment of prediabetes and diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, associated risk factors, dietary modification, and calories consumption calculated by the food frequency questionnaire and correlate them with the metabolic parameters, namely blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile, and cardiovascular parameters as heart rate variability and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) among the prediabetics. Methods: An experimental interventional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology and Medicine at the RUHS College of Medical Sciences and Associated Group of Hospitals. The assessments were done at baseline and after 6 months of post-dietary modification. The total duration of the study was 6 months. A total of 250 prediabetic subjects were enrolled. Study Group A (n = 125) was engaged in dietary modification, whereas Group B (n = 125) was considered as control. The dietary assessment was done by a food frequency questionnaire. Result: After dietary modification, a decrease in the body mass index (1.3%), systolic blood pressure (3.1%), diastolic blood pressure (3.1%), blood glucose (2.8%), triglyceride (2.8%), high density lipoprotein (0.9%), HbA1c (2%), cholesterol (1.4%), and low-frequency/high-frequency ratios (1%), carotid intima media thickness (1.6%), as compared to control, was noticed after 6 months of dietary modification. Conclusion: This study suggested that prediabetics required health education including nutritional education as diet modification can play an important role to encourage diabetes-onset prevention and its related complications. The health-care providers and workers should increase the awareness about the importance of diet and encourage the prediabetics toward a healthy lifestyle, which may help in the quality of life and appropriate self-care, primary prevention of diabetes and its complications.
... haemorrhagic stroke [11]). Moreover, the evidence on poultry and CVD is particularly limited [12], while the evidence on poultry and diabetes is unclear [13,14]. This lack of clear and available evidence for major non-cancerous health outcomes might relate to outcome selection bias (i.e. ...
... Similar to our findings, meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies have consistently reported a positive association between unprocessed red and processed meat consumption and risk of diabetes [7,51,52]. We also found a positive association between poultry meat consumption and risk of diabetes, which has been reported in some [14] but not all prospective studies [13,53]. Obesity is the major risk factor for diabetes, and the association for unprocessed and processed meat intake (combined) and diabetes in the present study was substantially attenuated (by~60%) after adjusting for BMI, suggesting that the remaining association with meat may be entirely due to higher adiposity. ...
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Background There is limited prospective evidence on the association between meat consumption and many common, non-cancerous health outcomes. We examined associations of meat intake with risk of 25 common conditions (other than cancer). Methods We used data from 474,985 middle-aged adults recruited into the UK Biobank study between 2006 and 2010 and followed up until 2017 (mean follow-up 8.0 years) with available information on meat intake at baseline (collected via touchscreen questionnaire), and linked hospital admissions and mortality data. For a large sub-sample (~ 69,000), dietary intakes were re-measured three or more times using an online, 24-h recall questionnaire. Results On average, participants who reported consuming meat regularly (three or more times per week) had more adverse health behaviours and characteristics than participants who consumed meat less regularly, and most of the positive associations observed for meat consumption and health risks were substantially attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). In multi-variable adjusted (including BMI) Cox regression models corrected for multiple testing, higher consumption of unprocessed red and processed meat combined was associated with higher risks of ischaemic heart disease (hazard ratio (HRs) per 70 g/day higher intake 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.07–1.23), pneumonia (1.31, 1.18–1.44), diverticular disease (1.19, 1.11–1.28), colon polyps (1.10, 1.06–1.15), and diabetes (1.30, 1.20–1.42); results were similar for unprocessed red meat and processed meat intakes separately. Higher consumption of unprocessed red meat alone was associated with a lower risk of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA: HR per 50 g/day higher intake 0.80, 95% CIs 0.72–0.90). Higher poultry meat intake was associated with higher risks of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (HR per 30 g/day higher intake 1.17, 95% CIs 1.09–1.26), gastritis and duodenitis (1.12, 1.05–1.18), diverticular disease (1.10, 1.04–1.17), gallbladder disease (1.11, 1.04–1.19), and diabetes (1.14, 1.07–1.21), and a lower IDA risk (0.83, 0.76–0.90). Conclusions Higher unprocessed red meat, processed meat, and poultry meat consumption was associated with higher risks of several common conditions; higher BMI accounted for a substantial proportion of these increased risks suggesting that residual confounding or mediation by adiposity might account for some of these remaining associations. Higher unprocessed red meat and poultry meat consumption was associated with lower IDA risk.
... Furthermore, tobacco, harmful alcohol use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are the four behavioral risk or lifestyle factors that drive CVD epidemic 3,5,6 . An unhealthy diet is a modifiable risk factor for CVD, as well as DM, overweight, and obesity, are essential risk factors 7 . ...
... Plant-based intake pattern does not exclude all animal products; instead, the primary source of protein relies on plant foods like fruit and vegetables, plant proteins, oils, nuts and seeds, and wholegrain carbohydrates 16,17 . Plant-based diets can improve blood lipid profiles, blood pressure, and weight management 16,18 , which reduces the risk of developing CVD and diabetes 7,11 . However, on the intake outcomes comparison, studies do not specify the type of diet or food given to subjects, whether animal-based or plant-based protein. ...
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An unhealthy diet is a risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Data on the average protein supply and meat products between 1990-2017 consumed by the Ecuadorian population are collected. The HJ-Biplot method is used to identify clusters with MultBiplot software to obtain a two-dimensional representation of the data in the plane along with the quality of representation of the variables and the total variance explained. This work aims to determine how much the source of protein, animal or vegetal, influences the amount of death caused by non-communicable diseases such as Cardiovascular diseases and Diabetes Mellitus. Finally, a Hierarchical Cluster Analysis is carried out with the food supply related to those diseases. It can be concluded that NCD mortality is primarily explained by the average protein supply of animal and meat products in Ecuador. Keywords: Ecuador, Non-Communicable Diseases, Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, HJ-Biplot, food, proteins.]
... The dynamics of red and processed meat trade across countries may lead to geographical variations of changes in diet-related NCD risks. In particular, increasing red and processed meat consumption via trade can contribute to a substantial rise in the burden of dietrelated NCDs, 1 14 17 including colorectal cancer, 18 diabetes mellitus 19 and coronary heart disease. 20 Therefore, identifying the different impacts of red and processed meat trade on diet-related NCDs across countries becomes essential to global pursuits of sustainable diets. ...
... Based on previous findings from dose-response metaanalyses and prospective cohort studies, we included three chronic diet-related NCDs regarding red and processed meat consumption: colorectal cancer, diabetes mellitus type 2 and ischaemic heart disease. 24 25 Red and processed meat consumption is one of the leading risk factors for increased occurrences of colorectal cancer, 18 26 diabetes mellitus type 2 19 and coronary heart disease. 20 27 28 The above NCDs are closely linked to higher meat consumption via trade and thus were relevant to this study. ...
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Introduction Rapid increases in the trade of global red and processed meat impede international efforts toward sustainable diets by increasing meat consumption. However, little research has examined cross-country variations in diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) because of meat trade. We aimed to examine the impact of red and processed meat trade on diet-related NCDs and to identify which countries are particularly vulnerable to diet-related NCDs due to red and processed meat trade. Methods By selecting 14 red meat and six processed meat items, we investigated bilateral meat trade flows across 154 countries. Then, we integrated health data and information on red and processed meat trade to quantify the country-specific burden of diet-related NCDs attributable to the meat trade using a comparative risk assessment framework. Results Results show that global increases in red and processed meat trade contributed to the abrupt increase of diet-related NCDs, and the attributable burden of diet-related NCDs had large geographical variations among countries. We also identified responsible exporting countries that increase diet-related NCD risks in importing countries. Over the period from 1993 to 2018, island countries in the Caribbean and Oceania were particularly vulnerable to diet-related NCD incidents and mortality due to large meat imports. In addition, countries in Northern and Eastern Europe have exceedingly increased attributable death and disability-adjusted life year rates via meat imports. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both exporters and importers must urgently undertake cross-sectoral actions to reduce the meat trade’s health impacts. To prevent unintended health consequences due to red and processed meat trade, future interventions need to integrate health policies with agricultural and trade policies by cooperating with both responsible exporting and importing countries.
... The link between red and processed meats and risk of diabetes has been evaluated by multiple meta-analyses and estimated to be between 1.13 to 1.19 and 1.19 to 1.51 per 100 g per day for red meat and processed meats respectively [191][192][193][194][195][196]. Based on data from animal studies and published clinical trials, red and processed meats contain several detrimental compounds that potentially contribute to their negative effects on insulin resistance and diabetes risk, namely BCAA, advanced glycation end products (AGE), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and nitrites, which have all been closely correlated with altered glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance [195]. ...
... The link between red and processed meats and risk of diabetes has been evaluated by multiple meta-analyses and estimated to be between 1.13 to 1.19 and 1.19 to 1.51 per 100 g per day for red meat and processed meats respectively [191][192][193][194][195][196]. Based on data from animal studies and published clinical trials, red and processed meats contain several detrimental compounds that potentially contribute to their negative effects on insulin resistance and diabetes risk, namely BCAA, advanced glycation end products (AGE), trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), and nitrites, which have all been closely correlated with altered glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance [195]. However, more recent metaanalyses have revealed little or no effect of red and processed meat consumption on risk of diabetes, and a very small reduction in T2DM risk with dietary patterns that are lower in red and processed meat consumption [196][197][198]. ...
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The alarmingly rising trend of type 2 diabetes constitutes a major global public health challenge particularly in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) region where the prevalence is among the highest in the world with a projection to increase by 96% by 2045. The economic boom in the MENA region over the past decades has brought exceptionally rapid shifts in eating habits characterized by divergence from the traditional Mediterranean diet towards a more westernized unhealthy dietary pattern, thought to be leading to the dramatic rises in obesity and non-communicable diseases. Research efforts have brought a greater understanding of the different pathways through which diet and obesity may affect diabetes clinical outcomes, emphasizing the crucial role of dietary interventions and weight loss in the prevention and management of diabetes. The purpose of this review is to explore the mechanistic pathways linking obesity with diabetes and to summarize the most recent evidence on the association of the intake of different macronutrients and food groups with the risk of type 2 diabetes. We also summarize the most recent evidence on the effectiveness of different macronutrient manipulations in the prevention and management of diabetes while highlighting the possible underlying mechanisms of action and latest evidence-based recommendations. We finally discuss the need to adequately integrate dietetic services in diabetes care specific to the MENA region and conclude with recommendations to improve dietetic care for diabetes in the region.
... Over the past five decades, global meat consumption has increased in both developing and developed countries (Bruinsma 2003). Excessive consumption of meat, particularly red and processed meat, is associated with elevated risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes (Pan et al. 2011;Feskens et al. 2013), hypertension (Zhang and Zhang 2018), and some types of cancer (Cross et al. 2007) but the evidence on its links with cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been controversial. Epidemiological studies have suggested that both red and processed meat intakes are linked with the rising incidence of CVD (Micha et al. 2010;Pan et al. 2012) and its mortality (Sinha et al. 2009;Pan et al. 2012;Zhong et al. 2020). ...
Article
To investigate the cardiovascular risks associated with red and/or processed meat intake in a large population-based cohort study in Iran. A total of 5432 participants from the Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) were enrolled. Diet was assessed using a validated, 48-item food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the CVD risk associated with red and processed meat intake. Median follow-up was 11.2 years. Compared to the first tertile, the highest tertile of red meat intake, either alone or in combination with processed meat was associated with a 50% reduced risk of stroke (95% CI: 0.31–0.77; 95% CI: 0.33–0.82, respectively), but increased risk of CVD mortality with corresponding HRs of 1.58 (95% CI: 1.06–2.35) and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.02–2.08), respectively. Red meat and red plus processed meat intake were inversely associated with stroke risk, but positively linked with CVD mortality.
... However, not only are the adverse health effects caused by drug consumption not fully taken into account when making such consumption decisions, it is also uncontroversial that the current level of meat consumption in the global North is also causing negative health effects (Mathijs, 2015). In Feskens et al. (2013), for example, reported that meat consumption elevates the risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Consumption of red and processed meat also increases the risk of colon cancer (Chao et al., 2005) and breast cancer (Taylor et al., 2007). ...
... At least 25 studies have been published assessing the relationship between meat intake and T2D risk, with the majority showing a positive association between red meat and/or processed meat intakes. A 2013 meta-analysis found an association between higher intakes of total meat, unprocessed red meat, and processed meat and T2D risk [64]. There is also consistent evidence for an association between total dietary heme iron intake and heme iron intake from red meat and risk of T2D, and high serum ferritin levels are associated with insulin resistance and T2D risk [65]. ...
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Plant-based diets, defined here as including both vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, are growing in popularity throughout the Western world for various reasons, including concerns for human health and the health of the planet. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than meat-based diets and have a reduced environmental impact, including producing lower levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Dietary guidelines are normally formulated to enhance the health of society, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and prevent nutritional deficiencies. We reviewed the scientific data on plant-based diets to summarize their preventative and therapeutic role in cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and osteoporosis. Consuming plant-based diets is safe and effective for all stages of the life cycle, from pregnancy and lactation, to childhood, to old age. Plant-based diets, which are high in fiber and polyphenolics, are also associated with a diverse gut microbiota, producing metabolites that have anti-inflammatory functions that may help manage disease processes. Concerns about the adequate intake of a number of nutrients, including vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and omega-3 fats, are discussed. The use of fortified foods and/or supplements as well as appropriate food choices are outlined for each nutrient. Finally, guidelines are suggested for health professionals working with clients consuming plant-based diets.
... Consumers' interest to make dietary choices that promote their personal well-being as well as societal-level considerations regarding animal welfare, ethics, or environmental impact of food choices, may factor into current trends and should be considered for risk-benefit communication. Recent epidemiological studies have linked red meat consumption, especially of its processed products (16), to the development of chronic diseases such as diabetes type 2 (17,18), colorectal cancer (19), and cardiovascular diseases (20). However, red meat also provides an array of macroand micronutrients such as high-quality protein (21), iron, and vitamin B12 to the human diet (22,23). ...
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Risk-benefit Assessment (RBA) is an emerging methodology in the area of Food and Nutrition that offers a simultaneous evaluation of both risks and benefits linked to dietary choices. Communication of such research to consumers may present a challenge due to the dual nature of RBA. We present a case study of a communication strategy developed for the NovRBA-project. The NovRBA-project (Novel foods as red meat replacers—an insight using Risk Benefit Assessment methods) performed a risk-benefit assessment to evaluate the overall health impact of substituting red meat (beef) by a novel food (house cricket), considering the microbial, toxicological and nutritional characteristics of the respective dietary choices. A literature review of risk perceptions and acceptance of beef and insects as food formed the basis of the communication strategy for the study's results, drawing on environmental and emotional as well as health-related motivations to consume or avoid either food and considering the sociodemographic characteristics of likely consumers. Challenges and future directions for consumer protection organizations communicating findings of risk-benefit analyses on food safety are discussed.
... According to the American Institute for Cancer Research, eating more than 550 g of red meat per week may increase cancer risk. However, there is insufficient evidence to link white meat (poultry, domestic rabbit) to chronic diseases [19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
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Recently, attention has been drawn to the fact that increasing the consumption of edible insects may positively impact the state of the natural environment and reduce the problem of malnutrition in large parts of society. Indeed, insects are seen as an alternative to traditional meat products, primarily meat. This article aimed to compare the nutritional value of edible insects and meat. Based on tables of composition and nutritional value and on the licensed computer program Diet 6D, data on the nutritional value of 10 commonly consumed meat types were compiled. Based on a literature review, data on the nutritional value of seven commercially available edible insect species were collected and collated. There was a comparison of 100 g of edible insects with 100 g of meat (fresh weight). In addition, the atherogenic index thrombogenic index, the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio, and the nutritional quality index were calculated. It was found that both meat and insects are rich in nutrients, including those considered essential for the proper development and functioning of the human body. At the same time, it has been shown that the content of individual nutrients in both insects and meat varies significantly.
... Urinary 293 metabolites of pepper were however strongly associated with recent sausage intake prior to urine 294 collection. The lack of association of pepper alkaloid metabolites in urine with habitual intake of 295 processed meat might be explained by variations in phase I and II metabolism between individuals 296 [44]. 297 ...
Thesis
The intake of red and processed meat has been associated with several adverse health outcomes such as colorectal cancer and type II diabetes. Processed meat is a very heterogeneous food group and the estimation of its intake in epidemiological studies is often limited by the insufficient details of dietary questionnaires or recall bias of study participants. Biomarkers of intake could provide a valuable tool to estimate intake of different processed meat products and help disentangle the mechanisms linking processed meat intake and disease, but no such biomarkers have been proposed yet. Untargeted metabolomics was applied in this thesis to identify biomarkers of processed meat intake in an agnostic way. In the first part of this thesis, untargeted metabolomics analyses of 10 in vitro digested meat products revealed that different processed meat products showed chemical profiles and metabolites specific for smoking, fermentation and the use of pepper as ingredient. The second part aimed at the identification of biomarkers for processed meat intake in a randomized cross-over dietary intervention study and in a cross-sectional study. In the first study, 12 volunteers consumed 3 different processed meat products (salami, bacon, hot dogs) and control foods (non-processed pork, tofu) during 3 days. Syringol metabolite levels were elevated in plasma and urine after intake of smoked meat (bacon, hot dogs) and levels of pepper-derived metabolites were elevated in urine and plasma after salami intake, when compared to non-processed meat intake. Biomarkers were then tested for replication in 24-hr urine (n = 474) and serum samples (n = 397) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study by assessing their association with processed meat intake based on food frequency questionnaire data. Urinary syringol metabolites and urinary and plasma pepper-derived metabolites were discriminating smoked meat consumers and sausage consumers, respectively, from non-consumers. The third part aimed at the investigation of the impact of meat intake on human metabolism. A large panel of acylcarnitines, metabolites involved in energy and fatty acid metabolism, were assessed for their association with meat intake. First, acylcarnitines that showed different levels in blood and urine after intake of pork and tofu in the dietary intervention study were identified. These were then tested for an association with red and processed meat intake in the EPIC cross-sectional study. Several short and medium chain acylcarnitines were elevated in urine samples after pork intake compared to tofu intake in the intervention study and associated with red and processed meat intake in the EPIC cross-sectional study. Stearoylcarnitine (C18:0) in blood was consistently associated with meat intake in the intervention and cross-sectional study. The new biomarkers identified in this thesis may contribute to improve assessment of intake of processed meat in future epidemiological studies on cancer and other health outcomes. Increased levels of acylcarnitines associated with meat intake show that meat intake influences this important metabolic pathway and this may provide new clues to explain effects of meat intake on disease risk. Future research should investigate the generalizability of these results in other population settings (e.g. other eating cultures in Asia)
... On the other hand, white meat intake has been associated with lower risk of mortality because of liver disease (28). These findings may reflect the lower level of components which contribute to insulin resistance and oxidative stress (42), such as saturated fat and heme iron, in white meat compared with red meat (43). Further studies in other populations are needed to clarify the effect of poultry intake on the liver. ...
Article
Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as the most common liver disease in the world, can range from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. We evaluated the association between meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). Methods: The GCS enrolled 50,045 participants, aged 40-75 years in Iran. Dietary information was collected using a 116-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline (2004-2008). A random sample of 1,612 cohort members participated in a liver-focused study in 2011. NAFLD was ascertained through ultrasound. Total red meat consumption and total white meat consumption were categorized into quartiles based on the GCS population, with the first quartile as the referent group. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The median intake of total red meat was 17 and total white meat was 53 g/d. During follow-up, 505 individuals (37.7%) were diagnosed with NAFLD, and 124 of them (9.2%) had elevated alanine transaminase. High total red meat consumption (ORQ4 vs Q1 = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.06-2.38, P trend = 0.03) and organ meat consumption (ORQ4 vs Q1 = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.19-2.44, P trend = 0.003) were associated with NAFLD. Total white meat, chicken, or fish consumption did not show significant associations with NAFLD. Discussion: In this population with low consumption of red meat, individuals in the highest group of red meat intake were at increased odds of NAFLD. Furthermore, this is the first study to show an association between organ meat consumption and NAFLD (see Visual Abstract, http://links.lww.com/AJG/B944).
... RM provides all types of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, micronutrients like iron and zinc, and various vitamins. However, RM consumption is also positively associated with multiple health outcomes, including cardiovascular diseases [3], cancers [4,5], diabetes [3,6], and all-cause mortality [7][8][9]. Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly evolving to integrate nutrition with complex metabolomics data [10]. ...
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Red meat (RM) consumption is correlated with multiple health outcomes. This study aims to identify potential biomarkers of RM consumption in the Chinese population and evaluate their predictive ability. We selected 500 adults who participated in the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey and examined their overall metabolome differences by RM consumption by using elastic-net regression, then evaluate the predictivity of a combination of filtered metabolites; 1108 metabolites were detected. In the long-term RM consumption analysis 12,13-DiHOME, androstenediol (3α, 17α) monosulfate 2, and gamma-Glutamyl-2-aminobutyrate were positively associated, 2-naphthol sulfate and S-methylcysteine were negatively associated with long-term high RM consumption, the combination of metabolites prediction model evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 70.4% (95% CI: 59.9–80.9%). In the short-term RM consumption analysis, asparagine, 4-hydroxyproline, and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate were positively associated, behenoyl sphingomyelin (d18:1/22:0) was negatively associated with short-term high RM consumption. Combination prediction model AUC was 75.6% (95% CI: 65.5–85.6%). We identified 10 and 11 serum metabolites that differed according to LT and ST RM consumption which mainly involved branch-chained amino acids, arginine and proline, urea cycle and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. These metabolites may become a mediator of some chronic diseases among high RM consumers and provide new evidence for RM biomarkers.
... Demand for plant-based products is growing globally, led by increasing public knowledge of the extent to which our food choices affect human health. Researchers continue to unveil the strong links that exist between excessive meat consumption and the pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as obesity [1,2], type-2-diabetes [3][4][5], cardiovascular disease [6] and some forms of cancer [7,8]. Conversely, there is mounting evidence that diets characterised by a higher consumption of plant-based foods promote health and reduce the risk of a number of chronic conditions [9,10], and that high fibre and polyphenol content of plant-based diets promotes the changes in gut microbiota composition that mediate these positive health outcomes [11][12][13][14][15]. ...
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Eating less meat is increasingly seen as a healthier, more ethical option. This is leading to growing numbers of flexitarian consumers looking for plant-based meat alternatives (PBMAs) to replace at least some of the animal meat they consume. Popular PBMA products amongst flexitari-ans, including plant-based mince, burgers, sausages and meatballs, are often perceived as low-quality , ultra-processed foods. However, we argue that the mere industrial processing of ingredients of plant origin does not make a PBMA product ultra-processed by default. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the changes to the gut microbiota of a group of 20 participants who replaced several meat-containing meals per week with meals cooked with PBMA products and compared these changes to those experienced by a size-matched control. Stool samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing. The resulting raw data was analysed in a composi-tionality-aware manner, using a range of innovative bioinformatic methods. Noteworthy changes included an increase in butyrate metabolising potential-chiefly in the 4-aminobutyrate/succinate and glutarate pathways-and in the joint abundance of butyrate-producing taxa in the intervention group compared to control. We also observed a decrease in the Tenericutes phylum in the intervention group and an increase in the control group. Based on our findings, we concluded that the occasional replacement of animal meat with PBMA products seen in flexitarian dietary patterns can promote positive changes in the gut microbiome of consumers.
... Globally the nutrition transition has seen diets shift away from being high in whole grains to containing more saturated fats, added sugar, refined carbohydrates, and livestock-derived foods (Popkin, 2006). This shift has been linked to a higher prevalence of noncommunicable diseases, for example the consumption of processed meat and red meat has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases Chen et al., 2013;Yang et al., 2016), type 2 diabetes (Feskens et al., 2013), and colorectal cancer (Bouvard et al., 2015). Livestock-derived foods can make important contributions to human diets, especially for pastoralists (Galvin, 1992;Sellen, 1996). ...
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In recent decades there has been a sustained and substantial shift in human diets across the globe towards including more livestock-derived foods. Continuing debates scrutinize how these dietary shifts affect human health, the natural environment, and livelihoods. However, amidst these debates there remain unanswered questions about how demand for livestock-derived foods may evolve over the upcoming decades for a range of scenarios for key drivers of change including human population, income, and consumer preferences. Future trends in human population and income in our scenarios were sourced from three of the shared socioeconomic pathways. We used scenario-based modeling to show that average protein demand for red meat (beef, sheep, goats, and pork), poultry, dairy milk, and eggs across the globe would increase by 14% per person and 38% in total between the year 2020 and the year 2050 if trends in income and population continue along a mid-range trajectory. The fastest per person rates of increase were 49% in South Asia and 55% in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that per person demand for red meat in high-income countries would decline by 2.8% if income elasticities of demand (a partial proxy for consumer preferences, based on the responsiveness of demand to income changes) in high-income countries decline by 100% by 2050 under a mid-range trajectory for per person income growth, compared to their current trajectory. Prices are an important driver of demand, and our results demonstrate that the result of a decline in red meat demand in high-income countries is strongly related to rising red meat prices, as projected by our scenario-based modeling. If the decline in the income elasticity of demand occurred in all countries rather than only in high-income countries, then per person red meat demand in high-income countries would actually increase in 2050 by 8.9% because the income elasticity-driven decline in global demand reduces prices, and the effect of lower prices outweighs the effect of a decline in the income elasticity of demand. Our results demonstrate the importance of interactions between income, prices, and the income elasticity of demand in projecting future demand for livestock-derived foods. We complement the existing literature on food systems and global change by providing quantitative evidence about the possible space for the future demand of livestock-derived foods, which has important implications for human health and the natural environment.
... In addition, underlining the increased risk of developing T2D that is associated with the consumption of an extra serving/day of meat, and especially the consumption of red meat and processed meat, a further increase in risk (41%) in the consumption of processed red meat was described, combining the results of eight previous meta-analyses [122]. Four of the eight meta-analyses considered [134][135][136][137] were the same as those mentioned in a previous review [138] that did not process the collected data further (and thus was not an umbrella review) but performed a comprehensive analysis of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the increased risk of T2D associated with a high/moderate intake of red and processed meat. ...
Article
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Dietary proteins are indispensable to human nutrition. In addition to their tissue-building function, they affect body composition and regulate various metabolic pathways, as well as satiety and immune system activity. Protein use can be examined from a quantitative or qualitative viewpoint. In this scoping review, we compare animal- and plant-based protein sources in terms of their effects on human health and the environment. We conclude that the consumption of vegetable protein sources is associated with better health outcomes overall (namely, on the cardiovascular system) than animal-based product use. The healthier outcomes of vegetable protein sources dovetail with their lower environmental impact, which must be considered when designing an optimal diet. Indeed, the health of the planet cannot be disjointed from the health of the human being. Future research will clarify the mechanisms of action underlying the health effects of plant-based protein sources when compared with animal sources, fostering better agronomic practices and influencing public health in a direction that will benefit both the planet and its inhabitants.
... Clinical data indicate that, in humans, the excessive intake of saturated fatty acids increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type II diabetes, and may play a role in the onset of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease [1][2][3][4]. Significant proportions of saturated fats in the human diet come from ruminant meat, milk, and milk-based products [5]. However, foods originating from ruminants also provide high-quality proteins, bioactive lipids, and essential vitamins and minerals to the human diet [6]. ...
Article
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We first sought to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich microalgae, Aurantiochytrium limacinum (AURA), on rumen fermentation and the resistance of DHA to degradation and biohydrogenation by rumen microbes through ex vivo fermentation experiments. Subsequently, we sought to quantify the diet-derived DHA content of milk and the impact of AURA on microbial composition and metabolism in a pilot feeding trial with rumen-cannulated dairy cows. To achieve our aims, rumen fluid from cannulated cows was used as inoculum, and the effect of AURA inclusion on fermentation ex vivo was examined. At doses corresponding to the amount of AURA recommended for commercial production animals, only ~10% of DHA was degraded or biohydrogenated by rumen microorganisms. The results show that feeding with AURA had no effect on either total bacterial density or short-chain fatty acid production. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis of the rumen fluid samples collected during a seven-week in vivo trial revealed that microbes related to lactic acid metabolism and methanogenesis were significantly suppressed by the AURA-supplemented diet. The DHA concentration in milk increased over 25-fold with the AURA-supplemented diet and dropped by 30–40% within one week of washout. The addition of A. limacinum biomass to dairy cow diets resulted in positive effects on rumen microbial composition with no adverse effect on fermentation activity. AURA-derived DHA was stable, with only modest degradation in the rumen, and was successfully deposited in milk. This is the first study to investigate the effect of supplementing the diet of dairy cows with a protist-based biomass, namely, on important rumen fermentation parameters and on DHA deposition in milk, using a combination of ex vivo and in vivo approaches.
... The underlying mechanisms for the observed protective effects of substitution of plant protein for animal protein on all-cause and CVD mortality risk as well as CRC and T2D risk may be attributable to differences between their food sources' co-occurring bioactive nutrients or compounds, amino acid composition, and certain microbiome-generated circulating metabolites [30,51,[54][55][56]. Biochemical interactions between various nutrients or compounds in the protein food source can exert health effects, such that the effects of protein intake on disease may be due to other components of the food, not necessarily the protein content. Higher red and/or processed meat consumption has been consistently linked with multiple CVD risk factors such as abnormal serum lipid level, hypertension, and insulin resistance, possibly due to the nutrient profile associated with meat intake such as dietary cholesterol, heme iron, nitrates and nitrite, and advanced glycation end-products, some of which are carcinogenic compounds also related to increased risk of CRC and premature death [12,15,54,[56][57][58]. High contents of phenolic compounds, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and phytoestrogens in grains and cereal foods has been associated with reduced cancer and CVD risk, mainly owing to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect to improve metabolic profiles [54,59,60]. ...
Article
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Plant-based and animal-based protein intake have differential effects on various aging-related health outcomes, but less is known about the health effect of isocaloric substitution of plant-based and animal-based protein. This systematic review summarized current evidence of the isocaloric substitutional effect of plant-based and animal-based protein on aging-related health outcomes. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for epidemiologic observational studies published in English up to 15 March 2021. Studies that included adults ≥18 years old; use of a nutritional substitution model to define isocaloric substitution of plant protein and animal protein; health outcomes covering mortality, aging-related diseases or indices; and reported association estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were included. Nine cohort studies and 3 cross-sectional studies were identified, with a total of 1,450,178 subjects included in this review. Consistent and significant inverse association of substituting plant protein for various animal proteins on all-cause mortality was observed among 4 out of 5 studies with relative risks (RRs) from 0.54 to 0.95 and on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among all 4 studies with RRs from 0.58 to 0.91. Among specific animal proteins, the strongest inverse association on all-cause and CVD mortality was identified when substituting plant protein for red and/or processed meat protein, with the effect mainly limited to bread, cereal, and pasta protein when replacing red meat protein. Isocaloric substitution of plant-based protein for animal-based protein might prevent all-cause and CVD-specific mortality. More studies are needed on this topic, particularly for cancer incidence and other specific aging-related diseases.
... It has been reported that poultry chicken meat with low-saturated fat content may assist to resolve major global public health complications including diabetes [8,9]. Feskens et al. have summarized interesting correlations among insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and the ingestion of saturated fats from animal sources [10]. ...
Article
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In the recent decades, peoples concentrate more on reduced-consumption of diets containing saturated fatty acids and replace them with essential polyunsaturated ones, including omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, due to their promising nutritional benefits. Therefore, the production of chicken meat having lower fat compositions, and riches in pro-healthy fatty acid and other macro-and micronutrients deserves great attention in the food industry. The research aimed to characterize Original Research Article Khatun et al.; JPRI, 33(31A): 98-109, 2021; Article no.JPRI.68762 99 meat oils of two commercially available, domestic and poultry, chickens in the Northern part of Bangladesh (Rajshahi), followed by the investigation of their nutritional compositions and hypoglycemic effect in vivo. In this work, the oil was isolated from the dried meat sources by Soxhlet extractor and purified using a rotary evaporator. We subsequently characterized meat oil in terms of various parameters, such as iodine value, saponification number, unsaponifiable matter, free fatty acid (FFA) contents, peroxide value, and acid value. Besides, the nutritional parameters of chicken oil were investigated as percentages of essential fatty acids and several other micro-and macronutrients using gas-liquid chromatography and other conventional methods. Finally, Alloxan-induced Wister rats were fed with oil and chicken flesh to investigate the hypoglycemic effects. The experimental analyses show that chicken oil possesses a significant proportion of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid, macro-and micronutrients. Besides, oil and flesh were found to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic rats despite flesh could not significantly show hypoglycemic properties.
... The consumption of red and processed meat is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease [6][7][8][9]. Fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds are associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, type 2 diabetes and various cancers [10]. Increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholegrains and reduced red and processed meat consumption could therefore reduce the detrimental effects to our long-term health and reduce the burden on the health care system [11]. ...
Article
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Policies to mitigate climate change are essential. The objective of this paper was to estimate the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) food taxes and assess whether such a tax could also have health benefits in Aotearoa NZ. We undertook a systemised review on GHG food taxes to inform four tax scenarios, including one combined with a subsidy. These scenarios were modelled to estimate lifetime impacts on quality-adjusted health years (QALY), health inequities by ethnicity, GHG emissions, health system costs and food costs to the individual. Twenty-eight modelling studies on food tax policies were identified. Taxes resulted in decreased consumption of the targeted foods (e.g., −15.4% in beef/ruminant consumption, N = 12 studies) and an average decrease of 8.3% in GHG emissions (N = 19 studies). The “GHG weighted tax on all foods” scenario had the largest health gains and costs savings (455,800 QALYs and NZD 8.8 billion), followed by the tax—fruit and vegetable subsidy scenario (410,400 QALYs and NZD 6.4 billion). All scenarios were associated with reduced GHG emissions and higher age standardised per capita QALYs for Māori. Applying taxes that target foods with high GHG emissions has the potential to be effective for reducing GHG emissions and to result in co-benefits for population health.
... Pang et al. [15] reported a positive association between protein intake from aquatic products and GDM risk. Although a non-significant association between poultry and aquatic products intake with GDM risk was also reported [12,14,15,40], several studies have presented a positive association between dietary poultry [49] and seafood [15,50] intakes and T2DM risk. Fan et al. [51] further confirmed a positive dose-response relationship between poultry intake and T2DM risk. ...
Article
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Controversies around the association between dietary protein intake and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) persist. To the best of our knowledge, this association has not previously been reported from the perspective of dietary protein patterns. We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary protein patterns and GDM risk in pregnant women, and 1014 pregnant women (20–28 weeks of gestation) were recruited in Guangzhou, China, during 2017–2018. Maternal dietary information was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire, which covered the most common foods consumed in Guangzhou, China. GDM was identified by a 75g oral glucose tolerance test. A K-means cluster analysis was conducted to aggregate individuals into three groups, which were determined by the major sources of protein. Logistic regression was employed to explore the relationship between dietary protein patterns and the risk of GDM. Among the 1014 participants, 191 (18.84%) were diagnosed with GDM. In the total population, when comparing the highest quartile with the lowest, we found that total protein and animal protein intake increased the risk of GDM with the adjusted odds ratios (95%CI) being 6.27, 5.43 (1.71–23.03, 1.71–17.22), respectively. Pregnant women were further divided into three dietary protein patterns, namely, white meat, plant–dairy–eggs, and red meat protein patterns. Compared to women with the plant–dairy–eggs protein pattern, those with the red meat protein pattern (OR: 1.80; 95%CI: 1.06–3.07) or white meat protein pattern (OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.04–3.24) had an increased risk of GDM. Higher dietary intakes of total or animal protein during mid-pregnancy were related to an increased risk of GDM. Furthermore, we first found that, compared to women with the plant–dairy–eggs protein pattern, women with the red meat or white meat protein patterns had a higher risk of GDM.
... Meat consumption, for instance, is fundamental in the diet of several cultures worldwide with meat providing an array of nutrients necessary for growth and health maintenance. Concurrently, several epidemiological studies and their meta-analyses provide evidence that high consumption of red meat and especially of its processed products increases the risk of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), colorectal cancer and type II diabetes (Barnard et al et al. 2014, Feskens et al et al. 2013, Larsson and Wolk 2006, Bouvard et al. 2015. Moreover, meat (including red meat) accounts for more than 10% of total European foodborne outbreaks (EFSA, 2015) and recent changes regarding its handling and consumption (e.g. ...
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The project entitled “Novel foods as red meat replacers – an insight using Risk Benefit Assessment methods (NovRBA)” aimed to develop and test harmonised Risk Benefit Assessment (RBA) methods to estimate the overall health impact of replacing red meat with an edible insect species (a novel food). Based on an appraisal of insect products that are more likely to be consumed in Europe, project participants decided to compare the consumption of a beef patty consisting of 100% minced beef meat (reference scenario) with a patty in which beef meat would be fully replaced by an edible insect dough (alternative scenario). The target population was adults. The RBA steps included the problem definition, the identification, prioritization and selection of components together with associated health outcomes. The assessment included the selection of dose‐response relationships based on their internal validity (hazard characterisation) and an exposure assessment of nutrient intake and exposures to microbiological hazards and compounds of toxicological concern associated with the reference and alternative scenarios. All health outcomes were quantified according to the disability‐adjusted life years (DALYs) composite metric. The project standardised the pivotal step of selecting model components through developing a tiered approach to prioritise components establishing the “long”, the “short” and the “final” list. The final list comprised thirteen nutrients, two heat‐resistant spore‐forming bacteria and inorganic arsenic. The RBA model was developed using @Risk® add‐in software using Monte Carlo simulations considering variability and/or uncertainty. Overall the expected change in DALYs when moving from the reference scenario to the alternative one was estimated to be around 8,753 DALYs (per 100,000 population) saved in Greece, 6,572 DALYs in Denmark and 21,972 DALYs in France. This is mainly due to the overall beneficial nutritional and microbiological impacts. The proposed actions to communicate the project’s findings can be summarised in providing understandable scientific evidence to policy makers; creating opportunities for consumers to engage in‐depth with information about insect consumption; making use of multipliers who enjoy a high level of trust and establishing informational exchange with trusted sources.
... The group of microbes associated with carnivores is more similar to a healthy human gut microbiome than the group of microbes associated with herbivores, since a healthy human gut microbiome consists of about 90% Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes [8,[12][13][14] and 10% Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia [12,15,16]. This is somewhat counter-intuitive because diets high in meat products are associated with higher cancer risk and other health problems in humans [77,130]. ...
Article
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Purpose of Review Cancers are a leading cause of death in humans and for many other species. Diet has often been associated with cancers, and the microbiome is an essential mediator between diet and cancers. Here, we review the work on cancer and the microbiome across species to search for broad patterns of susceptibility associated with different microbial species. Recent Findings Some microbes, such as Helicobacter bacteria, papillomaviruses, and the carnivore-associated Fusobacteria, consistently induce tumorigenesis in humans and other species. Other microbes, such as the milk-associated Lactobacillus, consistently inhibit tumorigenesis in humans and other species. Summary We systematically reviewed over a thousand published articles and identified links between diet, microbes, and cancers in several species of mammals, birds, and flies. Future work should examine a larger variety of host species to discover new model organisms for human preclinical trials, to better understand the observed variance in cancer prevalence across species, and to discover which microbes and diets are associated with cancers across species. Ultimately, this could help identify microbial and dietary interventions to diagnose, prevent, and treat cancers in humans as well as other animals.
... Uncontrolled consumption of red meat, high in saturated fat, has contributed to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease. Currently, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death globally [5]. ...
Article
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Rapid global population growth has caused an increasing global consumption of meat and has resulted in the surging demand for meat analogue products over the last few years. There are many reasons why consumers and food producers are looking for alternatives to meat and meat products, including environmental, health, and ethical aspects. This study reviews recent scientific reports on quality aspects related to meat analogue based on single cell protein, insect protein and plant protein. The scope of the review includes the following: alternative protein sources, composition and nutritional value, and processing technologies of meat analogue. Protein from single cell protein (algae, mold, yeast, bacteria), plants (soybean, wheat gluten, legumes), and insects were described. The need for further research in this area, particularly on the nutritional value, technology for producing meat analogue, and food safety of meat analogue, was demonstrated.
... Наявні дані свідчать про те, що дієта, багата на цільнозернові, овочі, фрукти, молочні продукти, бобові та горіхи, може знизити ризик діабету, тоді як дієта з високим вмістом червоного і обробленого м'яса може збільшити цей ризик [13]. Недавній мета-аналіз показав, що споживання додаткових 100 г червоного м'яса в день було пов'язано з підвищенням ризику ЦД 2-го типу на 13 %, а додаткове щоденне споживання 50 г обробленого м'яса було пов'язано з підвищенням ризику на 32 % [14]. ...
... This dietary score consists of nine food groups that have positive effects on health, including vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, legumes and nuts, fish, oils and soft margarines, unsweetened dairy, coffee, and tea, and three other food groups of red and processed meat, butter and hard margarines, and sugar-sweetened beverages that have negative effects on health [25,26]. Studies have shown that intakes a healthy diet including fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish is inversely associated with diabetes, CVD and MetS [27,28], and intakes processed meats and sugary drinks is associated with an increased risk [29,30]. On the other hand, receiving a healthier diet has been shown to be positively associated with the MHO phenotype [31]. ...
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Background Previous studies have shown the association of a number of dietary quality scores with metabolically phenotypes of obesity. Recently, the Lifelines Diet Score (LLDS), which is a fully food-based score based on the 2015 Dutch dietary guidelines and underlying international literature, has been proposed as a tool for assessing the quality of the diet. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the association between LLDS and metabolically healthy/unhealthy overweight and obesity (MHO/MUHO) phenotypes. Methods This study was performed on 217 women, aged 18–48 years old. For each participant anthropometric values, biochemical test and body composition were evaluated by standard protocols and methods. The LLDS was determined based on 12 components using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) containing 147 items. The metabolically healthy (MH) was evaluated using the Karelis criteria. Results Among the total participants in this study, 31.3% of the subjects were MHO while 68.7% were MUHO. After adjustment for potential confounding variables (age, energy intake, and physical activity), participants in highest LLDS tertile had a lower odds of MUHO compared with those in the lowest tertile (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.23, 5.83; P-trend = 0.03). Also, after further adjustment with BMI, provided only small changes in "OR" and did not attenuate the significance (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.23, 6.91; P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions The present evidence indicates that individuals with higher adherence to the LLDS had lower odds of metabolically unhealthy (MUH).
... Population shifts towards the dietary patterns set out by the Global Burden of Disease and the EAT-Lancet Commission would avert nearly 11 million premature-adult deaths per year (Afshin et al., 2019;Willett et al., 2019;FAO and WHO, 2019). Overconsumption of food generally, but particularly of red meat by adults in high and middle-income countries (Bernstein et al., 2012;Chen et al., 2013;Feskens et al., 2013;Abete et al., 2014;Etemadi et al., 2017), is a major contributor to environmental degradation as well as increasing risk of some NCDs (Popp et al., 2010;Tilman and Clark, 2014;Hallström et al., 2015;Aleksandrowicz et al., 2016;Nelson et al., 2016;Springmann et al., 2016;Springmann, Mason-D'Croz et al., 2016;Springmann et al., 2018). The increased consumption of environmentally expensive foods (Aleksandrowicz et al., 2016) similarly drives ecological degradation and there are environmental costs associated with not breastfeeding . ...
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This paper provides an overview of nutrition recommendations for dietary intakes necessary to support normal growth and development of children from birth to 18 years and to promote long-term health and quality of life. Key nutrients and food-based dietary recommendations have been examined from international evidence-based child dietary and feeding guidelines from the World Health Organization and a convenience sample of countries. The paper also reviews key issues relating to the environmental impacts of child diets. Fundamental gaps are identified in defining optimal intakes for children at specific ages and for those living in different geographical regions and food environments.
... Lighter meats such as younger animals raised for husbandry, poultry, wild birds, rabbit, and deer were popular among women (Woolgar, 1999). A high consumption of meat can cause individuals to develop various poor health conditions such as high blood pressure, blood clots, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes (Feskens et al., 2013;Micha et al., 2010). It may be argued that meat consumption was less because it was not allowed on specific days and fish was more likely to be consumed as a result of the sovereignty that Canterbury Cathedral had over the city during the medieval period. ...
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The adverse urban environment of medieval Canterbury possibly influenced poor health conditions and diseases which ultimately led to death. Individuals of low socioeconomic status may have been more at risk of death than those of higher socioeconomic status due to dense living conditions, consistently encountering unhygienic waste management, and less access to resources during famines and disease outbreaks. This study evaluates survivorship and mortality risk patterns of high- and low-status groups to determine the effect of socioeconomic status on survival and mortality in medieval Canterbury. A sample of 796 low- and 74 high-status individuals were examined from St. Gregory’s Priory. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox Regression were used to assess mortality and survival between the socioeconomic status groups. The results reveal lower survivorship for high-status than low-status non-adults, and lower survivorship and high mortality risk for high-status adult females compared to low-status adult males. Meanwhile there were no significant differences found in mortality risks and survivorship between low- and high-status adult males, low- and high-status adult females, and low-status adult females and high-status adult males. High risk of mortality and decreased survivorship of high-status adult females may reflect decreased survivorship of high-status non-adults due to poor nutritional intake during and after pregnancy as well as rationing food. In comparison, low-status adult males would have benefited from the pilgrimage culture that allowed them abundant access to nutritious foods.
... P value for heterogeneity <0.00001, heterogeneity, I = 2 85%, P value for overall effect=0.0004). Our findings were similar to those of Mijatovic-Vukas et al. [26], and the effects might be due to weight reduction [27], low red meat consumption, or the use of virgin olive oil [28][29]. A review conducted in the UK observed the beneficial effects of the MedDiet on GDM [30]. ...
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Gestational diabetes (GD) is a common and deadly disorder with deleterious effects on both the mother and fetus. The current review assessed the role of the Mediterranean diet and metformin in the prevention of GD. The PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant articles, and the keywords metformin, Mediterranean diet, and gestational diabetes prevention were used with the proteans AND and OR. Out of the 252 articles retrieved, 48 full texts were assessed, and only nine articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A data extraction sheet was used to collect the author's name, year of publication, country, methods of the study, risk reduction, odds ratio, relative risk, 95% CI, and P values. Three (33.3%) articles assessed the effectiveness of metformin on GD, and another six (66.7%) investigated the effects of the MedDiet on GD. The studies on metformin showed no reduction in GD (odds ratio, 1.07, 0.79-1.44, P value for overall effect=0.65, I 2 for heterogeneity=3%, P value=0.36. Chi-square=2.07, and the mean difference=2), while studies on the MedDiet showed a reduction in gestational diabetes risk ((odds ratio, 0.49,-0.32-0.73, P value for heterogeneity =0.0004, heterogeneity, I = 2 78%, P value for overall effect=0.0005, Chi-square=22.40 and mean difference=5. The Mediterranean diet was effective in the prevention of GD; however, metformin showed no significant risk reduction as an interventional measure.
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There are several controversies in the field of nutrition and what constitutes the healthiest diet, but one point nutritional researchers do agree upon is that vegetables and fruits are good for humans. This chapter discusses the current consumption trends of fruit and vegetables throughout the world and considers the optimal amount that should be eaten. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease, can reduce blood pressure, reduces the risk of developing certain types of cancer and can have a positive effect upon blood sugar levels, therefore reducing the risk of diabetes. Furthermore, the consumption of non-starchy vegetables and fruits may promote weight loss. Organic produce may be a superior choice for cancer risk reduction, but the evidence to support this is currently inconclusive.
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Context Emerging evidence suggests that not only the quantity but also the quality and food sources of macronutrients plays an important role in CVD. However, limited studies have examined the association of meal timing of different quality of macronutrients with CVD risk. Objective This study aimed to examine the association of subtypes of macronutrient consumption at dinner vs breakfast with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Methods A total of 27 911 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2016) were included. The differences of subtypes of macronutrients at dinner vs breakfast (Δratio) were categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regression models and isocaloric substitution effects of subtypes were performed. Results After adjustment of a variety of covariates, participants in the highest quintile of the Δratio of low-quality carbohydrates had a higher risk of angina (odds ratio [OR] = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.16-2.29) (Pfor trend = .007) and heart attack (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13-1.93) (Pfor trend = .068) compared with the lowest quintile. The highest quintile of the Δratio of animal protein had a higher risk of coronary heart disease (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.06-1.95) (Pfor trend = .014) and angina (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01-2.07) (Pfor trend = .047). For the Δratio of unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), the highest quintile of the Δratio of USFA was related to lower stroke risk (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.99) (Pfor trend = .049). Isocaloric substitution of low-quality carbohydrates/animal protein by high-quality carbohydrates/plant protein at dinner reduced CVD risk by around 10%. Conclusion This study indicated that overconsumption of low-quality carbohydrates and animal protein at dinner rather than breakfast was significantly associated with higher CVD risk and USFA consumption at dinner related to lower CVD risk among US adults. Substitution of low-quality carbohydrates or animal protein by high-quality carbohydrates or plant protein at dinner could reduce CVD risk.
Article
The overconsumption of meat has been related to negative health, environmental, and animal welfare effects. As such, many people are now reducing their meat consumption, and for some this includes increasing their consumption of meat substitutes. While research has discussed the barriers towards the adoption of meat substitutes, there is a lack of studies examining the differences between omnivores and veg*ns. The objective of this research is to explore the facilitators, barriers, and negotiations (i.e., tensions) that various dietary groups encounter with meat substitutes. Six focus groups were conducted and our analysis found clear tension between many influences in food choice. These tensions result in the influences (sensory preferences, meat substitutes’ classification, health perceptions, and social/culture) being both facilitators and barriers dependent on the dietary group. Yet, there are also key facilitators across all dietary groups such as resources (packaging and labelling), and food context (restaurants, takeaways), as well as barriers such as the “vegan tax” (high price) and lack of trust. A main value negotiation was also exhibited by all dietary groups, balancing familiarity with food/meal freedom and versatility. We provide a reflection on the practical implications for meat substitute companies.
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From health and sustainability perspectives, reduction in the consumption of animal-based foods, especially red meat, is a key strategy. The present study examined the prevalence, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, food consumption and food choice motives of vegetarians and consumers of low and high amounts of red and processed meat (RPM) among Finnish adults. We applied the data from three national health studies: FINRISK 2007 ( n 4874), FINRISK 2012 ( n 4812) and FinHealth 2017 ( n 4442). Participants addressed their food consumption with a FFQ and answered other questionnaires about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, as well as food choice motives. The prevalence of vegetarianism increased from 0·7 % in 2012 to 1·8 % in 2017, and median daily RPM consumption decreased from 128 g in 2007 to 119 g in 2012 and to 96 g in 2017. Vegetarians and members of the low-RPM group were more often women, younger and more highly educated than the high-RPM group, both in 2007 and 2017. Still, the importance of sex for the probability of a vegetarian diet decreased, while its importance for high-RPM consumption increased. Vegetarians consumed more fruit, vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds than either the low- or high-RPM groups. The high-RPM group had the lowest scores in several aspects of healthy and sustainable diet, healthy food choice motives and healthy lifestyle. Vegetarians and groups differing in their RPM consumption levels might benefit from differing interventions and nutrition information taking into account their other dietary habits, food choice motives and lifestyle factors.
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Objective Evidence of the health and environmental harms of red meat is growing, yet little is known about which harms may be most impactful to include in meat reduction messages. This study examined which harms consumers are most aware of and which most discourage them from wanting to eat red meat. Design Within-subjects randomized experiment. Participants responded to questions about their awareness of, and perceived discouragement in response to, eight health and eight environmental harms of red meat presented in random order. Discouragement was assessed on a 1-to-5 Likert-type scale. Setting Online survey. Participants 544 US parents. Results A minority of participants reported awareness that red meat contributes to health harms (ranging from 8% awareness for prostate cancer to 28% for heart disease) or environmental harms (ranging from 13% for water shortages and deforestation to 22% for climate change). Among specific harms, heart disease elicited the most discouragement (mean=2.82 out of 5), followed by early death (mean=2.79) and plants and animals going extinct (mean=2.75), though most harms elicited similar discouragement (range of means, 2.60 to 2.82). In multivariable analyses, participants who were younger, identified as Black, identified as politically liberal, had higher general perceptions that red meat is bad for health, and had higher usual red meat consumption reported being more discouraged from wanting to eat red meat in response to health and environmental harms (all p <0.05). Conclusions Messages about a variety of health and environmental harms of red meat could inform consumers and motivate reductions in red meat consumption.
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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy and a serious public health problem. It carries significant risks of short-term and long-term adverse health effects for both mothers and their children. Risk factors, especially modifiable risk factors, must be considered to prevent GDM and its consequences. Observational studies have identified several nutritional and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of GDM. The results of intervention studies examining the effects of diet and lifestyle on the prevention of GDM are contradictory. Differences in the study populations, types and intensity of intervention, time frame of the intervention, and diagnostic criteria for GDM may explain the heterogeneity in the results of intervention studies. This review provides an overview of new diets and other factors that may help prevent GDM. The main results of epidemiological studies assessing the risk factors for GDM, as well as the results and methodological problems of intervention studies on the prevention of GDM and their meta-analyses, are discussed. In addition, the evidence that gene and lifestyle interactions influence the development of GDM, as well as prospects for increasing the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent GDM, including new data on the possible uses of personalized diet therapy, are highlighted.
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We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to summarize reviews of cohort studies on intake of unprocessed and processed meat and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke. Systematic reviews of cohort studies published between January 2010 and August 2020 were identified through a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. The quality of how each review was conducted was assessed and the overall confidence in the results of each review was rated using AMSTAR 2. The quality of evidence of each meta-analysis was graded using NutriGrade. Three reviews were included, with meta-analyses of unprocessed red meat and CVD (n = 1) and stroke (n = 2); unprocessed poultry and stroke (n = 1); and processed meat and CVD (n = 1), CHD (n = 1), and stroke (n = 3). The overall confidence in the results of each review was rated as critically low. The meta-evidence was graded moderate for a positive association between unprocessed red meat and stroke and moderate for a positive association between processed meat and CHD and stroke. For other associations the meta-evidence was graded as low or very low. In conclusion, the associations between unprocessed and processed meat with CVD and major subtypes of CVD have not been extensively investigated.
Article
Background and objectives: The associations between oil tea and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been little studied in the population. This study aimed to evaluate whether oil tea intake is related to the reduced risk of T2D in adults. Methods and study design: A rural-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi, southern China (2018-2019), with a total of 3178 population included in the final analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to analyze the associations between the intake frequency, daily intake of oil tea and the risk of T2D. We further compared the association differences between the daily intake of oil tea and the risk of diabetes under different dietary patterns, which were generated from food frequency intake data using principal factor analysis. Results: The differences in the frequency and daily intake of oil tea in both groups (diabetes group and the non-diabetes group) were statistically significant (p<0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), compared with non-oil tea drinkers, intake ≥3 times /d had an inverse association with T2D (OR=0.417; 95% CI: 0.205-0.848, p<0.05); while daily intake of more than 600 mL/d but less than 900 mL/d was significantly associated with reduced T2D risk (OR=0.492; 95% CI: 0.284-0.852, p=0.011). In the Chinese traditional dietary and the plant-based dietary model, compared with the non-oil tea drinkers, the fourth intake group had a lower risk of diabetes, with an OR (95%CI) value of 0.500 (0.291-0.854) and 0.505 (0.298-0.855), respectively, but no statistical significance (All p>0.05). Conclusions: Our study suggests that oil tea was associated with a reduced risk of T2D aged 30 years or older.
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Background Considering that a high meat intake is directly associated with obesity, it is critical to address the relationship between consuming different types of meat with inflammation and metabolism in overweight and obese cohorts. Thus, we evaluated the association between red, white, and processed meat consumption with inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers in overweight and obese women. Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 391 overweight and obese Iranian women. Dietary intake was obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 147 items. The anthropometric measurements, serum lipid profile, and inflammatory markers were measured by standard protocols. All associations were assessed utilizing one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and linear regression models. Results In the adjusted model, it was established that higher intake of processed meat had a significant positive association with leptin levels (β: 0.900, 95% CI: 0.031;1.233, p = 0.015). Moreover, after considering the confounders, a significant positive association between processed meat and macrophage inflammatory protein (MCP-1) levels was observed (β: 0.304, 95% CI:0.100;1.596, p = 0.025). Positive significant associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (β:0.020, 95% CI:0.000;0.050, P = 0.014) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) (β:0.263, 95% CI:0.112;0.345, p = 0.053) and MCP-1 (β:0.490, 95% CI: 0.175;1.464, p = 0.071) levels with red meat were also shown; while there was a significant negative association between red meat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β: −0.016, 95% CI: −0.022, −0.001, p = 0.033). Furthermore, a significant negative association were established following confounding adjustment between Galectin-3 (Gal-3) (β: −0.110, 95% CI: −0.271;0.000, p = 0.044), MCP-1 (β: −1.933, 95% CI: −3.721;0.192, p = 0.022) and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (β: −0.011, 95% CI: −0.020,0.000, p = 0.070) levels with high adherence of white meat intake. In contrast, a significant marginally positive association between PAI-1 levels and high adherence to white meat intake (β: −0.340, 95% CI: −0.751;0.050, p = 0.070) has been shown. Conclusions Higher red and processed meat consumption were positively associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers in overweight and obese women. In contrast, negative relationships between high adherence to white meat and various inflammatory and metabolic parameters were established. Further studies are needed to confirm the causality of these associations and potential mediating pathways.
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Autoimmune diseases are complex conditions that are increasing in incidence worldwide. Autoimmune disorders are often associated clinical challenges in regards to clear diagnoses, comorbidities, and effective disease management and treatment strategies. Importantly, research suggests that an individual’s nutritional status and metabolic health, such as the presence of obesity or metabolic syndrome, may play a role in the risk, pathophysiology, and management of autoimmune diseases. Further, adherence to Western or Mediterranean-style dietary patterns, as well as intake of specific macronutrients (e.g., carbohydrates, protein, fatty acids), micronutrients (e.g., vitamin D, selenium, sodium) and non-nutrient dietary factors (e.g., food contaminants, gut microbiome profiles), may modulate autoimmune disease development and complications. Thus, nutritional interventions may represent an effective approach to mitigate risk and support the management of autoimmune disorders.
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Noncommunicable chronic diseases have been on the rise for decades. Almost 10% of the world adult population lives with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)—a leading cause of severe complications associated with disability and premature mortality. Worldwide, nearly 500 million adults are living with T2DM and 4.2 million deaths were caused directly by the disease. Dietary quality is a major component influencing the development of T2DM, due to diet-related inflammatory processes, linked to metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition to systemic and tissue-specific low-grade chronic inflammation, characterized by mediators such as various cytokines, T2DM is characterized by a disturbed homeostasis of oxidative stress, as well as a dysregulated glucose and lipid metabolism. Poor inflammatory and antioxidant status have been related to an enhanced risk of developing MUO, MetS, and T2DM. However, diet also is an important source of antioxidants, which are antiinflammatory and may reduce disease risk and improve symptomology. This includes dietary patterns rich in fruits/vegetables, which are good sources of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals such as polyphenols, and low in animal products, ultraprocessed foods, sugar, saturated fats, total calories, and salt. Mechanistic studies have highlighted that antiinflammatory and antioxidant diets might positively influence several cellular processes. These include direct effects on the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as quenching effects by antioxidants, but also the interaction of dietary constituents with transcription factors, especially with nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), important for regulating inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. In this chapter, we evaluate the association between dietary patterns and T2DM, as well as the role played by MUO and oxidative stress in influencing inflammation and increasing the risk of MetS and, eventually, T2DM.
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Diabetes has become a global concern at present, among which type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for approximately 90 %–95 % of patients. T2DM is a type of metabolic disorder syndrome that results from a genetic defect, and it is based on insulin resistance and an insulin secretion disorder. The occurrence of T2DM is usually the outcome of both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes have not been fully elucidated, and no radical therapeutic cure has been found. Patients with T2DM suffer from complications such as the development of a chronic hyperglycemic condition and even serious metabolic disorders and organ damage in the body and depression and dementia, in addition to other chronic complications. Many studies have suggested that diet is crucial in the development of diabetes and the control of blood glucose. Natural substances have the characteristics of low toxicity and few side effects and may be key to the development of diabetic health products and preventive treatments. This paper reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, risks, treatments and diets related to T2DM to summarize the types of recently available natural products, from both local and foreign sources, for lowering blood glucose at home and their application in supplementary hypoglycemic foods. The key findings and conclusions suggest that there are various known T2DM-inducing factors, including genetic and environmental factors and three types of hybrid factors.
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Meat consumption has been increasing around the globe despite the controversies surrounding its possible influence in health. It is recognized as a valuable source of protein, iron, and vitamin B12, but the role of fat and the fatty acid profile is frequently pointed out as a potential risk factor. Epidemiologic studies also have some incongruent results when considering processing and cooking methods, as well as meat cuts, in disease risk. This raises the importance of further clarifying the nutritive role of meat in human diet, as well as the possible associations between meat consumption and health risks, thus promoting effective and science-based public health messages. This chapter will present the nutritional composition of meat and the most relevant and recent evidence concerning the effects of its consumption in noncommunicable chronic diseases.
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Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the prospective association between diet quality and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research design and methods Eligible adults (n=7268) were selected from among participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study with an average follow-up of 6.6 years. Dietary intakes were assessed using a valid and reliable semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and follow-up examinations. Dietary pattern scores were calculated for the Healthy Eating Index 2015, Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the development of T2D in relation to diet quality. Results This study was conducted on 3265 men and 4003 women aged 42.4±14.6 and 40.6±13.5 years, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, all three diet quality scores were not associated with risk of T2D. Among individual components of the examined dietary patterns, risk of T2D increased from quartiles 1 to 4 for sodium intake (HR (95% CI) 1.00, 0.97 (0.75 to 1.25), 1.17 (0.92 to 1.49), 1.28 (1.01 to 1.62), P trend <0.01) and decreased from quartiles 1 to 4 for red meat intake (HR (95% CI) 1.00, 0.91 (0.72 to 1.14), 0.75 (0.58 to 0.95), 0.85 (0.67 to 1.08), P trend <0.01). Conclusion This study emphasizes a potentially protective relationship of moderate red meat intake against development of T2D; also higher intake of sodium is related to risk of T2D.
Article
Objective : French food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) have been updated in 2017. The objective of this prospective study was to estimate the associations between the PNNS-GS2 (Programme National Nutrition Santé - guidelines score 2), reflecting the level of adherence to the 2017 FBDG, and the risk of type 2-diabetes (T2D). Methods : A total of 79,205 French adult participants (mean age: 41.5 years (SD=14.5) 78.5% women, 65% were postgraduate) from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2019) were included. Dietary intakes were collected using repeated 24-hour dietary records. The PNNS-GS2 (theorical range: -∞ to 14.25), including 6 adequacy components and 7 moderation components as well as a penalization on energy intake, was computed. The association between the PNNS-GS2 (as quintiles (Q)) and T2D risk was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models accounting for sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health-related factors. Results : During an average follow-up of 6.7y (536,679 person-years), 676 T2D cases occurred. In the multi-adjusted model, participants with the highest PNNS-GS2 (higher adherence to the 2017 FBDG), compared to those with the lowest (lower adherence to FBDG), exhibited a 49% reduction in risk of T2D (HRQ5 vs Q1: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.37, 0.69). Body mass index accounted for up to 27% of the main association. The healthy profiles of cohort's participants may have reduced statistical power. Conclusions : In this large prospective cohort study, a higher adherence to the French 2017 FBDG was strongly and inversely associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Such analysis should be confirmed in other settings but in terms of public health and nutritional policy, this study supports the relevance of the 2017 French food-based dietary guidelines.
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Emerging evidence from biological and epidemiological studies has suggested that body iron stores and heme-iron intake may be related to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to examine the association of body iron stores and heme-iron intake with T2D risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published studies. Systematic review and subsequent meta-analysis were conducted by searching MEDLINE database up to June 22, 2012 to identify studies that analyzed the association of body iron stores or dietary heme-iron intake with T2D risk. The meta-analysis was performed using the effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to calculate the pooled risk estimates, while the heterogeneity among studies was examined using the I(2) and Q statistic. The meta-analysis included 16 high-quality studies: 12 studies analyzed ferritin levels (4,366 T2D patients and 41,091 controls) and 4 measured heme-iron intake (9,246 T2D patients and 179,689 controls). The combined relative risk (RR) comparing the highest and lowest category of ferritin levels was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.15-2.39) for prospective studies, 2.29 (95% CI: 1.48-3.54) for cross-sectional studies with heterogeneity (Q = 14.84, p = 0.01, I(2) = 66.3%; Q = 44.16, p<0.001, I(2) = 88.7%). The combined RR comparing the highest and lowest category of heme-iron intake was 1.31 (95% CI: 1.21-1.43) with heterogeneity (Q = 1.39, p = 0.71, I(2) = 0%). No publication bias was found. Additional 15 studies that were of good quality, had significant results, and analyzed the association between body iron stores and T2D risk were qualitatively included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis and systematic review suggest that increased ferritin levels and heme-iron intake are both associated with higher risk of T2D.
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Alterations in intestinal microbiota composition are associated with several chronic conditions, including obesity and inflammatory diseases. The microbiota of older people displays greater inter-individual variation than that of younger adults. Here we show that the faecal microbiota composition from 178 elderly subjects formed groups, correlating with residence location in the community, day-hospital, rehabilitation or in long-term residential care. However, clustering of subjects by diet separated them by the same residence location and microbiota groupings. The separation of microbiota composition significantly correlated with measures of frailty, co-morbidity, nutritional status, markers of inflammation and with metabolites in faecal water. The individual microbiota of people in long-stay care was significantly less diverse than that of community dwellers. Loss of community-associated microbiota correlated with increased frailty. Collectively, the data support a relationship between diet, microbiota and health status, and indicate a role for diet-driven microbiota alterations in varying rates of health decline upon ageing.
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Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.
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Evidence suggests that insulin delivery to skeletal muscle interstitium is the rate-limiting step in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake and that this process is impaired by insulin resistance. In this review we examine the basis for the hypothesis that insulin acts on the vasculature at three discrete steps to enhance its own delivery to muscle: (1) relaxation of resistance vessels to increase total blood flow; (2) relaxation of pre-capillary arterioles to increase the microvascular exchange surface perfused within skeletal muscle (microvascular recruitment); and (3) the trans-endothelial transport (TET) of insulin. Insulin can relax resistance vessels and increase blood flow to skeletal muscle. However, there is controversy as to whether this occurs at physiological concentrations of, and exposure times to, insulin. The microvasculature is recruited more quickly and at lower insulin concentrations than are needed to increase total blood flow, a finding consistent with a physiological role for insulin in muscle insulin delivery. Microvascular recruitment is impaired by obesity, diabetes and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Insulin TET is a third potential site for regulating insulin delivery. This is underscored by the consistent finding that steady-state insulin concentrations in plasma are approximately twice those in muscle interstitium. Recent in vivo and in vitro findings suggest that insulin traverses the vascular endothelium via a trans-cellular, receptor-mediated pathway, and emerging data indicate that insulin acts on the endothelium to facilitate its own TET. Thus, muscle insulin delivery, which is rate-limiting for its metabolic action, is itself regulated by insulin at multiple steps. These findings highlight the need to further understand the role of the vascular actions of insulin in metabolic regulation.
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The risk determinants of type 1 diabetes, initiators of autoimmune response, mechanisms regulating progress toward beta cell failure, and factors determining time of presentation of clinical diabetes are poorly understood. We investigated changes in the serum metabolome prospectively in children who later progressed to type 1 diabetes. Serum metabolite profiles were compared between sample series drawn from 56 children who progressed to type 1 diabetes and 73 controls who remained nondiabetic and permanently autoantibody negative. Individuals who developed diabetes had reduced serum levels of succinic acid and phosphatidylcholine (PC) at birth, reduced levels of triglycerides and antioxidant ether phospholipids throughout the follow up, and increased levels of proinflammatory lysoPCs several months before seroconversion to autoantibody positivity. The lipid changes were not attributable to HLA-associated genetic risk. The appearance of insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies was preceded by diminished ketoleucine and elevated glutamic acid. The metabolic profile was partially normalized after the seroconversion. Autoimmunity may thus be a relatively late response to the early metabolic disturbances. Recognition of these preautoimmune alterations may aid in studies of disease pathogenesis and may open a time window for novel type 1 diabetes prevention strategies.
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Whereas limited and inconsistent findings have been reported on the relation between dietary cholesterol or egg consumption and fasting glucose, no previous study has examined the association between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes. This project sought to examine the relation between egg intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in two large prospective cohorts. In this prospective study, we used data from two completed randomized trials: 20,703 men from the Physicians' Health Study I (1982-2007) and 36,295 women from the Women's Health Study (1992-2007). Egg consumption was ascertained using questionnaires, and we used the Cox proportional hazard model to estimate relative risks of type 2 diabetes. During mean follow-up of 20.0 years in men and 11.7 years in women, 1,921 men and 2,112 women developed type 2 diabetes. Compared with no egg consumption, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.09 (95% CI 0.87-1.37), 1.09 (0.88-1.34), 1.18 (0.95-1.45), 1.46 (1.14-1.86), and 1.58 (1.25-2.01) for consumption of <1, 1, 2-4, 5-6, and > or =7 eggs/week, respectively, in men (P for trend <0.0001). Corresponding multivariable hazard ratios for women were 1.06 (0.92-1.22), 0.97 (0.83-1.12), 1.19 (1.03-1.38), 1.18 (0.88-1.58), and 1.77 (1.28-2.43), respectively (P for trend <0.0001). These data suggest that high levels of egg consumption (daily) are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Confirmation of these findings in other populations is warranted.
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Japanese migrants and their offspring on the island of Hawaii and Japanese living in Hiroshima were examined for diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. the same methods and investigators were used in both locations. Death certificates of Japanese and Caucasians dying on the island during the past 26 yr were analyzed. Diabetes, defined as a venous serum glucose concentration of at least 200 mg/dl 2 h after a 50-g oral glucose load, was significantly more common in the Hawaiian Japanese than in the Hiroshima Japanese subjects. This suggests that diabetes is more prevalent in Japanese in Hawaii than in Japan, although lack of knowledge about the total population of Japanese migrants in Hawaii makes this generalization uncertain. The proportion of deaths attributed to diabetes was much higher in Japanese migrants and their offspring in Hawaii than in Japan. During the 1950s, the proportional death rate from diabetes was about half as large in Japanese Hawaiians as in Caucasian Hawaiians, but it increased to become 1.6 times the Caucasian rate during the 1970s. A nutritional study revealed that the total caloric intake was similar in Japanese in Hawaii and Hiroshima, although the estimated level of physical activity was less in the Hawaiian subjects. Consumption of animal fat and simple carbohydrates (sucrose and fructose) were at least twice as high in Hawaiian as in Hiroshima Japanese. Conversely, Hiroshima Japanese consumed about twice the amount of complex carbohydrate as the Hawaiian Japanese. These observations support the hypothesis that a high fat, high simple carbohydrate, low complex carbohydrate diet and/or reduced levels of physical activity increase risk of diabetes. The proportion of deaths attributed to ischemic heart disease was higher in both diabetic and nondiabetic Japanese Hawaiians than in diabetic subjects in Japan. The rates were similar for Japanese and Caucasians in Hawaii. There was no evidence of an environmental influence on the development of microangiopathy (retinopathy) in diabetes, as the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (stratified for diabetes duration) was similar in Japanese subjects in Hawaii and in Japan, and it was similar to previous reports from England. On the other hand, diabetes alone did not appear to account for the greater prevalence of macroangiopathy in Hawaiian Japanese than in Hiroshima. Thus environmental factors, possibly including diet, appear to be involved in the development of macrovascular complications of diabetes.
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Principal results: We identified 1972 incident cases of type 2 DM during a total of 326,581 person-years of follow up. Intake of unprocessed meat, particularly poultry, was associated with a decrease in the risk of type 2 DM in this cohort. The fully adjusted relative risks (RRs) for quintiles of total unprocessed meat intake were 1.00, 0.78, 0.83, 0.74, and 0.83 (P for trend: <0.01). When the joint effect between meat intake and BMI categories was evaluated, high intake of total unprocessed meat appeared to be associated with an increased risk of type 2 DM among obese women but a reduced risk among lean women (P value for the interaction tests = 0.05). Processed meat consumption was positively associated with the risk of type 2 DM. The adjusted RR was 1.15 (95% 1.01-1.32) in women consuming processed meats compared to those who did not consume processed meats (P=0.04). Conclusions: Processed meat intake was positively associated with the risk of type 2 DM. There was an indication that the effect of unprocessed meat intake on type 2 DM may be modified by BMI.
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Growing evidence suggests that effects of red meat consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes could vary depending on processing. We reviewed the evidence for effects of unprocessed (fresh/frozen) red and processed (using sodium/other preservatives) meat consumption on CHD and diabetes. In meta-analyses of prospective cohorts, higher risk of CHD is seen with processed meat consumption (RR per 50 g: 1.42, 95 %CI = 1.07–1.89), but a smaller increase or no risk is seen with unprocessed meat consumption. Differences in sodium content (~400 % higher in processed meat) appear to account for about two-thirds of this risk difference. In similar analyses, both unprocessed red and processed meat consumption are associated with incident diabetes, with higher risk per g of processed (RR per 50 g: 1.51, 95 %CI = 1.25–1.83) versus unprocessed (RR per 100 g: 1.19, 95 % CI = 1.04–1.37) meats. Contents of heme iron and dietary cholesterol may partly account for these associations. The overall findings suggest that neither unprocessed red nor processed meat consumption is beneficial for cardiometabolic health, and that clinical and public health guidance should especially prioritize reducing processed meat consumption.
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Glycemic control is the only treatment for diabetic neuropathy. The emphasis must be on prevention. Identifying risk factors for diabetic neuropathy may allow modification of these risk factors and decrease the incidence of diabetic neuropathy in patients with diabetes. The authors studied 1,172 patients with type I diabetes mellitus from 31 centers involved in the European Diabetes (EURODIAB) Prospective Complication Study. From 1989 to 1991, neuropathy was assessed at baseline and at follow up (1997 to 1999). Mean follow up was 7.3 ± 0.6 years. Patients were evaluated with a standardized protocol, including autonomic function tests, quantitative sensory testing, and clinical evaluation. In addition, serum lipids and lipoproteins, urinary albumin excretion rates, and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured in a core laboratory.
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The fatty acid composition of dairy products and meat from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. In cow's milk, butter, and cheese the proportions oftransfatty acids ranged between 3.2 and 6.2% of fatty acids. C18:1 isomers comprised about 60% and C16:1 and C18:2 isomers about 15% each of totaltransfatty acids. Goat's and sheep's milk and cheese contained between 2.7 and 7.1%transfatty acids. Summer milk contained up to 57% moretransfatty acids, both C18:1 and C18:2 isomers, morecis-unsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than winter milk. Ice-cream with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils contained between 21 and 31%transfatty acids and low-transmodified-fat ice-cream between 0.2 and 0.9%. The high-transice-cream samples contained morecis-unsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than most dairy-fat and low-transproducts. Beef contained 2.8–9.5% and lamb meat 4.3–9.2%transfatty acids whereas pork (0.2–2.2%) and chicken (0.2–1.7%) and meat from other nonruminants were lower intransfatty acids. With very few exceptions, sausages contained pork and showed lowtransfatty acid levels. In conclusion, ruminant fats contained moderate amounts oftransfatty acids, mainly C18:1 isomers. There were considerable differences both between and within the countries, probably due to seasonal factors and differences in feeding practices and the age of the animals.